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茶叶的历史

The history of tea - Shunan Teng

一整天都在森林里搜寻食用谷物和草药
During a long day spent roaming the forest in search of edible grains and herbs,
疲惫的神农氏自己却意外中了72次毒
the weary divine farmer Shennong accidentally poisoned himself 72 times.
但在毒药可能毒死他之前
But before the poisons could end his life,
一片叶子飘进了他的嘴里
a leaf drifted into his mouth.
他嚼了一下 顿时神清气爽
He chewed on it and it revived him,
这就是我们发现茶叶的由来
and that is how we discovered tea.
至少古代传说是这么说的
Or so an ancient legend goes at least.
茶并不是真的能治愈中毒
Tea doesn’t actually cure poisonings,
但神话中中国农业的创造者
but the story of Shennong,
神农氏的故事
the mythical Chinese inventor of agriculture,
突出了茶在古代中国的重要性
highlights tea’s importance to ancient China.
考古证据表明 早在6000年前
Archaeological evidence suggests tea was first cultivated there
中国就率先开始培育茶了
as early as 6,000 years ago,
或者说 早在法老王建造吉萨大金字塔的1500年前
or 1,500 years before the pharaohs built the Great Pyramids of Giza.
原始的中国茶树
That original Chinese tea plant
与当今全世界广泛种植的品种相同
is the same type that’s grown around the world today,
然而 它最初的消费用途却很不一样
yet it was originally consumed very differently.
它被当做蔬菜吃或和谷物同煮
It was eaten as a vegetable or cooked with grain porridge.
直到1500年前 茶才从食物转为饮料
Tea only shifted from food to drink 1,500 years ago
当人们意识到热量和水分的组合
when people realized that a combination of heat and moisture
能够从茶叶里创造出一个复杂和多样的味道
could create a complex and varied taste out of the leafy green.
制备方法经过数百年的发展
After hundreds of years of variations to the preparation method,
它已经变成了 加热
the standard became to heat tea,
打包成便携的茶砖
pack it into portable cakes,
研磨成粉末
grind it into powder,
用热水冲泡
mix with hot water,
并创造了一种叫做“末茶”的饮料
and create a beverage called muo cha, or matcha.
末茶变得非常受欢迎 产生了不同的中国茶文化
Matcha became so popular that a distinct Chinese tea culture emerged.
茶是书和诗的主题
Tea was the subject of books and poetry,
是皇帝最喜欢的饮料
the favorite drink of emperors,
同时也是艺术家创作的媒介
and a medium for artists.
他们会在茶泡中画出华丽的图画
They would draw extravagant pictures in the foam of the tea,
很像你今天在咖啡店里看到的浓咖啡艺术
very much like the espresso art you might see in coffee shops today.
在公元9世纪的唐朝
In the 9th century during the Tang Dynasty,
一位日本僧人把第一批茶树带回日本
a Japanese monk brought the first tea plant to Japan.
日本人最终在茶上发展出了自己独特的仪式
The Japanese eventually developed their own unique rituals around tea,
导致了日本茶道的创立
leading to the creation of the Japanese tea ceremony.
在公元14世纪的明朝
And in the 14th century during the Ming Dynasty,
中国皇帝改变了
the Chinese emperor shifted the standard
从茶叶压制成茶砖、再到制作成散茶的制作标准
from tea pressed into cakes to loose leaf tea.
从这一点看 中国仍然在茶树种植上占据垄断地位
At that point, China still held a virtual monopoly on the world’s tea trees,
使得茶叶和瓷器、丝绸一起
making tea one of three essential Chinese export goods,
成为中国三大出口商品之一
along with porcelain and silk.
由于茶在全世界的流行
This gave China a great deal of power and economic influence
这在很大程度上增强了中国的政治经济影响力
as tea drinking spread around the world.
茶的传播从17世纪初就开始了
That spread began in earnest around the early 1600s
当荷兰商人把大量茶叶带回欧洲
when Dutch traders brought tea to Europe in large quantities.
茶在英国贵族之间的流行 很大程度上要归功于
Many credit Queen Catherine of Braganza, a Portuguese noble woman,
在1661年与国王查尔斯二世结婚的
for making tea popular with the English aristocracy
葡萄牙的贵族女性 布拉甘萨的凯瑟琳皇后
when she married King Charles II in 1661.
当时 英国正在扩大殖民影响力
At the time, Great Britain was in the midst of expanding its colonial influence
并成为新的世界主导国
and becoming the new dominant world power.
随着英国势力的增长 茶叶流传于世界各地
And as Great Britain grew, interest in tea spread around the world.
到了1700年 欧洲的茶叶销量达到咖啡的十倍
By 1700, tea in Europe sold for ten times the price of coffee
而茶树却仍然只在中国种植
and the plant was still only grown in China.
茶叶贸易是如此有利可图
The tea trade was so lucrative
以至于 从西方贸易公司激烈竞争中诞生的
that the world’s fastest sailboat, the clipper ship,
世界上最快的帆船、快艇
was born out of intense competition between Western trading companies.
都在抢着要把茶叶第一个带回欧洲
All were racing to bring their tea back to Europe first
以使得利润最大化
to maximize their profits.
起初 英国人都是用银子购买中国茶叶
At first, Britain paid for all this Chinese tea with silver.
当他们觉得太贵的时候
When that proved too expensive,
就试图用另一种东西来代替 那就是鸦片
they suggested trading tea for another substance, opium.
由于人们开始对吸食鸦片上瘾
This triggered a public health problem within China
导致在中国产生了严重的公共健康问题
as people became addicted to the drug.
到了1839年 一位中国官员下令
Then in 1839, a Chinese official ordered his men
将英国的鸦片大量销毁
to destroy massive British shipments of opium
成为中国反对英国影响的声明
as a statement against Britain’s influence over China.
这引起了两国第一次鸦片战争
This act triggered the First Opium War between the two nations.
直到1842年 战火一直在中国海岸线上蔓延
Fighting raged up and down the Chinese coast until 1842
最终战败的清朝政府将香港割让给英国
when the defeated Qing Dynasty ceded the port of Hong Kong to the British
并在不利条件下恢复了贸易
and resumed trading on unfavorableterms.
战争削弱了中国一个世纪以来的全球地位
The war weakened China’s global standing for over a century.
不列颠东印度公司也想要自己种植茶叶
The British East India company also wanted to be able to grow tea themselves
并进一步控制市场
and further control the market.
所以他们委托了植物学家罗伯特·福蒂纳
So they commissioned botanist Robert Fortune
从中国秘密偷运茶叶
to steal tea from China in a covert operation.
他乔装自己 冒险行动
He disguised himself and took a perilous journey
通过中国的多山茶区
through China’s mountainous tea regions,
最终把茶叶和有经验的茶叶工人
eventually smuggling tea trees and experienced tea workers
走私到了印度的大吉岭
into Darjeeling, India.
从那里开始 茶树传播得更远
>From there, the plant spread further still,
推动了茶叶作为日常商品的快速增长
helping drive tea’s rapid growth as an everyday commodity.
今天 茶是仅次于水的世界第二大饮料
Today, tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world after water,
从土耳其的加糖里泽茶
and from sugary Turkish Rize tea,
到西藏的咸酥油茶
to salty Tibetan butter tea,
饮料有非常多的制作方式
there are almost as many ways of preparing the beverage
就像全球有很多的文化那样
as there are cultures on the globe.

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视频概述

你知道茶叶是怎么来的吗?从神农氏发现茶叶,到喝茶成为英国贵族的流行文化,本次课程为我们简单介绍了茶叶在全世界的发展史。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

B11101001

审核员

霜霜

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LaLvVc1sS20

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