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美国拉什莫尔山纪念公园的历史

The History of Mount Rushmore for Kids: Famous Landmarks for Children - FreeSchool

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拉什莫尔山坐落于南达科他州的黑山,是一座带有纪念性雕塑的山。
Located in the Black Hills of South Dakota, Mount Rushmore is a monumental sculpture carved
在山的一边,这些雕塑叙述了四位美国历史上最著名也
into the side of a mountain, depicting four of the most famous and influential presidents
最具影响力的总统:乔治·华盛顿,托马斯·杰斐逊,
in the history of the United States of America: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham
亚伯拉罕·林肯和西奥多·罗斯福。
Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt.
构建这些雕塑的想法源于1923年,其目的是为了给南达科他州带来游客。
The idea for the sculpture was suggested in 1923 as a way to bring visitors to South Dakota,
于是雕塑家格曾·鲍格勒姆被选中以创造这些雕像。
and sculptor Gutzon Borglum was selected to create it.
1925年,议会通过这项工程,然而直到1927年10月4日才开始动工。
Congress approved the project in 1925, but work didn’t begin until October 4, 1927.
其后十四年间,400位工人用炸药移除了山腰的四十多万吨石头,
Over the next 14 years, 400 workers blasted more than 400,000 tons of rock off the mountainside
再用钻头和斧凿完成细节部位的操作。
using dynamite, finishing the details with jackhammers and chisels.
尽管作业条件很危险,在对拉什莫尔山的施工过程中,并无一人死亡。
Despite the dangerous conditions, no one died during the construction of Mount Rushmore!
1934年,乔治·华盛顿的面部雕塑率先完成,其后1936年托马斯·杰斐逊
The face of George Washington was finished first in 1934, followed by Thomas Jefferson
的雕塑也被完成。
in 1936.
按原先计划,托马斯·杰斐逊应该立于华盛顿的右边,
Thomas Jefferson had been planned to stand on Washington’s right, but when the rock on
不过后来发现右边的岩石并不适合用来雕刻。完工的部分全都被炸药摧毁,
that side was found to be bad for carving, all the carving that had been done was blown
于是他就被挪到了另一边。
off with dynamite and he was moved to the other side.
亚伯拉罕·林肯和西奥多·罗斯福的脸先后于1937年
Abraham Lincoln’s face was finished in 1937, and Theodore Roosevelt was the last one done
和1939年雕刻完。
in 1939.
拉什莫尔山的建造耗费不足一百万美元。
Mount Rushmore cost less than one million dollars to complete.
原本呢这些雕塑计划展现诸位总统的脸直到手腕的部分,
Originally, the sculptures were supposed to show the presidents down to their waists,
但是建造者花光了资金,所以他们只建造了头部。
but the builders ran out of money and so they just made the heads.
这些总统的头部高60英尺或者说18米——这是一座六层建筑
The heads of the presidents are 60 feet or 18 meters tall – that’s the height of a six-story
的高度。
building!
他们的眼睛宽11英尺或者说3.3米,其鼻子长20英尺或者说6米。
Their eyes are each 11 feet or 3.3 meters across and their noses are 20 feet or 6 meters long.
如今拉什莫尔山被小心翼翼的维护着,以防山体裂开。
Today Mount Rushmore is carefully maintained to prevent cracking.
每年训练有素的登山者都会巡视整座山,并将细小的裂缝填补起来,
Each year trained mountain climbers scale the monument and seal tiny cracks before they
来避免裂缝变大导致雕塑分崩离析。
can grow and cause parts to break off!
为了瞻仰巨大的总统雕塑,每年大概有两到三百万人参观拉什莫尔山。
Between two and three million people visit Mount Rushmore each year, to see the colossal
这使得拉什莫尔山成为了南达科他州最受欢迎的旅游景点。
presidents, making it the most popular tourist attraction in South Dakota.
希望你能喜欢今天我们关于拉什莫尔山的知识学习。
I hope you enjoyed learning about Mount Rushmore today.
下次再见啦!
Goodbye till next time!

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