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巧克力的前世今生

The history of chocolate - Deanna Pucciarelli

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如果你想象不出没有巧克力的生活
If you can’t imagine life without chocolate,
那你真该庆幸自己出生于16世纪后
you’re lucky you weren’t born before the 16th century.
在那之前 只有中美洲才有巧克力
Until then, chocolate only existed in Mesoamerica
而且与现在的巧克力完全不一样
in a form quite different from what we know.
回溯至公元前1900年
As far back as 1900 BCE,
当地人已经知道如何栽培
the people of that region had learned to prepare the beans
可可豆
of the native cacao tree.
最早的记录显示
The earliest records tell us the beans were ground
人们把可可豆和谷物粉 红辣椒混合在一起
and mixed with cornmeal and chili peppers
制作成饮品
to create a drink –
这可不能当做休闲的下午茶
not a relaxing cup of hot cocoa,
而是一种略带苦涩的功能饮料 还有丰富的泡沫
but a bitter, invigorating concoction frothing with foam.
如果你认为现在的巧克力花样繁多
And if you thought we make a big deal about chocolate today,
那就大错特错了
the Mesoamericans had us beat.
中美洲人相信可可是
They believed that cacao was a heavenly food
羽蛇神所赐的食物
gifted to humans by a feathered serpent god,
也就是玛雅人信奉的库库尔坎
known to the Maya as Kukulkan
和阿兹特克人信奉的奎兹特克
and to the Aztecs as Quetzalcoatl.
阿兹特克人将可可豆用作货币
Aztecs used cacao beans as currency
而巧克力则作为国宴上的饮品
and drank chocolate at royal feasts,
或是战争胜利时给予士兵的赏赐
gave it to soldiers as a reward for success in battle,
或是在节庆典礼上饮用
and used it in rituals.
1519年 巧克力成功漂洋过海
The first transatlantic chocolate encounter occurred in 1519
荷南多·科尔特斯来到特诺奇蒂特兰
when Hernán Cortés visited the court of Moctezuma
拜访蒙特苏马
at Tenochtitlan.
根据科尔特斯的副官记录
As recorded by Cortés’s lieutenant,
国王生产了50罐饮料 并把饮料都倒进了金杯子里
the king had 50 jugs of the drink brought out and poured into golden cups.
当殖民者带着陌生的新豆子回去的时候
When the colonists returned with shipments of the strange new bean,
由于当地的习俗 人们很自然地产生了淫荡的想法
missionaries’ salacious accounts of native customs
并给它取了个荣耀的名字 为春药
gave it a reputation as an aphrodisiac.
起初 由于它的略带苦涩 所以把它当作治疗某些疾病的药物
At first, its bitter taste made it suitable as a medicine for ailments,
像反胃这种病
like upset stomachs,
但是跟蜂蜜 糖或者香草混合后它便有了点甜味
but sweetening it with honey, sugar, or vanilla
很快它就成为广受西班牙贵族喜爱的美味了
quickly made chocolate a popular delicacy in the Spanish court.
很快 非贵族家庭也彻底爱上了巧克力这种食品
And soon, no aristocratic home was complete without dedicated chocolate ware.
时尚的饮品要做到大规模生产
The fashionable drink was difficult and time consuming to produce
总是既困难又耗时
on a large scale.
既需要使用原材料 又需要从加勒比海和
That involved using plantations and imported slave labor
非洲海岸线附近的岛屿进口奴隶作为劳动力
in the Caribbean and on islands off the coast of Africa.
1828年由于阿姆斯特丹的昆拉德采用了
The world of chocolate would change forever in 1828
可可压榨机 使大量的巧克力发生了永久性的改变
with the introduction of the cocoa press by Coenraad van Houten of Amsterdam.
万·霍藤的发明能将可可的天然脂肪 或者可可奶油分开
Van Houten’s invention could separate the cocoa’s natural fat, or cocoa butter.
这样一来剩下的粉末
This left a powder that could be mixed into a drinkable solution
可以被混合成可饮用的液体或者和可可奶油重新混合
or recombined with the cocoa butter
组成我们现在看到的固体巧克力
to create the solid chocolate we know today.
不久 瑞士一个叫丹尼尔·彼得的巧克力大亨
Not long after, a Swiss chocolatier named Daniel Peter
将奶粉与之混合
added powdered milk to the mix,
这样就成了牛奶巧克力
thus inventing milk chocolate.
到20世纪 巧克力不再是奢侈品
By the 20th century, chocolate was no longer an elite luxury
但是成为了公众款待客人用的饮品
but had become a treat for the public.
为了满足大众的需求需要种植更多的可可
Meeting the massive demand required more cultivation of cocoa,
可可只能在赤道附近种植
which can only grow near the equator.
现在不用将非洲奴隶运到
Now, instead of African slaves being shipped
南美洲种植可可了
to South American cocoa plantations,
2015年世界上五分之二的可可由科特迪瓦提供
cocoa production itself would shift to West Africa
可可已经转到了西非
with Cote d’Ivoire providing two-fifths of the world’s cocoa as of 2015.
但是随着工业的发展
Yet along with the growth of the industry,
出现了可怕的滥用人权的现象
there have been horrific abuses of human rights.
全西非许多的种植园
Many of the plantations throughout West Africa,
为西方的公司提供可可
which supply Western companies,
他们使用奴隶和孩子作为劳动力
use slave and child labor,
据估测200多万个孩子被雇佣
with an estimation of more than 2 million children affected.
从主要的巧克力公司到和非洲国家合作的公司
This is a complex problem that persists
尽管大家坚持减少童工和契约劳工的使用
despite efforts from major chocolate companies to partner with African nations
这仍然是个复杂的问题
to reduce child and indentured labor practices.
今天 巧克力在我们现代文化的洗礼中建立了自己的文化
Today, chocolate has established itself in the rituals of our modern culture.
由于它的殖民地和本地文化有关
Due to its colonial association with native cultures,
再加上广告的宣传
combined with the power of advertising,
巧克力保持了一种世俗的
chocolate retains an aura of something sensual,
颓废的
decadent,
和被禁用的形象
and forbidden.
但是了解了更多关于它的迷人的和残酷的历史
Yet knowing more about its fascinating and often cruel history,
和今天它的生产情况
as well as its production today,
我们知道了这些联系的起源
tells us where these associations originate
和它们的产地
and what they hide.
所以当你打开你的下一条巧克力的时候
So as you unwrap your next bar of chocolate,
花几分钟的时间思考一下 不是所有关于巧克力的事情都是甜的
take a moment to consider that not everything about chocolate is sweet.

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视频概述

本视频主要讲了巧克力的前世今生

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收集自网络

翻译译者

孙卫卫

审核员

审核员GL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ibjUpk9Iagk&t=13s

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