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宇航服的历史和未来

The History, and Future, of Space Suits

宇航服是一种经常被人忽视的技术
Space suits are one of the often overlooked technologys
人类需要它在太空生存 探索
that human needs to live in and explore space.
宇航服使得人们可以随身携带生存环境 保护我们不受宇宙中极端温度影响
They allow us to take our environment with us, protecting us from extreme temperatures,
微小陨石的撞击 使我们在宇宙空间里没有大气压
bombardment by micro-meteorites, and of course the total lack of atmospheric pressure and
和氧气的环境下得以生存
oxygen in space.
宇航服是现代工程技术的绝佳展示 也是
They’ve come to be amazingly complex examples of modern engineering, as well as symbols
人类未来的标志。 你可能知道 宇航服在过去一百年里经历了
of humanity’s future. And as you might expect, they’ve evolved a lot over the past hundred
诸多变革
years.
没错 是过去一百年哟
Yes, I said A HUNDRED YEARS.
[简介]
[Intro]
宇航服的发展史 可以追溯到人类尚未探索星空的岁月
Space suits date back to long before we ever hoped to reach the stars — back to the early
可以说是从飞行本身开始的
days of flight itself.
一个世纪前 随着大胆的飞行员 甚至是气球驾驶员挑战越来越高的高度
As daredevil airplane pilots, and even balloonists, soared to ever-greater heights a century ago,
他们开始实验压力服
they started to experiment with simple pressure suits.
因为他们很快了解到高度越高 空气越稀薄的道理
Because they learned quickly that the higher you go, the less dense the air becomes.
所以 为了飞向天空 最后进入太空 我们必须找到
So in order to reach for the sky, and eventually the stars, we had to devise ways to keep ourselves
将自身置于与地面同等大气压及可吸入空气的环境里
surrounded with the equivalent of atmospheric pressure, and provide us with breathable air.
第一次尝试始于1918年。 发明家Fred Sample的设计包括一套密封的工作服
The first attempt was patented in 1918. Inventor Fred Sample’s design included a helmet bolted
上面用螺栓固定着头盔 并通过导管与空气罐相连
to what was basically a pair of pressurized coveralls, with a tube leading to an air tank.
二十世纪30年代 这种套装由飞行员Wiley Post改造地日趋完美
In the 1930s, these glorified onesies were refined and perfected by aviator Wiley Post.
Post是全球第一个实现单人环球飞行的飞行员 他还是
Post was the first pilot to fly around the world solo, the record-holder for flying at
4万英尺高空飞行记录的保持者 喷射流层也是他发现的
40,000 feet, and the discoverer of the jet stream.
他推出了一种由橡胶涂层的伞衣织物制作的套装 配有铝制头盔
He commissioned a suit made of rubberized parachute fabric with an aluminum helmet,
之后 他将该套装改造地更加复杂 由好几层组成 其中包括
later developing this into a more complex get-up that featured several layers, including
长内衣 一套橡胶气压服 以及由外层涂有乳胶的布料制作的
long underwear, a rubber air-pressure suit, and an outer suit made of cloth coated with
外层套服
latex.
这套科幻味十足的套装看着怪异 但很实用
This sci-fi worthy suit was bizarre looking, but it got the job done.
标准海平面气压为1个大气压 Post
While standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is said to be 1 atmosphere, Post’s
的套装可以创造出0.8个大气压的环境 约等于
suit managed to create an environment of 0.8 atmosphere, or the equivalent of one and a
海平面以上1.5公里处的气压
half kilometers above sea level.
这种套装对于那些玩命的特技表演人来说确实不错 但到了
And that was fine for your run-of-the-mill death-defying barnstorming — but by the time
二十世纪60年代 美国国家航空航天局(NASA)开始为水星计划的宇航员开发宇航服 他们知道
NASA was developing suits for the Mercury astronauts in the 1960s, they knew they had
宇航服得提供更多的保护才行
to offer A LOT more protection.
Alan Shepard 水星计划七名宇航员之一。 当他成为第二个进入太空的人的时候
When Alan Shepard, one of the Mercury Seven, became the second person to travel into space,
穿的是改良版的美国海军高空压力服。该套装由
he wore a modified version of the US Navy high-altitude pressure suit. It was made of
诸如人造橡胶质布料 即氯丁橡胶这样的新材料制成
some brand-new materials like the synthetic rubber-like fabric known as neoprene, along
还有铝层覆盖的尼龙以抵御辐射
with nylon coated with aluminum to protect against radiation.
接下来是人类的一大步: EVA 即仓外活动 如
Then came the next giant leap for mankind: EVAs, or Extravehicular Activities, such as
太空行走和月球漫步什么的!
spacewalks and walking on the moon!
为达成此目标 NASA必须开发一系列新式宇航服 以保护宇航员在
For this, NASA had to develop a whole new class of suits to protect astronauts from
太空的安全。 毕竟 太空中温差极大 最低华氏零下290度 最高则能达到华氏零上310度
space itself. After all, temperatures can range from -290 degrees to 310 degrees Fahrenheit,
还有微陨石 通常重量不超过一克 速度则能达到10千米/秒
and micrometeorites, which usually weigh less than a gram, can be traveling up to 10 km
或者是2万2千5百英里/小时
per second or 22,500 mph.
阿波罗计划中使用的宇航服才是工程领域真正的大师之作。 为每位宇航员
And the suits used in the Apollo missions were truly masterpieces of engineering. Custom-made
量身打造 特有的水冷服和可充气层
for each astronaut, they featured a water-cooled undergarment, followed by an inflatable layer
用来保持身体周围的气压 以及由两层
to create air pressure around the body, and an outer envelope including two layers of
特氟龙材料构成的外罩保护层
Teflon that provided protection from the environment.
进入航天飞机和太空站的时代 宇航员
By the time the Shuttle and Space Station years came around, astronauts were spending
舱外活动时间明显增多。 他们的每次任务都需要两种宇航服: 基础增压
a lot more time in space. They needed two types of suits on every mission: basic pressurized
高级逃生服 在发射和返回时使用 舱外活动单元
Advanced Crew Escape Suits for takeoff and re-entry, and Extravehicular Mobility Units
舱外活动时穿着
for extravehicular fun.
这一系列宇航服的性能得到了提升 由14层材料组成 包括
Not to be outdone by their predecessors, these suits contain 14 layers of material, ranging
聚酯薄膜和氯丁橡胶 还有聚氨酯涂层尼龙 氨纶和不锈钢。 它们
from mylar and neoprene to urethane-coated nylon, spandex, and stainless steel. They’re
今天仍然在发挥作用!
still in use today!
那么宇航服的未来将会如何呢?
So what’s the future of space couture?
目前使用的宇航服 被内置关节限制了活动性 NASA的设计人员表示
Well, today’s suits allow only limited motion at built-in joints, so NASA designers say
下一代宇航服将注重提升活动性
its next space suit will focus on better mobility.
2014年 NASA展示了名为Z-2的原型宇航服
In 2014 the space agency unveiled prototypes of a new suit it calls the Z-2. Slightly less
不像目前使用的型号如此笨重 它的特别之处在于所有关节部位都采用了独立的褶皱式设计
bulky than current models, it features segmented pleats at all of the joints, as well as luminescent
还在外层嵌入可发光的条块 不仅使乘员在黑暗中可以
wiring and patches built into the exterior, which may not only allow crew members to identify
辨认彼此 而且看起来霸气十足
each other in darkness, but they also look TOTALLY BOSS.
但Z-2宇航服可能不会在实际任务中派上用场 NASA声称 其计划在
The Z-2 probably won’t be used in any actual missions, though — NASA says it plans to
地面测试和模拟中使用该套装 用来帮助设计完整的多层版本宇航服
use it in ground tests and simulations to help design the full, multi-layer version.
其他组织正在脑洞大开地提出不同的设计理念 比如由麻省理工学院测试的
Some other groups are dreaming up radically different designs, such as the concept of
太空活动套装。 这些看起来已经很像
the Space Activity Suit tested at MIT. These already look like the fashion statement of
本千禧年的时尚宣言 下一代太空探索者们将穿着这样的宇航服到达附近的小行星
the millennium – one that the next generation of space explorers will wear to nearby asteroids,
前往火星以及更遥远的地方
Mars, and points beyond.
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