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为什么路灯都是橙色的?

The High Pressure Sodium Light: Ubiquitous, effective, but good?

In many parts of the world,
在世界上很多地方
if you’re taking a stroll outside or driving your car around at night time
如果你晚上出去散步或开车兜风
you’re likely to be basked in the orange, peach, gold, yellow
你很可能会沉浸于那种橘色 桃红 金色 黄色
whatever you want to call the glow
无论你觉得它是什么颜色
common in street lighting.
它在路灯中很常见
This particular hue of light
几十年来 这种特定色调的光
has been a staple of outdoor lighting for decades,
已经成为户外照明的主流
and it continues to be used widely.
而且将被继续广泛使用
But why that color?
但为什么是这种颜色呢?
Well it’s a special kind of light bulb.
这是一种特殊的灯泡
Thanks for watching, I hope you enjoyed the video.
感谢观看 希望你喜欢本视频
No, of course we’re gonna go into more detail than that!
才怪 我们当然要更深入地探讨一下细节!
Much of the world’s street lighting
世界上的许多路灯
and indeed more broadly outdoor lighting
以及更广泛的户外照明
uses sodium vapor lamp technology.
使用了钠汽灯技术
The most common is high pressure sodium.
最常见的是高压钠灯
This artificial lighting technology is a type of discharge lamp.
这种人工照明是放电灯的一种
Discharge lamps are very common in many applications
放电灯在许多应用中非常常见
because they are a very efficient way of creating light from electricity.
因为它们可以高效地把电能转换成光能
Among the earliest sources of artificial light is the incandescent light bulb.
白炽灯是最早的几种人造光源之一
Many many people were working on its invention,
许多人都曾致力于它的研发
so to say one person invented it is disingenuous at best,
因此说白炽灯是某个人的发明并不准确
So, I’m just not gonna say anything because, No matter what I say I’ll be wrong.
不过我不会继续说这个话题 因为不管我怎么说都是错
But its principle of operation is really simple.
但它的运行原理非常简单
Hot things glow.
热的东西会发光
Make thing hot.
让物体变热
Make thing hot without burning.
热而不燃烧
Put hot thing in vacuum.
把热的物体放到真空中
Now that thing can’t burn away.
那样便无法燃烧
Light!
光诞生了!
By running electric current through a thin wire,
让电流通过一根细金属丝
that wire will get hot because of resistance
细金属丝由于电阻产生了热
and it will glow.
然后就会发光
Tada!
哒哒!
The earliest light bulbs used a carbon filament,
最早的灯使用的是碳灯丝
but shortly thereafter improvements in the ability
但是不久以后 钨丝制造能力的提升
to make tungsten filaments allowed
使钨丝灯成了
for a brighter and longer-lasting bulb
一种更亮更持久的灯泡
due to tungsten’s much higher melting point.
这是由于钨的熔点高得多
I must recommend this video by the Engineer Guy about the tungsten filament lamp.
我非常推荐《Engineer Guy》做的有关钨丝灯的视频
It’s great.
非常棒
I’ve put a link down below.
我在下方放了一个链接
But anyway, incandescent lights aren’t very efficient.
但是无论如何 白炽灯并不高效
Creating light through incandescence wastes the vast majority of electrical energy on radiation that isn’t visible light,
通过白热化发光 会在不可见光的辐射上浪费大量的电能
simply infrared light and heat.
例如浪费在红外线和发热上
Among the most common ways to measure efficiency is in lumens per watt,
测量效能最常见的方式之一 是用“流明/瓦”计量
and incandescent bulbs are typically around 10 lumens per watt.
一般的白炽灯是10流明/瓦
Really efficient halogens and high-powered incandescents
高效的卤素灯和大功率的白炽灯
can reach 20 lumens per watt,
可以达到20流明/瓦
but it’s still not great.
但这仍不理想
But in a discharge lamp, well that can be very efficient.
但对一盏放电灯来说 算非常高效了
When you send an electric discharge —
当你使一个放电体
basically a small electric arc — through an ionized gas,
(通常是个小电弧)经过电离气体时
you get light!
就可以得到光!
I wasn’t very good at Chemistry in high school,
我高中时不是很擅长化学
so I’m just gonna read the passage
所以我打算念一下
from Wikipedia which explains why.
维基百科里解释原理的文章
在实际操作中 一些电子在两种电极之间的电场作用下
被迫离开正极附近的气体原子
使气体原子正离子化
自由电子流动到正极
由此形成的正离子因为电场作用加速向负极流动
一般情况下 在很短的距离后
离子会与中性气体原子发生碰撞
原子把电子传递给离子
原子在碰撞中失去了一个电子
并被离子化而加速向负极流动
离子在碰撞中获得了一个电子
就回到了较低的能量轨道
并将多余能量以光子的形式释放
这样就发出了特定频率的光
In layman’s terms,
通俗的说
if you create an arc discharge through some gases,
如果你使一些气形成电弧
then because of ions and stuff bouncing around,
那么由于离子和一些东西碰撞
you’ll end up with photons
最终会得到光子
and depending on what the gas is,
并且根据你使用气体的不同
these photons will be a specific frequency
不同光子有其特定的频率
and thus will produce a specific color of light.
所以会产生特定颜色的光
I’ve put a link to the Wikipedia article down below
我在下方放了一条维基百科的链接
because it has some great images
因为这有一些很棒的图片
of the colors produced by specific gases.
是用一些特殊气体产生的颜色
The most common type of discharge lamp is actually the fluorescent lamp.
最常见的放电灯种类实际是日光灯
The glass tubes in fluorescent lamps are filled with
日光灯的灯管里填充着
an extremely low pressure gas mixture
一种超低压混合气体
made mostly of argon or neon used as a starter gas,
它主要由氩和氖组成 并用作启动气体
and a wee bit of mercury which produces the main discharge.
再加上一点点 能产生主放电的汞
Mercury vapor on its own produces a very cyanish blue light,
汞蒸汽本身就能产生一种极淡的蓝色光
but it also produces a ton of ultraviolet light,
可它也会产生大量紫外线
which the phosphors that coat the glass
因此那些覆盖在玻璃表面的荧光物
will convert into visible light,
将会转化成可见光
and depending on the phosphors used
根据使用荧光粉的不同
you can get a very pleasant or very ghastly white light of various color temperatures.
你可以得到舒适或可怕的各种色温的白光
You can even use colored phosphors to make any color of light you want.
你甚至可以用已着色的荧光粉制作想要的各种颜色的光
Sodium vapor lamps rather than using mercury use sodium.
钠蒸汽灯使用了钠而不是汞
You guessed it!
你猜到了吧!
When sodium is ionized,
当钠被电离
its discharge is a very distinctive yellow hue
它释放的是一种与众不同的黄光
with a wavelength of 589 nanometers.
波长为589纳米
Low pressure sodium lamps emit light of pretty much just that wavelength.
低压钠蒸汽灯刚好释放出大量那种波
While useful, and actually the most efficient discharge lamp available,
它不仅有用 实际上是最有用高效的放电灯
this light is monochromatic
这种灯是单色的
with a color rendering index of zero,
显色指数为零
so it is only useful as street lighting,
所以它只能被用作路灯
and even then that‘s not great.
即便这样 也不是很好
Low pressure sodium lights are going to appear
在不远的将来
on this channel in the not-too distant future,
低压钠灯将在这一领域崭露头角
but for now we’re sticking with high pressure sodium which is far more common these days.
但现在 我们仍旧得使用目前更普遍的高压钠灯
This is a 50 watt high pressure sodium lamp.
这是一只50瓦的高压钠灯
This is the second smallest common size,
常见尺寸中 属于第二小的
with 35 watts occupying the smallest spot,
35瓦用于最小的场所
but they go all the way up to 1,000 watts.
但最高可达1000瓦
In the center of the bulb is a small tube made of aluminum oxide —
在灯泡的中心是一个由氧化铝制成的小管
which for those that don’t know is what rubies are.
这是对那些不知道红宝石是什么的人的说法
Of course this is synthetic,
当然这是人造的
but due to the crazy reactivity of elemental sodium,
但由于钠元素会产生激烈的反应
it needs to be contained in something that will
它需要被装在具备以下两种条件的容器中
A ) contain it without reacting with it
A 不与纳产生反应
and B ) is quite strong and can with stand a lot of heat.
B 足够稳固 能承受大量热
Aluminum oxide fits the bill perfectly.
氧化铝完美地符合了这些条件
Inside the tube there’s a bit of xenon,
小管内部充有稀有气体氙
as well as an amalgam of mercury and sodium.
和一些汞和钠的混合物
The mercury is added in high pressure sodium lamps
汞被添加在高压钠灯中
to control the rate at which the sodium vaporizes.
是为了控制钠蒸发的速率
It also helps to improve the color rendering of the lamps
也可以通过在灯输出时加入一些蓝光
by adding some blue light to their output.
提升灯的显色性
Just like any discharge lamp,
就像任何一盏放电灯一样
a ballast is needed to limit the current the bulb can consume.
需要一个镇流器限制灯泡消耗的电流
Due to an arc discharge having negative resistance,
由于弧放电具有负电阻
as current goes up, resistance goes down,
电流上升 阻力就下降
and power consumed will just skyrocket
如果没有镇流器或阻气门防止自体损耗
without a ballast or choke to stop it from destroying itself.
能量消耗就会激增
The ballast will have either two or three components.
镇流器由两到三个元件组成
First is the actual ballast itself
首先是镇流器本身
which is similar in construction to a transformer,
在结构上类似于变压器
then there is the ignitor which is needed to start the lamp,
其次是启动电灯的点火器
and some ballasts
和一些镇流器
including this one will place a large capacitor
比如这个 将取代一个大电容器
across the leads to help correct the poor power factor
通过引线来矫正由于镇流器的感应特性
brought about by the inductive nature of the ballast.
带来的功率因素不足的问题
As with many discharge lamps,
在许多放电灯中
high pressure sodium lamps generally go through
高压钠灯通常会做
a distinct warmup routine.
一个明显的热身运动
When first powered on, the ignitor is working to strike the arc.
当它首次通电 点火器开始工作并击中电弧
Once it’s been struck,
它一旦被击打
it briefly glows a pinky-blue color as the xenon is ionized.
氙被离子化 电弧会短暂发出粉蓝色光
Quickly the mercury starts to vaporize,
很快 汞开始蒸发
and as it does so the ionization of the mercury vapor releases a pale blue color,
与此同时 汞蒸汽的离子化 会释放一种暗蓝色光
often appearing as grey.
通常看起来像灰色
But then the distinctive yellow of the sodium discharge takes over.
随后 钠开始释放出独特的黄光
As the sodium vaporizes, the lamp emits a very pure yellow color,
当钠蒸发时 灯会发出一种十分纯粹的黄色
which is not at all white.
一点白都没有
This is what the light from low pressure sodium lamps looks like.
这就是低压钠灯呈现的光的样子
But then the high pressure in high pressure sodium does its thing.
但接着轮到高压钠中的高气压起作用了
The arc tube is very small,
它的电弧管极小
and the gases inside it become quite hot.
且内部的气体会变得很热
In a space of given volume, with increased temperature comes increased pressure.
在体积有限的空间内 温度升高会导致压力升高
This results in a phenomenon called pressure broadening,
其结果就是一个称作压力变宽的现象
which causes ordinarily weak spectral emissions to become stronger,
会导致平时较弱的光谱辐射变得更强
and thus the lamp emits more wavelengths of light.
从而让灯发射出更多光波长
Once completely warmed up,
完全加热后
the pressure broadening causes the light to appear less yellow and more white,
压力变宽现象会导致灯光看起来不那么黄 而是偏白
though still with a prominent yellow cast.
但依旧会发出明显的黄光
Color perception is subjective,
色彩感知是主观的
but I’d call this a orangey-peachy-gold color with
但我形容这种颜色是橙色 蜜桃色 金色的混合体
a hint of pink.
再加上一丝粉红色
You are… you, yes?
你在……你 开着吗?
You are warming up right, you’re on?
你在升温对吗? 你开着吗?
OK Good.
嗯 好了
This is the most exciting part of the video, I guarantee it.
我保证这是整个视频里最精彩的部分
I bet you’ve never had a video more exciting than this one.
我打赌你没看过比这个更激动人心的视频
I didn’t even know what this looks like on camera.
我之前都不知道这个录出来会是什么效果
So we’ll, we’ll just.
所以咱们就……
I should–I should have looked into that!
我该提前去了解一下的
Yeah.

That was good.
很不错
This light is extremely efficient,
高压纳灯效率极高
and the output it makes with only 50 watts is pretty striking,
它的输出功率只有50瓦 非常惊人
just like its arc.
就如同它的弧一样
If I put it side-by-side with a 100 watt equivalent LED in a lamp
如果把它和一盏100瓦的等效LED灯并排放在一起
that would never, ever have an HPS bulb in any ordinary setting,
(通常情况下 都不会配置高压纳灯)
you can tell that it’s much brighter.
你会发现高压钠灯更亮一些
For half the energy of its incandescent equivalent,
相当于用白炽灯一半的能量
it’s producing about triple the light,
就能产生三倍的光
going off lumens.
以流明作单位计量的
This particular lamp produces 78 lumens per watt,
这款灯的效率是78流明每瓦
which is 4 to 8 times greater than an incandescent.
这比白炽灯的效率高了4到8倍
Some high pressure sodiums lamps are nearly twice as efficient as this one,
有些高压钠灯的效率几乎是这盏的2倍高
producing 150 lumens per watt.
为150流明每瓦
Also, and this is hard to demonstrate on video,
另外 这很难在视频中演示
but the light from the sodium lamp appears
但钠灯光的照明范围
to travel farther than that of the “incandescent”.
似乎比白炽灯光的照明范围更大
The walls on the opposite side of the room seem much,
房间的另一面墙看起来似乎
much brighter than they do with a standard white light.
比标准白灯照射时亮得多
Some of that has to do with the sodium D-line,
这与钠D线有关
that’s the main yellow spectral emission,
它是主要的黄色辐射光谱
closely matching the peak sensitivity of the cells in our eyes.
与人眼内视觉细胞的峰值灵敏度高度匹配
But only under photopic, daylight conditions.
但只有在日光照射的明视觉下才这样
This gets kinda complicated and we’ll get into it,
这里就比较复杂了 我们稍后再讲
but the peak sensitivity of the average human eye is 555 nanometers,
但一般人眼的峰值灵敏度波长是555纳米
and the HPS lamp’s peak output of 589 isn’t far off.
传统高压钠灯的最高输出波长是589纳米 两者相差不大
But don’t fixate on that too much
但别太在意这个
because, spoiler alert,
因为 我先剧透一下
this turns out to be a bad thing.
这其实是一件坏事儿
Before we move on to their advantages,
在我们讨论高压钠灯的优势之前
let’s quickly discuss why we don’t use this light
先探讨一下为什么我们不用这种光源
source for general household illumination.
作为一般的家庭照明光源
Every artificial light source has what’s called a CRI,
每一种人造光源都有一种称为CRI的参数
or color rendering index.
或者叫显色指数
A CRI of 0 means it’s impossible to distinguish color,
显色指数为0 则表示根本无法辨别颜色
and a CRI of 100 is a perfect score,
显色指数100是一个完美值
which the sun has.
而这正是太阳的显色指数
Incandescent lights has a CRI of 99,
白炽灯的显色指数为99
but most other light sources aren’t so high.
但大部分其他光源的显色指数就没这么高了
Poor CRI plagued many fluorescent light sources, particularly early ones.
较低的显色指数是很多荧光灯的缺点 尤其是早期的那些
Though the light of a CFL might appear perfectly white,
尽管节能荧光灯光看起来是全白色
the colors of objects underneath it
但被照射物体的颜色
might seem a little off.
会与实际稍有偏差
A cheap CFL might have a CRI as bad as 70,
一颗廉价的节能荧光灯的显色指数可能低至70
which will be generally OK
听起来还好
but which can cause some colors to appear oddly.
但还是会导致有些颜色看起来怪怪的
The average high pressure sodium lamps has a color rendering index
高压钠灯平均的显色指数大约是……
of about, drumroll please.
来点鼓声
21.
21
It’s pretty bad.
挺垃圾的
Here’s an assortment of colorful objects as lit by normal white light.
这是普通白光下的各种五颜六色的物品
And now, observe how they look under high pressure sodium.
现在 观察一下它们在高压钠灯照射下的样子
I’ll show them as it warms up,
我会演示高压钠灯逐渐升温的过程
because it demonstrates how when the sodium emission
因为这样就能看出 当钠开始辐射时
first comes into play, it is almost monochromatic.
物品看起来几乎是单色的
See how you can barely tell what color things are supposed to be?
你看 是不是几乎看不出来物品本身的颜色了?
As the pressure broadening occurs,
随着压力变宽现象的发生
you can start to see color, but it is still just odd.
我们可以逐渐地看到一些颜色 但还是很奇怪
The strangest-looking object I discovered was this can of La Croix.
我发现看起来最古怪的物体是这罐乐活气泡水
Take a look at this side by side.
两边对比着看一下
The sodium light mutes all of the color differences in the background,
钠灯消除了背景里所有色差
and the text becomes bizzare looking.
罐头上的文字看起来异乎寻常
Food in general looks…
基本上只要是食物
unappetizing under high pressure sodium lighting.
都会在高压钠灯照射下看起来毫无食欲
Pasta and red sauce?
美味的意大利面和红色的肉酱
The sauce will look more of a pukey-brown.
在其照射下 肉酱呈一种类似呕吐物的棕色
Having some yellow tortilla chips?
来点黄色的墨西哥玉米片?
Yeah they’re more of a chartreuse now.
是的 看起来更像荨麻酒
Of course, their slow warm up time would be inconvenient for home use,
当然 缓慢的升温时间使其不便于在日常家庭使用
so they’re really suited for general illumination where they’ll run all night.
所以它们其实最适合彻夜的一般照明
So, street lights, parking lots, security lighting,
所以 路灯 停车场照明 安保照明
and other dusk-to-dawn applications
以及其他需要彻夜使用的地方
are where these lamps really shine.
都是这种灯大放异彩的场所
I came up with that all on my own.
这都是我自个儿想出来的
For these applications, they’re really great!
它们非常适合这些场所
They are very reliable,
它们也非常可靠
are long-lasting ( 2,4000 hours is typical),
可以长时间使用(一般是24000小时)
usually have no trouble starting in the coldest of weather conditions,
在极寒冷的条件下也没什么问题
and also they are very color and brightness
而且它们使用周期内
stable over their life.
颜色和亮度很稳定
They will usually retain 80 % of their original brightness by the time they go out.
报废前依旧会保留原亮度的80%左右
And, their color is very consistent.
而且它们的颜色始终如一
You’ve probably seen a parking lot
你应该见过有的停车场
with metal halide lighting, another type of discharge lamp,
用另一种叫金属卤化物灯的放电灯
with each fixture a different shade of
每盏灯都是不同的颜色
purple, green, or bluish light.
紫色 绿色 或者浅蓝色
Sodium lights generally are all the same looking
钠灯通常看起来都是一个样子
with little to no variation among them.
每盏之间几乎没有区别
They also benefit from being able to perform a hot restrike.
它们另一个优点是能够进行热态再启动
See a metal halide lamp can not be restarted
金属卤化物灯的温度如果没有降下来
until it cools down nearly completely.
是根本无法再重启的
If there’s a momentary power interruption,
如果有短暂的电路异常
it may be 3 to 5 minutes before these lights
需要等上3至5分钟
can reignite, and then it will be
才能重新点亮
another minute or two until the light is up to full brightness again.
完全恢复到最高亮度 还需要一两分钟
But high pressure sodium lamps are able to re-strike the arc just a few seconds after
但高压钠灯能够在短暂断电后短短几秒内
a brief power interruption, and they come back with nearly their peak intensity.
就重新点燃电弧 且几乎能达到最高亮度
It’s actually kind of neat to see the arc form in the arc tube when a hot restrike occurs.
热态重启时 能在电弧管内看到电弧的形态真的挺棒的
That said, their end-of-life failure mode is kind of odd.
不过 它们即将报废时的状态比较奇怪
Over time, the sodium does react with the aluminum oxide, slowly.
随着时间推移 钠会与氧化铝慢慢地发生反应
This causes the voltage required to maintain the arc to rise as they age.
这会导致电弧正常工作所需要的电压伏特数逐渐变大
At a certain point,
直到某一刻
the arc-sustaining voltage will exceed the voltage the ballast can provide,
电弧所需电压会超过电子镇流器所能提供的最高电压
and the light goes out.
灯就会灭掉
But, once it cools, it can be reignited.
但一旦它冷却下来 就能被再次点亮
This process is called cycling.
这个过程称为 循环
A cycling HPS lamp will appear to start normally,
一个循环高压钠灯 启动时看似正常
but once it reaches full brightness, it goes out.
但它一旦达到最高亮度 就会熄灭
After it cools, it fires up again,
冷却后 它会再次点亮
and then when it reaches full brightness, it goes out.
然后达到最高亮度时 会再次熄灭
This happens over and over again until the lamp is replaced.
这会不断发生 直到灯被换掉
So remember, if you see a sodium light going on and off and on and off,
所以记住 如果你看到一盏钠灯 忽亮忽灭
it’s not the fixture at fault, it needs a new bulb.
问题不在底座 而是需要换个新灯泡了
But in the end,
最后我想说
the high pressure sodium lamp is a very efficient, very robust, and very effective light source for outdoor applications.
高压钠灯是一种非常高效 耐用 有效的室外照明光源
It is also very low maintenance,
另外它所需的保养甚少
with the lamps lasting about 5 years assuming an average
一般情况下钠灯能连续工作5年
of 12 hours daily operation.
每天平均照明约12小时
So even though their color is… odd and they are slow to warm up,
所以尽管颜色……古怪 升温也慢
they still make a lot of economic sense.
但它们的经济实用性很高
In recent years, the sodium vapor lamp is starting to be replaced with new LED lamps.
近年来 钠灯逐渐被新型LED灯代替
But should they be?
但它们应该被取代吗?
(yeah) Current LED technology is only about the same efficiency of old fashioned high pressure sodium.
-嗯 -目前的LED技术才达到了老式高压钠灯的程度
And with a commonly rated life of 50,000 hours,
而LED灯的寿命约为5万小时
a drop-in replacement may only last twice as long.
中途换新灯泡只能延缓约2倍的寿命
And with a faulty driver it may fail sooner. Well,
如果驱动器不好 可能会更早就报废
the answer is surprisingly complicated.
上述问题的答案令人意外地复杂
It turns out that lumens aren’t
原来 流明这一光学计量单位
quite the objective measurement they seem to be.
并没有看起来那么客观
While the sodium light may have an efficiency of 150 lumens per watt, it might be that in
尽管钠灯的照明效率约为150流明每瓦特
nighttime conditions, only a quarter
夜间照明时 只有四分之一
of those lumens actually mean anything to our eyes.
能真正进入人眼 被我们察觉到
In my next video,
我的下个视频
we’ll talk about current research that suggests our knowledge
会讨论目前正在进行的一些
of light sensitivity is flawed.
关于光灵敏度的科学研究
We’ll also discuss the problems
我们还会讨论
of light pollution and circadian rhythm disruption,
光污染和昼夜节律紊乱的问题
and how high pressure sodium and new LED lighting solutions are both double edged swords.
以及高压钠灯和新型LED灯各自的利与弊
Thanks for watching, I hope you enjoyed the video!
感谢收看 希望你喜欢这个视频!
If this is your first time coming across the channel and you liked what you saw,
如果你是首次观看本频道 觉得还不错
please consider subscribing!
欢迎订阅!
I’ve put some great links down below
我在下方放了些很棒的资源链接
that go into the history of discharge lighting,
它们涉及气体放电灯的历史
along with some other great stuff for you light bulb nerds out there.
以及灯泡发烧友们会感兴趣的其他内容
Of course, thank you to everyone who supports this channel on Patreon!
当然 非常感谢所有通过Patreon支持本节目的朋友!
Patrons of the channel are who keep these videos coming.
赞助者们是新视频源源不断发布的动力
If you’d like to join these amazing folks that support what I do,
如果你想加入他们来支持我的节目
why not take a peek at my Patreon page.
可以去瞧瞧我的众筹页面
Thanks for your consideration, and I’ll see you next time!
感谢各位的支持 下次见!
For the thousands of people, I’m sure,
我敢肯定有上千人
that were wondering how I got the sodium light
都在好奇我是如何
to work in a table lamp —
让钠灯在台灯里运行的
this ballast is wired into an extension cord.
这个镇流器被连接成延长电线
As far as it knows, this plug is the lamp,
就目前看来 这个插头就是台灯
this plug is its power supply.
这个插头是它的电源
Not exactly the safest thing in the world but, it does work!
虽然不是很安全 但它确实能用!

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视频概述

本视频介绍了包括高低压钠灯和新型LED灯在内光源各自的特点和利弊。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U1dMlVwUsrA

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