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罗莎·帕克斯(Rosa Parks)的隐秘生活

The hidden life of Rosa Parks - Riché D. Richardson

这一天 我特别疲惫 疲于裁缝的工作 也疲于心灵的痛楚 ——罗莎·帕克斯
In 1944,
1944年
11 years before her fateful decision on a Montgomery Bus,
即罗莎·帕克斯在蒙哥马利公交车上做出命运性决定的11年前
Rosa Parks was investigating a vicious crime.
她正在调查一起恶性犯罪
As an emissary for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People,
作为全国有色人种协进会的使者
she had traveled to rural Alabama to meet with Recy Taylor,
罗莎·帕克斯曾前往阿拉巴马州的乡村
a young woman who had been sexually assaulted by six white men.
与蕾西·泰勒 一名遭到六名白人男子性侵犯的年轻女子会面
It would be difficult enough to convince an Alabama court
要使阿拉巴马州法院信服
that even one of these men was guilty,
哪怕其中一人有罪都是相当困难的
but Rosa was undeterred.
但是罗莎没有被吓住
She formed a committee to defend Recy in court,
她成立了一个委员会 在法庭上为蕾西辩护
flooding the media with testimony
证词铺天盖地见诸于媒体
and sparking protests throughout the South.
此事在整个南方引发抗议
When a jury failed to indict the attackers,
当陪审团未能起诉袭击者时
Parks demanded the governor assemble a new grand jury.
帕克斯要求州长组建一个新的大陪审团
She wrote,
她写道:
I know that you will not fail to let the people of Alabama know
我知道你们定要让阿拉巴马州的人民清楚:
that there is equal justice for all of our citizens.”
平等公正属于所有公民
Throughout her life, Parks repeatedly challenged racial violence
在帕克斯的一生中 她不断挑战种族暴力
and the prejudiced systems protecting its perpetrators.
不断挑战保护罪犯的带有偏见的制度
But this work came at an enormous risk—
但是这项任务有着巨大的风险
and a personal price.
还要付出个人代价
Born in 1913,
罗莎生于1913年
Rosa was raised by her mother and grandparents in rural Alabama.
在阿拉巴马州农村由母亲和祖父母抚养长大
But outside this loving home,
但在这充满爱的家庭之外
the fear of racial violence cast a long shadow.
却笼罩着对种族暴力的恐惧
The Ku Klux Klan frequently drove past their home,
三K党经常开车经过他们的家
and Jim Crow laws segregated public spaces.
《吉姆·克劳法》对公共空间实施按种族隔离使用
At 19 she settled in Montgomery
19岁时 她在蒙哥马利定居
and married Raymond Parks,
嫁给了雷蒙德·帕克斯
a barber who shared her growing fury at racial injustice.
一个同样对种族不公日益愤怒的理发师
He was involved with the local chapter of the NAACP;
他加入了全国有色人种协进会的地方分会
a role many avoided for fear of persecution.
这是很多人因恐受迫害而避之不及的身份
At first Raymond was eager to keep Rosa safe
起初 雷蒙德急于保护罗莎
from the potential dangers of activism.
使她免受激进主义的潜在危险
But as she grew more incensed at the limitations imposed on African Americans,
但随着罗莎对强加给非裔美国人的限制越来越愤怒
she could no longer stand by.
她再也不能袖手旁观了
When she officially joined the NAACP in 1943,
1943年帕克斯正式加入有色人种协进会时
Parks and Johnnie Rebecca Carr were the only women in the Montgomery chapter.
她和约翰尼·丽贝卡·卡尔是蒙哥马利分会中仅有的两名妇女
She began keeping minutes for their meetings,
帕克斯开始为他们的会议做记录
and soon found herself elected secretary of the chapter—
不久就被选为分会的秘书
formally beginning her secret double life.
正式开始了她秘密的双重生活
By day, Rosa worked as a seamstress to support her mother and husband.
白天 罗莎做裁缝来供养母亲和丈夫
By night, she researched and documented numerous civil rights cases,
晚上 她研究和记录许多民权案件
from local policy disputes to high-profile murder cases and hate crimes.
从地方政策争端到备受瞩目的谋杀案件和仇恨犯罪
As secretary, she prepared public responses on behalf of the Montgomery chapter,
作为秘书 她代表蒙哥马利分会起草公众回应
battling the harsh sentencing false accusation and smear campaigns
与频繁针对非裔美国人的
frequently used against African Americans.
严厉判决 诬告和诽谤运动作斗争
In addition to her legal work,
除了做法律工作
Parks was a brilliant local strategist.
帕克斯还是一位杰出的本土战略家
As advisor to the NAACP youth group council,
作为全国有色人种协进会青年委员会的顾问
she helped young people navigate segregated systems
帕克斯帮助年轻人对种族隔离制度采取行动
including voter registration and whites-only libraries.
包括争取选举权和平等享用图书馆的权利
Through the cover of the NAACP,
在全国有色人种协进会的掩护下
Parks strived to bring clandestine civil rights activities into the open.
帕克斯努力使秘密的民权活动公开化
She advocated for civil disobedience training
她支持“公民不服从”的训练
and spoke out against racial violence,
她公开反对种族暴力
particularly the murder of Emmet Till.
尤其是就埃米特·蒂尔的被谋杀事件
In 1955,
1955年
her refusal to move to the back of a segregated bus
她在种族隔离公共汽车里拒绝移到后排
helped ignite the grassroots movement she had hoped for.
这引发了她所期望的草根运动
Parks was arrested and jailed for her one-woman protest,
帕克斯因她的“一人抗议”而被捕入狱
where she was visited by local activists.
当地进步人士去狱中探视她
Together they planned a twenty-four hour bus boycott.
他们共同策划了24小时的公共汽车抵制运动
It lasted for three hundred and eighty-one days.
这场运动持续了381天
Park’s simple act had transformed nascent civil rights activism
她的小小举动把新生的民权运动
into a national movement.
变成了全国性的运动
In 1956, the boycott ended when the Supreme Court ruled in favor
1956年 最高法院裁定取消公共交通隔离
of desegregating public transport.
抵制运动结束
But this victory for the movement had come at a great cost.
但是这场运动的胜利有巨大的代价
Rosa had been receiving vicious death threats throughout the campaign,
在运动过程中罗莎一直受到死亡威胁
and was unable to find work in Montgomery because of her political reputation.
且因政治声誉不佳无法在蒙哥马利找到工作
In 1957, she moved to Detroit to continue working as a seamstress,
1957年 她搬到底特律 继续做裁缝
until being hired by Congressman John Conyers
直到被国会议员约翰·科尼尔斯雇佣
to help support his burgeoning civil rights campaigns.
为其如火如荼的民权运动出谋划策
Ever vigilant in the fight against racial inequality,
帕克斯在反种族不平等斗争中永保警惕
Parks remained active for the next 40 years.
她在接下来的40年里一直很活跃
She wrote several books,
她写了几本书
traveled across the country giving talks to support other activists,
在全国各地发表演讲支持其他进步人士
and established an institute for the education of young people
并建立了一个青年教育机构
in her late husband’s memory.
以纪念她已故的丈夫
Today, Rosa Parks is remembered as a radical spirit
今天 罗莎·帕克斯作为与强权斗争的进步精神标志
who railed against the most powerful people and policies.
为世人所铭记
Her call to action continues to resound:
她的行动号召继续回响:
“Knowing what must be done does away with fear.”
“知道必做之事可消除恐惧”
For another fearless woman who knew what must be done.
想了解另一个知道必做之事的无畏女人
Check out this video on Ida B. Wells
请看这个关于艾达·贝尔·威尔斯的视频
a trailblazing journalist who risk her life to reveal the truth
一位先锋记者 当她的朋友们被谋杀时
when her friends were murdered.
她冒着生命危险揭露真相
Or learn more about one of
或者了解更多关于
the most famous unofficial generals in US’s history.
美国历史上最著名的非官方将军之一
Harriet Tubman
哈丽特•塔布曼

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tLfbmepDd4c

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