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“Hand Talk”不为人知的历史

The hidden history of “Hand Talk”

My father, when he talked to my grandmother,
我的父亲跟我的祖母交谈时
they’d have to use these signs.
他们会使用这些手势
For example, some of the basics was like, “yes” and “no”…
一些很基本的手势比如“是”或“不是”
“good” and “bad.”
“好”或“不好”
This is one of the oldest languages in North America.
这是北美最古老的语言之一
[music]
[音乐]
This is a “Crow Indian.”
这个手势代表“克罗族印第安人”
This was a “white person.”
这个手势代表“白人”
It’s called Plains Indian Sign Language.
这些手势被叫做平原印第安手语
One of many indigenous sign languages, known as “Hand Talk”
其中有一种被称为Hand Talk的土著手语
that were once used widely by both deaf and hearing people.
在当时的聋哑人和普通人中被广泛使用
It was the means for commerce.
它是贸易上沟通的途径
It was the means for economics.
也是经济活动的沟通途径
手语也被用于举办特殊仪式
宗教仪式
讲故事
Variations of Hand Talk were so commonly used
Hand Talk的各种变体被普遍使用
that it would influence the formation of American Sign Language, or ASL,
它影响了美式手语(ASL)的形成
the predominant sign language used today in the US and Canada.
ASL如今是美国和加拿大使用的主要手语
But Hand Talk has mostly been written out of history.
Hand Talk则基本退出了历史舞台
人们都说美式手语是
北美的第一种手语
但其实不是
土著人在那之前就已经使用手语交流了
[Piano piece]
[钢琴曲]
When a Spanish colonizer first reached one indigenous community in the southwest,
当西班牙殖民者首次来到美洲西南部的土著部落时
he noted that indigenous people knew signs so well
他们注意到原住民对手势非常熟悉
that there was no need for an interpreter.
所以完全没必要再去找翻译
[Piano sound]
[钢琴声]
That sign language was likely a variation of Hand Talk.
那种手语很有可能是平原印第安手语的变体
And these journals can trace it back to at least the 1500s.
这些日志证明手语可以至少追溯到16世纪
But if you take a look at a different kind of writing,
但如果你查阅各种古时候的文字
the evidence suggests it goes back even further.
这些证据表明手语可以追溯到更早的时候
[music]
[音乐]
有这样一个符号
它匹配的是这样一个手势
意思是喝水 就跟喝水的动作一样
There’s also rock writing depicting “prayer,” versus a similar sign for “prayer”.
描述“祈祷”的岩画和它对应的手势类似
Or a symbol for “elder”, indicating a person with a walking stick,
而老人的符号是一个拄着拐杖的人
versus a sign for “elder.”
相对应的手语是这样的
And this: a symbol for “hunger,” versus a sign for “hunger.”
还有这个:饥饿的符号和它对应的手势
Hand Talk, which researchers also call “North American Indian Sign Language”,
研究人员也把Hand Talk称为北美印第安手语
has many regional variations,
它有很多的地域变体
like Northeast Indian Sign Language here,
比如这里的东北部印第安手语
or Southwest Indian Sign Language here;
或这里的西南部印第安手语
as well as tribe-specific variations within those regions.
就连这些地区内部也有部落特定的版本
And here — from the Gulf Coast region,
而这片区域:从墨西哥湾
up through the Great Plains into Canada,
向上穿过大平原到加拿大
was the home of Plains Indian Sign Language.
则是平原印第安手语的发源地
PISL is one of the most well-documented Hand Talk variations,
PISL是记录得最完整的Hand Talk变体之一
probably because of how widely it was used.
大概是因为它应用得太广泛了
Plains Indian Sign Language was the medium for communication of intertribal nations.
PISL曾经作为部落种族间的沟通媒介
And that had a lot to do with how those tribes lived.
它与部落的日常生活息息相关
平原印第安人跟随着野牛和食物迁徙
他们在不同的季节迁移到不同的地区生活
当他们和其他部族接触交流时
就会切换到手语
By the 19th century, tens of thousands of indigenous people
到19世纪时 据报道 懂得PISL的土著人
were reported to have known PISL.
已经达到数万人
It was the standard language used
当时它作为标准语言被使用
just as English used today at United Nations,
相当于今天在联合国使用英语
especially in commerce, in gaining intelligence, in hunting,
特别是在贸易 获取情报以及狩猎方面
even in warfare.
甚至被用于战争
In PISL, there’s no finger-spelled alphabet like you find in other sign languages.
PISL不像其他手语有手指字母表
Its building blocks are roughly 4,000 basic words
它由大约4000个基础单词组成
that form its vocabulary.
这些单词构成了其词汇表
For the word “war,” you’d sign “big” and “fight.”
比如战争一词 是由“大的”和“打斗”的手势组成
For the word “beautiful,” you’d sign “face” and “good.”
而美丽一词 则是由“脸”和“良好的”两个手势组成
Or for “stream,” you’d sign the words “river” and “little”.
小溪一词由“河流”和“小的”这两个手势组成
There is…

a stream…
一条小溪
on the other side of some bluffs over there.
在那边断崖的另一侧
The way PISL works also shows indigenous ways of thinking about the world.
PISL的表达展示了土著人认知世界的方式
For example, let’s take the simple question:
比如 以一个简单的问题为例
How old are you?
你多大了
First, there’s a single sign for “question.”
首先 “问题”这个词有单独的手势
这个手势
包含了一切跟事件 时间 地点
原因和方式相关的疑问
这些问题都可以用它表示
So for a question about someone’s age,
因此针对某人年龄的问题
you’d use the motion for “question” with the motion for “winter”.
你需要用到“问题”和“冬天”这两个手势
How many winters are you?
你度过了多少个冬天
That’s what I ask.
那就是我要问的
In PISL you measure months by moons,
PISL里用月亮衡量月份
days by the sun.
用太阳衡量天数
And to refer to different times of day,
要代表一天中的不同时间
you would show hand placement
只需将手放置在
according to the position of the sun in the sky.
太阳在空中的对应位置即可
So this sign for morning, afternoon, or night.
所以早中晚的手势分别是这样的
有些人也用这样的手势表示早和晚
If you look at some of this side-by-side with American Sign Language,
如果把PISL和ASL放在一起对比
you’ll notice some similarities.
你会发现一些相似之处
Like that sign for moon, along with other similar words.
比如这个月亮的手势 还有其他类似的词语
Researchers believe another form of Hand Talk,
研究人员认为另一种Hand Talk
Northeast Indian Sign language,
即东北部印第安手语
was one of the contributors to ASL.
是促进ASL形成的因素之一
那个时候 美国的聋哑学校
被称作美国聋哑人的收容所
原住民都会去那上学
因而他们也显著影响了ASL的发展
This film from September 1930
这部1930年9月的电影
shows one of the largest gatherings of intertribal indigenous leaders ever filmed.
拍摄到了部落土著领袖间的一场大型集会
They were brought together by General Hugh L. Scott
休·莱诺克斯·斯科特将军把他们聚集起来
to document and preserve PISL.
想要将PISL记录和保存下来
“I have brought you from every direction to sit in this council.”
我把你们从四面八方召集过来参加会议
“I have come myself from very far in the east to sit with you.”
而我也是从东部大老远赶到这里和你们开会
“Young men are not learning your sign language,
现在的年轻人不学你们的手语了
and so it will disappear from this country.”
因此手语会逐渐从这个国家消失
By the time this gathering took place,
在这次集会举行时
Scott’s predictions were already coming true.
斯科特将军的预测已经成真了
In the late 1800s, the US government began sending
在19世纪末期 美国政府开始
Native children to government residential schools,
将原住民的孩子送往政府寄宿学校
where administrators enforced a strict “English-only” policy
在那里 孩子们被严格要求只能说英语
explicitly designed to cut off children from their families,
这明显是想让孩子们同自己的家庭
their culture, and their native identities.
文化还有原住民身份隔绝开来
They were punished severely for speaking their languages.
孩子们一使用本土语言就会被严厉惩罚
And that also meant signing.
当然也包括手语
And if they signed, sometimes many of these kids were beaten,
许多孩子有时会因为做手势而挨打
and they were systematically…
土著儿童们遭受着有组织的
psychologically destroyed.
精神毁灭
我们称其为语言灭亡
正常寄宿学校和聋哑学校都遭受打击
在聋哑学校 会部落手语的原住民
被告知不准使用那种手势 应该用ASL
还说ASL比任何部落手语都要好
In the violent pursuit of standardizing language in the US,
在美国通过暴力进行语言标准化的过程中
we lost tens of thousands of indigenous signers.
数万原住民遗失了本土手语
There are only a few dozen fluent PISL signers left.
如今能熟练使用PISL的人仅余几十个
Today, many indigenous deaf Americans use ASL.
许多美国原住民聋哑人现在都使用ASL
But many of ASL’s signs
但ASL中很多手势的
are rooted in a cultural experience that isn’t theirs.
文化含义都非源自于这些土著本身
有些来自白人
比如“女孩”这个词的手势
是根据太阳帽得来的 确切地说是它的拉绳
这个手势不适用于土著人
“男孩”一词的手势则是碰碰帽檐
同样不适用于土著
Even though ASL has an extensive vocabulary,
尽管ASL有丰富的词汇
there’s one big thing it doesn’t have signs for:
但有个重要内容却没有相对应的手势
names of tribes.
那就是部落名称
In ASL, you’d have to spell out tribe names.
ASL只能逐个字母地拼写出部落名
But with PISL, there’s a sign for every Native American tribe,
而PISL针对每个美国原住民部落都有对应的手势
with gestures connected to their meanings.
这些手势都与种族含义相关
For example, this sign for Crow imitates a knotted hairstyle.
例如 “克罗族”的手势类似于打结的发型
This sign for Shoshoni imitates the movement of a snake.
“肖肖尼族”的手势模仿的是蛇的移动
And this sign for Cheyenne shows a striped arrow.
“夏安族”的手势显示的则是条纹箭头
That’s why Melanie and other Deaf native people
而那也是梅兰妮及其他聋哑原住民
are beginning to use a mix of PISL and ASL.
开始混合使用PISL和ASL的原因
比如说“土著的”这个手势
我常把它和北美印第安手语中的“土地”关联使用
或者“本地的”这个词
这个手势的部分手语就是从ASL借用的
意思是根源或者根植的
因此这个手势代表的是这片土地的人民
Okay, Hand Talk.
说回Hand Talk
Plains Indian Sign Language is still endangered.
平原印第安手语仍然濒临灭绝
But many indigenous people are working to incorporate it more into everyday life.
但许多土著正努力将它融入到日常生活中
And pushing for it to be included in more mainstream education.
并呼吁将其纳入更多主流教育
Because as a language, PISL is more than words.
因为作为一门语言 它可不只是单词的拼凑
It carries their history.
它还承载了历史
We not only can hear a native language.
对于土著语言 我们不仅能用耳朵听
We can do it.
还能用手去表示
We can see it.
我们也能用眼睛看
And we can also feel it.
我们甚至能感受它
Plains Indian Sign Language is almost in our DNA.
PISL几乎被铭刻在了我们的DNA中
[Ending]
[片尾曲]

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视频概述

世界上的第一门手语是什么 是什么年代产生的 部落间手语又有什么特殊含义 又将如何传承

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

闪闪发光小太阳

审核员

审核员RYAN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s1-StAlw3aE

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