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英雄之旅:我们为什么要直面死亡

The Hero's Journey — Why We Must Confront Danger

This video is made possible by Brilliant,
本视频由Brilliant网站赞助
a math and science problem-solving website
这是一个解决数学和科学问题的网站
that can help you study more effectively.
可以帮助你更高效地学习
There are things that we know and things that we don’t.
世界上存在着我们已知或未知的事物
Knowledge keeps us comfortable, safe, and alive, but it’s never enough.
知识让我们安全舒适地活着 但这是不够的
Death looks for new ways to get us by using The Unknown against us.
死神总会找到新的未知事物来对付我们
New diseases, dilemmas, and other threats are always arising.
新的疾病 困境和其他威胁不断出现
To fight Death, we learn his tactics.
为了打败死神 我们要学习他的战术
We step into the Land of the Dead and confront him,
我们踏入死神的领域与之搏斗
with the only thing he can’t destroy: Truth.
我们拥有他唯一无法摧毁的东西:真理
It’s the armour that Death can’t break—it’s timeless.
这是死神无法刺穿的盔甲 它永恒存在
Truth is timeless, and Death is time.
死神即时间 而真理超越了时间
When we confront him, he shows us where we lack armour.
当我们面对死神时 他让我们明白哪里缺少防御
Those parts die, and hopefully, it’s not all of us.
这些部位会消亡 还好 那不是我们的全部
Science understands this process well.
科学能很好地解释这个过程
It takes an idea and tries to kill it,
为了战胜死亡 需要一些想法和尝试
and hopefully, the whole thing doesn’t die.
万幸 这些方法不会被全部淘汰
Whatever remains of the idea is used as a foundation for newer ideas,
任何残余的思路都会被用作新方法的基础
and these ideas are subjected to the forces of death again and again,
这些方法一次又一次地接受死亡的考验
and if they survive,
如果它们通过了
we assume they contain a piece of the Truth.
我们就认为它们包含了一部分真理
But, there are truths that can’t be found in a lab,
但有些真理是无法从实验室找到的
such as how we should live our lives.
譬如我们该如何生活
Perhaps the best place to look for the answer to this question is in mythology.
也许寻找问题答案的最佳去处是神话学
After a lifetime of studying mythology,
用一生的时间研究神话学之后
Joseph Campbell noticed a reoccurring pattern:
约瑟夫•坎贝尔发现了一个重复的模式:
different cultures told similar stories
不同文化都讲述了相似的故事
of an admirable figure who left the world of comfort,
一位令人钦佩的人物离开了舒适区
stepped into The Unknown, confronted the forces of Death,
踏入未知的领域 直面死神的力量
and, in doing so, gave us a glimpse of the Truth—
在这样做的同时 让我们得以一瞥真理——
the knowledge to overcome Death.
能够战胜死亡的知识
This figure was called a hero,
这位人物被称为英雄
and Joseph Campbell called this The Hero’s Journey.
约瑟夫•坎贝尔称这个故事为“英雄之旅”
A hero puts the Truth above their own ego.
英雄把真理置于个人利益之上
In some stories, they initially believe the wrong idea,
在某些故事中 他们一开始会相信错误的理念
and when they battle Death, the idea dies,
当他们与死神搏斗时 这理念也随之崩溃
but eventually, they overcome him by learning the Truth,
但最终 他们依靠学习真理战胜了死神
and they share this hard-earned wisdom with us.
并与我们分享了这来之不易的智慧
This story represents a psychological death and rebirth:
这个故事代表了一种心理的死亡与重生
a part of the hero’s worldview dies and a better one is born.
主角的部分世界观崩塌了 一个更好的世界观形成了
In other stories, the hero is asked to make the ultimate sacrifice.
在另一些故事里 英雄被要求做出最后的牺牲
The Reaper proposes a deal:
死神提出一个方案:
die in the pursuit of Truth or abandon it and survive.
要么追求真理而死去 要么放弃真理而苟活
In this story, Death can only win by getting the hero to embrace their ego
在这个故事中 只有让英雄选择个人利益
and walk away from the Truth.
远离真相 死神才会胜利
The forces of death want the hero to regret ever pursuing it
死神想让主角后悔追求真理
and to convince others to abandon it as well.
并说服其他人放弃它
But the hero gladly embraces death and becomes a martyr for the Truth.
但是英雄欣然接受死亡 成为了真理的殉道者
They don’t want to live in a world of lies,
他们不愿生活在一个充满谎言的世界中
and they know that others will continue the pursuit.
他们知道还会有人继续追求真理
By refusing the Reaper’s deal and gladly accepting death,
通过拒绝与死神交易并欣然接受死亡
the hero has actually transcended it.
英雄实际上已经超越了死神
Albert Camus said that “what is called a reason for living
阿尔贝•加缪说过:活下去的理由
is also an excellent reason for dying.”
也是绝佳的赴死的理由
Heroic martyrs show us what makes life worth living
英勇的殉道者通过选择为生命而死
by choosing to die for it.
来向我们展示它的价值
A physical death is sometimes accompanied by a physical rebirth.
有时 肉体的死亡也伴随着肉体重生
In both versions of the hero’s story,
两个版本的英雄故事都告诉我们
we are shown that Truth is what overcomes Death,
真理是能战胜死亡的力量
and it’s also what makes life worth living.
也是让生命值得活下去的力量
Joseph Campbell was often asked
约瑟夫•坎贝尔经常被问及
how we could find our Hero’s Journey,
我们该如何发现自己的英雄之旅
and he encouraged us to follow our bliss:
他鼓励我们追随自己的信念:
the thing that intrinsically motivates us or calls on us.
即本质上激励或召唤我们的事物
It’s a thing outside of ourselves that gives our lives meaning.
它是一种身外之物 它赋予生活以意义
Even if we were to lose everything—fame, money, power,
即使我们失去一切——名声 金钱 权力
we would look at it and say,
我们依然可以说
“at least I still have my bliss.”
“至少我仍然拥有信念”
It’s not about what gives us pleasure.
信念不是给我们快乐的东西
It transcends us; it’s more important than our ego.
它超越了我们自己 它比自我更重要
Our bliss sustains us through hardship, suffering,
我们的信念支撑我们渡过难关
and minor skirmishes with Death.
与死神擦肩而过
And one day, if the Reaper approached us and asked
如果有一天 死神来到面前问我们
if the thing we’re living for
我们为之而活的事物
was worth making the ultimate sacrifice,
是否值得我们做出最后的牺牲
we would answer yes.
我们会回答“是”
A hero is someone who finds what’s worth dying for,
英雄就是找到了值得为之牺牲的事物的人
and in doing so,
他们通过这样做来告诉我们
they show us what’s worth living for.
什么是值得我们为此活下去的
They show us how to overcome Death with Truth.
告诉我们如何用真理战胜死亡
As a student, it’s important to know the truth if you want to do well in class
作为学生如果想取得好成绩 了解真理很重要
and as we discuss, to learn the truth
正如我们谈论的 为了学习真理
you have to push yourself outside of your comfort zone.
你必须把自己逼出舒适区
For this reason, I’m excited to present this week’s sponsor brilliant. org
出于此原因 我很高兴能介绍本周的赞助商 [网站名]
Brilliant is a math and science problem-solving website
它是一个解决数学和科学问题的网站
that makes leaving your comfort zone fun and rewarding.
让你离开舒适区变得有趣且值得
They cover a wide array of topics
网站内容涵盖诸多主题
such as mathematics, physics, astronomy and even computer science
例如数学 物理 天文 甚至计算机科学
in their interactive problem-solving courses as well as in bite-size daily challenges.
从互动式的解决问题到容易的日常挑战
Brilliant’s active approach to learning keeps you engaged
通过挑战你感兴趣的问题
by throwing you into challenging problems that keep your interest high
通过提高问题的难度
and progessively adding layers to your understanding
来循序渐进地加深你的理解程度
by increasing the difficulty of problems.
Brilliant的积极学习法会一直吸引你
To develop and apply your current skill site,
为了发展和应用你现在的技能
just go to www.brilliant.org/freedominthought.
请登录www.brilliant.org/freedominthought
or click the link of subscription below and you can sign them for free.
或点击下方的订阅免费参与
As a bonus for those who are ready to push themselves further,
作为对那些准备好迎接更大挑战的人的奖励
the first 200 people would be hooked up with 20 percent of the annual subscription,
前200 位参与的人订阅年费即享八折优惠
so you can unlock dozens of courses and view all the daily challenges in our archives.
你就能在我们的归档里解锁多种课程 并观看所有日常挑战
As always, thanks for watching and I’ll see you next time.
一如既往 感谢收看 下次再见

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视频概述

神话里的英雄是如何战胜死神的

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原初

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审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ygv6aaSg_Kk

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