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学习外语对健康有益?

The Health Benefits Of Learning a Foreign Language | Daria Zaikovskaia | TEDxOulu

Transcriber: Susana González Reviewer: Keira White
文稿录入:Susana González 审核:Keira White
Learning a foreign language is good for you for so many reasons.
出于很多原因 学外语对你都是有益处的
Why should I learn English?
为什么我要学英语?
It’s not a question people ask themselves a lot these days, is it?
这不是当今人们常问自己的一个问题 对吗?
English is probably going to become
如果英语还不是
the world’s lingua franca, if it’s not already.
世界通用语的话 那很可能它快要是了
Today, English is the most widely used language for newspaper,
今天 英语是最广泛使用的语言 用于报刊
book and scientific publishing, international telecommunications,
书籍与科学出版物 国际电信
international trade, mass entertainment, diplomacy, and, of course, the Internet.
国际贸易 大众娱乐 外交 当然还有互联网
There are now more than 8,000 courses taught completely in English
在非英语国家的一流大学
by leading universities in non-English speaking countries.
有8000多个全英文教学课程
So for people like me,
因此对于像我这样的
non-native English speakers,
非英语母语者来说
it would seem that if we want to keep up with the world,
看起来如果我们想要跟上世界的步伐
learning at least one foreign language, namely English, is a must.
必须学习至少一门外语 即英语
We learn it to find a good job,
我们学习它是为了找到一份好工作
to be more successful, or even to immigrate.
为了更成功 或者甚至是为了移民
I’ve been learning English since I was little.
从小我就一直学英语
At first it was my parents who taught me,
最初是我父母教我英语
which is kind of funny because neither of them spoke any English back then,
说来有点好笑 因为那时他们两个都不会英语
and they have successfully avoided learning it for the past 25 years.
他们在过去的25年成功地做到了不学英语
In fact, when I got my bachelor’s degree in linguistics,
事实上当我拿到语言学硕士学位时
my mom said, ″Good job, honey. What’s next for you?″
我妈妈说:“干得好 亲爱的 你下一个目标是什么?”
″Are you now going to get a real degree?″
“你现在打算拿一个真正的学位了吗?”
After my studies, I worked as an English teacher.
学业结束之后 我成为一名英语教师
And whenever I taught an introductory class,
无论任何时候我上入门课时
I would ask my students,
我常问我的学生:
″Why do you want to learn a foreign language?″
“为何你想学一门外语?”
The answers I would usually get were more or less similar,
通常我得到的答案多多少少有点类似
but before I share them, I would like to ask you to go back for a moment.
但在我分享答案之前 我想请你们回顾一下
Think of a time you first started learning a foreign language.
想想你最初开始学外语的时候
Do you remember why?
你还记得为何学外语吗?
The answers my students would give were,
我的学生可能给的答案是
″My parents make me″,
我父母让我学
″I want to understand social media content″,
我想理解社交媒体内容
″I want to travel″, ″I want to get a good job″.
我想旅游 我想找份好工作
And a lot of people also acknowledged
许多人也承认
that learning a language is good for you in general.
一般来说 学语言对你是有益的
But if we stop and think about it, work, travel, good marks at school,
但如果我们停下来想想 工作 旅游 在学校取得好成绩
watching films, are all amazing, noble reasons to learn a foreign language.
看电影 全都是学外语的神奇而高尚的理由
But can you get all that without actually… learning?
但如你不真正学习 能得到所有这些好处吗?
I think we probably can.
我认为我们很可能可以
If we go along with this idea,
如果我们赞同这个观点
it takes only a little thought to grasp what you can actually do,
不难领会到 即便你不认识一个英语
even if you don’t understand a word in English or any other foreign language.
或其他语言的单词 你还是有所作为
For example, with the technology we have today,
例如 利用我们今天已有的技术
software can translate a whole web page
软件可以在顷刻之间
into your native language in a split second.
把整个网页翻译成你的母语
There are apps that can translate
有些软件可以实时翻译
almost any text captured by your smartphone camera in real time.
你智能手机摄像头拍摄的几乎任何文本
And most media are served to you with subtitles or a voiceover,
大部分媒体在录制工作完成之后几乎立即
available almost immediately after the recording is made.
给你提供了字幕和解说
Not to mention those lucky enough to be born
更不用说那些出生在
into English-speaking families.
英语母语家庭的幸运儿
They should be fine, right?
他们应该没问题 对吗?
And, here we come back to this vague
现在我们回到这个模糊话题
″Learning a language is good for you!″
学语言对你有好处
And it is!
确实是的
It can bring many benefits,
它能带来诸多好处
including those that can improve
包括 能改善
the quality of your life and indeed your health.
生活质量甚至健康的好处
Which is a nice bonus for those of us
这对于我们当中由于其他原因
who started learning it for something else.
而开始学外语的人来说是个好的奖励
It’s like when you buy a pack of breakfast cereal
这就像当你买一包早餐麦片时
and… ″here’s a free sticker inside!″
然后“在这里面有一张免费贴纸”
Let’s move on now,
现在让我们继续
and take a closer look at some of these benefits.
深入了解这些益处
I like to visualize concepts.
我喜欢把概念形象化
It helps me give form to abstract ideas and make them more simple.
这帮我为抽象思想赋予形式 使之更简单
I like to imagine every person as a musician.
我喜欢把每个人想象为音乐家
Let’s start with somebody who can only speak one language.
让我们从只会一种语言的人开始
You probably even know someone like that.
很可能你认识这样的人
Can you picture them in your mind’s eye?
你能在脑海中想象他们吗?
Let’s assume that this person was born and raised in their native country.
假设这个人出生在他们本族语国家
They have been able to get by
无论是工作 旅行还是休闲
with their native language be it for work, travel and leisure.
他们都能用他们的本族语应对
Now, if we visualize some more and give this person an instrument,
现在如果我们多一点想象 给这个人一个乐器
in some sense we can compare their brain to a music box.
从某种意义上我们可以把他们的大脑比作一个音乐盒
Now, how does the box work?
现在这个音乐盒怎么工作呢?
You spin the handle and magic happens.
你旋转一下手柄 魔法就发生了
Beautiful, does the trick.
漂亮 行之有效
But the thing about the box is that it can only play one tune.
但这个音乐盒的一个问题是它只能播放一个曲调
The mechanism is kind of embedded into the box,
其机械部件 可以说是嵌入在盒子内部的
so changing it is a lot of work.
因此改变需要许多工作
You repeat one and the same movement all over again.
你从头开始重复一个相同的动作
Now, we have bilinguals.
现在我们有双语者
In comparison to monolinguals,
与单语者相比
they have twice as many choices on how to deliver an idea.
他们有双倍表达思想的选择
But it’s not that simple.
但道理没那么简单
When bilinguals use the target language,
当双语者使用目标语时
they actually activate both languages that they know.
他们事实上激活了他们知道的两种语言
It means that there is always this competition going on
这就意味着在他们的头脑中
in their heads between the two languages.
总是有两种语言在竞争
They have to be constantly ready to respond in one language
他们要不断地准备好用一种语言回应
and suppress the other one.
同时压制另一种语言
Instead of a music box,
我会给他们
I would give them a tape recorder and two tapes.
一台盒式磁带放音机和两盒磁带而不是一个音乐盒
Not quite an instrument, but it can play music too.
不完全是乐器 但它也能演奏音乐
Now, if you’re bilingual, your native tape is the one you know best.
现在如你是双语者 母语“磁带”是你最熟悉的
Depending on how well you know your second language,
取决于你对二语的掌握程度
the other one could be secondary.
另一盒磁带可能是次要的
So each time you need to play a word or a phrase,
因此每次当你需要播放一个单词或短语时
it takes you time to get the native tape out,
你花时间把母语“磁带”拿出来
insert the other one,
插入到另一盒磁带中
and then find the word or phrase that you’re looking for.
然后找到你在寻找的单词或短语
In addition to that, you sometimes forget where exactly it is,
此外 你有时忘了单词或短语的位置
or even if this word is even on the tape.
或甚至忘了磁带上是否有这个词
Each time there is this switch between these mental tapes,
每一次都有这些大脑中的“磁带”的转换
it takes you mental effort.
这需要脑力劳动
It’s an exercise.
这是一个锻炼
And like with all exercises,
就像所有锻炼一样
it gets easier and easier the more you do it,
越练习就变得越简单
until you know the tape inside out.
直到你对磁带了如指掌
And with each new language,
每学习一种新语言
your musical instrument gets more elaborate,
你的乐器变得越发复杂
like adding new keys to a piano.
就像给一台钢琴增添新琴键
Some of them you know better, some worse.
有一些琴键你熟悉 有些你陌生
But each time you switch, you get more fluent.
但每次转换时 你变得更流利
And as you learn another third, fourth language,
然后当你再学第三或第四种语时
you pick it up faster.
你学得更快
You understand the logic the languages might share,
你理解语言之间可能具有的相同逻辑
and you are more likely to overcome
你更加可能克服
the barriers to speaking with your next foreign language.
在说下一门外语时你可能会遭遇到的障碍
And that mental effort translates onto the other areas of your life.
这种脑力劳动转化到你的其他生活领域
It opens your mind for greater opportunities,
它打开你的思维 有更大机会
and prepares you for possible challenges.
让你为可能的挑战做好准备
And, that is not only true
这不仅适用于那些
for those who started learning a language early in life.
早年就开始学语言的人
That’s right! You can pick up a new language today
对的! 你今天就可以学习新语言
and start enjoying all the amazing benefits it brings.
开始享受它带来的所有惊人好处
It can even influence your life indirectly,
它甚至能间接影响你的一生
opening new paths for you.
为你开辟新的道路
In 2020, like many others,
在2020年我像许多人一样
I found myself in quarantine.
我发现自己被隔离了
My boyfriend, my cat and I in a tiny one- room apartment
我 我男友 和我的猫在一个只有一间房的小套间
for several months.
隔离了几个月
I figured I needed a new hobby to stay sane.
我想我需要一个新的爱好来保持神智健康
It needed to be a one-person indoor hobby,
这需要是一个室内个人爱好
and it needed to be cheap.
而且需要花钱少
So, I decided I would start learning a new language.
因而我决定开始学一门新语言
I didn’t have a preference.
我没有特定的偏好
So I did several rounds of flipping a coin
所有我就掷几轮硬币
and it turned out to be Finnish.
结果是学芬兰语
I armed myself with YouTube videos and learning apps.
我给自己配备了一些油管视频和手机学习应用
And soon enough, I learned some stuff about
不久我就学会了一些东西:
some Finnish delicacies,
一些芬兰美食
some Finnish towns, one famous Finnish poet.
一些芬兰小镇 一位芬兰著名诗人
Having this tiny connection to the culture made me want to dig deeper.
与文化的这种细微联系让我想更深入挖掘
And before I even realized it,
不知不觉
it’s December, and I’m applying to study
到了十二月 我在申请
at a Finnish University.
去一所芬兰大学留学
What started small, became this huge change
开始时的一件小事带来了巨变
that helped me out of depression and gave me purpose.
帮助我走出抑郁 给我目标
Our brains are picky.
我们的大脑是挑剔的
Our brains love new things.
我们的大脑喜欢新事物
It gives us that handsome reward of dopamine
它给我们丰厚的多巴胺回报
in exchange for novelty.
作为对新奇的交换
That’s why I have so many pairs of shoes.
这就是为什么我有这么多双鞋子
Usually when you learn something new,
通常当你学习新知识时
the brain-boosting benefits decrease
一旦你顿悟时刻到来
as soon as you get your eureka moment.
对大脑刺激的益处便减少
For example, you want to learn to ride a bicycle.
例如你想学骑自行车
You start trying, you go, and it feels great.
你开始尝试 你会了 这感觉太妙了
But, as soon as you get the hang of it, it’s not the same satisfaction-wise.
可一旦你学会了 就不再有原来的满足
It’s just going.
而只是往前骑行
But that doesn’t happen when you learn a foreign language.
但是你学外语就不会发生这种事
Instead, your brain needs to keep working,
而是需要你大脑一直运转
constantly plan, concentrate and make decisions.
不断规划 集中精神 做出决策
Every day is a school day.
每天都是上学日
It never ends, which to me, can be both amazing and frustrating.
从不终止 这对我来说既令我惊喜又懊恼
I have been learning English for ages.
我学英语多年了
I have been teaching it as a second language for several years,
我教英语作为第二种语言有几年了
and I still make mistakes.
我仍然出错
And there are still words that I don’t know.
仍然有一些我不认识的词
Not so long ago, I was watching some British TV
不久前 我在看一些英国电视节目时
and I saw the word ″satsuma″ in a joke.
我看到一个笑话中的单词satsuma
Of course I didn’t get the joke.
当然我不懂这个笑话
I’d never heard nor seen this word before.
我之前从未听过也未看过这个词
At that moment, I felt almost angry at all the English people
那时 我对那些仅为了把我的生活变得更难
who decided to adopt this word into the language
而决定把这个词收入到英语语言中的
just to make my life more difficult.
所有英国人几乎都感到生气
But, I did make a mental note.
但是我真的铭刻在心
Apparently, it’s a kind of fruit like a mandarin or tangerine.
显然 这是一种像mandarin或tangerine的水果
I can never tell the difference between them,
我无法分辨两者的差别
because in my native language, we have one word to describe all three.
因为在我的母语中 这三个东西我们用同一词描述
Later, I was abroad in a supermarket and I saw this sign, ″satsuma″.
后来我出国在一家超市看到了这个标牌satsuma
I pointed to it and I said out loud, there were people around me.
周围很多人 我指着它大声说:
″You little piece of fruit. I know you.″
你这小小水果 我认识你
And it felt really good. Our brains like to be proud.
这感觉太好了 我们的大脑喜欢自豪
We like achievement, we like to be the best.
我们喜欢成就 我们喜欢最好
And this is the best kind of achievement because it’s not competitive.
这是一种最好的成就 因为没人与你竞争
The only person you are trying to out-best is you.
唯一你要超越的人是你自己
And each new word, phrase and sentence brings you victory.
每一个生词短语和句子都带给你胜利
It doesn’t have to be a big victory.
这不一定是大胜利
It can be as small as understanding a joke in a foreign language.
它可以是像看懂外语中的笑话那样的小胜利
It’s never too early to learn,
学习越早越好
and it’s never too late.
学习也决不为晚
Thank you.
谢谢
(Applause)
[掌声]

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视频概述

一提到学外语,我们可能马上想到单词记不住、语法看不懂、句子听不明白、考试分数低这些烦心事。本视频居然说它对健康有益?大家一起来看看。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Beau

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wiRhY8TU9qQ

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