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幸福感能够刺激生产力 – 译学馆
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幸福感能够刺激生产力

The happy secret to better work | Shawn Achor

我七岁的时候
When I was seven years old
妹妹刚五岁
and my sister was just five years old,
我们当时在一个双层床的上铺玩 
we were playing on top of a bunk bed.
那时候我比她大两岁
I was two years older than my sister at the time
当然 现在我也比她大两岁 
I mean, I’m two years older than her now.
但是在当时这意味着她必须全都听我的 
but at the time it meant she had to do everything that I wanted to do,
我想玩战争游戏
and I wanted to play war.
于是我们爬到了双层床的上铺 
So we were up on top of our bunk beds.
在床的一侧
And on one side of the bunk bed,
我放上了我所有的玩具大兵和武器 
I had put out all of my G.I. Joe soldiers and weaponry.
另一边
And on the other side
则是我妹妹的小马玩偶  时刻准备着进行一场骑兵突击
were all my sister’s My Little Ponies ready for a cavalry charge.
后来我们对那天下午发生的事情有不同的说法 
There are differing accounts of what actually happened that afternoon,
但是既然我妹妹今天不在场 
but since my sister is not here with us today,
我就跟你们讲讲真实的故事到底是什么样的
let me tell you the true story,
事实就是我妹妹有点笨手笨脚的
which is my sister’s a little on the clumsy side.
不知道怎么回事 我这个做哥哥的既没碰她也没推她
Somehow, without any help or push from her older brother at all,
我妹妹艾米突然就从上铺掉下去了 
Amy disappeared off of the top of the bunk bed
狠狠地摔到了地上
and landed with this crash on the floor.
我十分紧张地从床的一侧往下瞄 
I nervously peered over the side of the bed
想知道妹妹怎么样了
to see what had befallen my fallen sister
然后发现她痛苦地趴在地上 
and saw that she had landed painfully on her hands and knees
跪趴在地板上
on all fours on the ground.
我很紧张 因为我的父母叮嘱我
I was nervous because my parents had charged me
一定要保证妹妹和我 
with making sure that my sister and I
玩耍的时候注意安全 不要太闹腾 
played as safely and as quietly as possible.
这时候我突然想起来一星期之前
And seeing as how I had accidentally broken Amy’s arm
我才不小心弄破了艾米的胳膊 
just one week before.
我颇具英雄气概地把她 
heroically pushing her out of the way
从一个假想的扑面而来的狙击手子弹中推开
of an oncoming imaginary sniper bullet,
到现在她都还没有谢我呢 我当时可是拼了命的
for which I have yet to be thanked, I was trying as hard as I could
她甚至都没看到那子弹迎面扑来 
she didn’t even see it coming
我可是拼命展示了我最厉害的一面
I was trying hard to be on my best behavior.
然后我看到我妹妹的脸 
And I saw my sister’s face,
她满脸痛苦 惊讶的表情 
this wail of pain and suffering and surprise
马上就要哭出来了 极有可能吵醒
threatening to erupt from her mouth and wake my parents
习惯在漫长冬季午睡的父母 
from the long winter’s nap for which they had settled.
所以我做了一件 
So I did the only thing
一个手忙脚乱的七岁小孩唯一能想到的事扭转悲剧 
my frantic seven year-old brain could think to do to avert this tragedy.
如果你有孩子的话 肯定见过好几百次了 
And if you have children, you’ve seen this hundreds of times.
我说:“艾米 好了 别哭了 你看到你是怎么落地的么? 
I said, “Amy, wait. Don’t cry. Did you see how you landed?
人类是不会那样四脚朝地落下去的 
No human lands on all fours like that.
艾米 我觉得这意味着你就是传说中的独角兽”
Amy, I think this means you’re a unicorn.”
很明显这是骗她的
Now, that was cheating,
因为我妹妹现在最不想做的就是 
because there was nothing she would want more
那个受伤的五岁小妹妹
than not to be Amy the hurt five year-old little sister,
而是成为超级独角兽艾米 
but Amy the special unicorn.
当然 以前她是完全没有
Of course, this option was open to her brain
这个想法的
at no point in the past.
于是就看到我那可怜的 被我控制了的妹妹如何纠结
And you could see how my poor, manipulated sister faced conflict,
她的小脑袋正在决定究竟是
as her little brain attempted to devote resources
继续回味刚才经历的那些 疼痛折磨和惊讶 
to feeling the pain and suffering and surprise she just experienced,
还是仔细考虑她作为独角兽的新身份 
or contemplating her new-found identity as a unicorn.
后者胜出了
And the latter won.
于是她没哭也没有停止游戏 
Instead of crying or ceasing our play,
更没有吵醒我们的父母 
instead of waking my parents,
没有给我带来不好的结果
with all the negative consequences for me,
她脸上划过一丝微笑 
a smile spread across her face
重新爬回到双层床的上铺
and she scrambled back up onto the bunk bed
带着作为一只小独兽的荣耀 
with all the grace of a baby unicorn,
还有一条受伤的腿
with one broken leg.
我们在五岁或七岁 
What we stumbled across
无意间发现的道理其实是 
at this tender age of just five and seven
当然当时我们并不知情 
we had no idea at the time
后来一个科学革命的先锋观点 
was something going be at the vanguard of a scientific revolution
发生在二十年后 主要研究人脑的问题 
occurring two decades later in the way that we look at the human brain.
我们当时的发现叫做积极心理学 
We had stumbled across something called positive psychology,
这也是我今天站在这里的原因 
which is the reason I’m here today
同时也是我每天早晨醒来的原因
and the reason that I wake up every morning.
当我刚开始在学术圈外 公司及学校
When I started talking about this research
谈论这个学术问题的时候
outside of academia, with companies and schools,
他们强调的第一件事就是永远不要以图表开始你的谈话 
the first thing they said to never do is to start with a graph.
我在这里想做的第一件事恰恰就是用图表开始我的演讲 
The first thing I want to do is start with a graph.
这个图表看起来很枯燥 
This graph looks boring,
但是它恰恰就是我每天保持兴奋并醒来的原因 
but it is the reason I get excited and wake up every morning.
而且这个表什么也不是 它是一个假数据 
And this graph doesn’t even mean anything; it’s fake data.
我们从这些数据中发现——
What we found is —
如果我用这些数据来研究在座的各位 估计我会很兴奋 
If I got this data studying you, I would be thrilled,
因为很明显这里有一个趋势
because there’s a clear trend going on there,
意味着我可以将这个出版了 
and that means that I can get published,
这才是最关键的 
which is all that really matters.
事实是这个曲线上方有一个奇怪的红点 
The fact is there is one weird red dot above the curve,
就是说在座有一个古怪的人 
there’s one weirdo in the room
我知道是哪位 刚才我看到你了 
I know who you are, I saw you earlier.
这个不是问题 
That’s no problem.
你们都知道 这并不是问题 
That’s no problem, as most of you know,
因为我完全可以删除这个点 
because I can just delete that dot.
我能删掉它是因为这明显是一个测量错误 
I can delete that dot because that’s clearly a measurement error.
我们都知道它是一个测量错误
And we know that’s a measurement error
因为它把我的数据弄乱了
because it’s messing up my data.
所以通常经济学 统计学 商务学以及心理学课程 
So one of the first things we teach people
都会教大家的一件事 
in economics, statistics, business and psychology courses
是为保持数据的有效性 我们如何删除奇怪的数据
is how, in a statistically valid way, do we eliminate the weirdos.
我们如何通过删除异常值 
How do we eliminate the outliers
找出最合适的曲线呢? 
so we can find the line of best fit?
令人惊讶的是 当我试图研究
Which is fantastic if I’m trying to find out
每个人应该服用的雅维数量时 应该是两粒 
how many Advil the average person should be taking — two.
但是如果我对你的潜能感兴趣
But if I’m interested in your potential,
或者快乐 生产力 或者精力 创造力感兴趣
or for happiness or productivity or energy or creativity,
我们现在所做的就是对科学里的平均概念的迷信
we’re creating the cult of the average with science.
如果我问一个问题
If I asked a question like,
比如说 “一个孩子在教室里学习阅读能有多快?” 
“How fast can a child learn how to read in a classroom?”
科学家们会把问题变成
scientists change the answer to
“孩子在教室学习阅读 的平均速度是多少?” 
“How fast does the average child learn how to read in that classroom?”
然后我们会把教室里的孩子都设想成平均水平 
and we tailor the class towards the average.
如果你低于这个平均线 
If you fall below the average, on this curve
心理学家就会感到很惊讶 
then psychologists get thrilled,
因为这意味着你要么有抑郁症要么有身心障碍 
because that means you’re depressed or have a disorder,
或者很可能二者兼具 
or hopefully both.
我们希望你二者兼具 因为我们的商业模式是 
We’re hoping for both because our business model is,
如果你因为一个毛病来进行治疗 
if you come into a therapy session with one problem,
我们希望你离开的时候知道自己其实是有10个毛病的 
we want to make sure you leave knowing you have ten,
这样你就会一遍又一遍地来进行治疗 
so you keep coming back over and over again.
如果必要的话我们会追溯到你的童年 
We’ll go back into your childhood if necessary,
但是最后我们想做的是使你变得正常 
but eventually we want to make you normal again.
但是正常这个概念只是指的平均水平
But normal is merely average.
我以及积极心理学家们假设的是 如果我们只研究平均水平 
And positive psychology posits that if we study what is merely average,
我们就会一直停留在平均水平上 
we will remain merely average.
因此我们不会删除那些积极的异常值 
Then instead of deleting those positive outliers,
我想做的是研究这些异常值的人群 
what I intentionally do is come into a population like this one
然后探究其中的原因 
and say, why?
为什么你们中有些人远远高于这个平均曲线? 
Why some of you are so high above the curve
包括你的智商 运动能力 音乐才能 
in terms of intellectual, athletic, musical ability,
创造力 精力 
creativity, energy levels,
面对挑战的弹性以及幽默感? 
resiliency in the face of challenge, sense of humor?
不管是哪方面 我不会删除你 而是去研究你 
Whatever it is, instead of deleting you, what I want to do is study you.
因为或许我们可以收集信息 
Because maybe we can glean information,
不仅仅是把平均值下面的人提高到平均曲线上去 
not just how to move people up to the average,
而是如何将整个平均曲线提高 
but how we can move the entire average up
无论是在全世界范围内的公司还是学校都是如此
in our companies and schools worldwide.
这个图表对我很重要 
The reason this graph is important to me
因为每当我打开新闻频道时
is, when I turn on the news,
似乎大部分的信息 都不积极
it seems like the majority of the information is not positive.
而是消极的 
in fact it’s negative.
大部分都是关于谋杀 腐败 疾病 自然灾害 
Most of it’s about murder, corruption, diseases, natural disasters.
我立即想到
And very quickly, my brain starts to think
这才是世界上真正的消极和积极所占的比例 
that’s the accurate ratio of negative to positive in the world.
这其实造成了一种“医学院综合症” 
This creates “the medical school syndrome.”
经过第一年医学训练的人
which means people’ve been the medical school during the first year of medical training,
当你读完一份关于所有可能发生的疾病和相关症状的列表 
as you read through a list of all the symptoms and diseases, that could happen.
突然你会觉得好像所有这些症状和疾病自己都有
Suddenly you realize you have all of them.
我有一个妹夫叫波波 这是另一件事了 
I have a brother in-law named Bobo, which is a whole other story.
波波和我那个“独角兽艾米”妹妹结婚了
Bobo married Amy the unicorn.
有一天他从耶鲁医学院 
Bobo called me on the phone —
给我打来电话 
from Yale Medical School,
他说:“肖恩 我得麻风病了”
and Bobo said, “Shawn, I have leprosy.”
这个病 在耶鲁都是其极罕见的
Which, even at Yale, is extraordinarily rare.
但是我不知道怎么来安慰可怜的波波 
But I had no idea how to console poor Bobo
因为过去的整整一礼拜他一直在克服自己的更年期问题
because he had just gotten over an entire week of menopause.
所以我们发现并不一定是现实世界成就我们
We’re finding it’s not necessarily the reality that shapes us,
而是我们大脑用来看世界的那个镜片造就了我们的现实世界 
but the lens through which your brain views the world that shapes your reality.
如果我们换一副镜片 我们不仅可以改变自己的快乐程度 
And if we can change the lens, not only can we change your happiness,
同时还能改变每一个教育或者商业结果
we can change every single educational and business outcome at the same time.
当年申请哈佛的时候 完全是放手一搏
I applied to Harvard, I applied on a dare.
我并没有期望能被录取
I didn’t expect to get in,
家里也没有钱供我去读大学 
and my family had no money for college.
两周后我拿到了军事奖学金 哈佛录取我了 
When I got a military scholarship two weeks later, they let me go.
突然 一个甚至是“可能”都谈不上的事情变成现实了 
Something that wasn’t even a possibility became a reality.
到了哈佛
When I went there,
我以为其他人也都跟我一样把来这里读书当做一个荣耀 
I assumed everyone there would see it as a privilege as well,
他们到这里来肯定都特别兴奋 
that they’d be excited to be there.
即使你坐在一个满是比你聪明的人的教室里 
even in a classroom full of people smarter than you,
我觉得只是仅仅坐在那个教室就很快乐
you’d be happy just to be in that classroom which what I thought.
但是我发现虽然其他人也有类似体会 
But what I found is, it’s what some people experience that,
四年之后我从哈佛毕业 
when I graduated after my four years
然后在学生宿舍和他们住了八年 
and then spent the next eight years living in the dorms with the students —
这可是哈佛邀请我去的 我可不是那种八年毕不了业的人 
Harvard asked me to; I wasn’t that guy.
我作为哈佛的咨询师帮助学生们在四年大学时光进行心理咨询 
I was an officer to counsel students through the difficult four years.
在我的研究和教学中 
And in my research and my teaching,
我发现 无论这些学生入学之前取得的成功 
these students, no matter how happy they were
让他们多么快乐 
with their original success of getting into the school,
两周之后他们的注意力就不在作为一名哈佛学子的荣耀感了 
two weeks later their brains were focused, not on the privilege of being there,
也不在哲学或者物理学上面 
nor on their philosophy or physics,
他们的注意力集中在竞争 作业
the brain focuses on the competition, the workload,
各种烦恼 压力和抱怨上面
the hassles, stresses, complaints.
当我第一次开始工作的时候 我走进了新生食堂 
When I first went in there, I walked into the freshmen dining hall,
我的朋友来自德克萨斯州瓦克市 那也是我长大的地方
which is where my friends from Waco, Texas, which is where I grew up —
我知道你们可能有人听说过这个地方 
I know some of you heard of this.
他们参观的时候 会四处看看
When they’d visit, they’d look around,
他们说:“这个新生食堂看起来有点像 霍格瓦茨魔法学校的食堂。”
and say, “This dining hall looks like something out of Hogwart’s.”
确实 这边是霍格瓦茨魔法学校的食堂 那边是哈佛大学食堂
It does, because that was Hogwart’s and that’s Harvard.
当他们看到这些时
And when they see this,
他们说:“肖恩 你为什么浪费时间在哈佛研究快乐这个问题呢? 
they say, “Shawn, why do you waste your time studying happiness at Harvard?
哈佛大学的学生有什么 感到不快乐的理由么?”
Seriously, what does a Harvard student possibly have to be unhappy about?”
这个问题恰恰包含了 
Embedded within that question
理解快乐这门科学的关键 
is the key to understanding the science of happiness.
因为这个问题假设 
Because what that question assumes
通过外部条件是可以预测我们的快乐程度的 
is that our external world is predictive of our happiness levels,
但现实是如果我了解你所有的外部条件 
when in reality, if I know everything about your external world,
我只能预测你长期快乐程度的10%
I can only predict 10% of your long-term happiness.
剩下的90%都不是靠外部条件可以预测的 
90 percent of your long-term happiness is predicted not by the external world,
而是取决于你的大脑如何理解这个世界 
but by the way your brain processes the world.
如果我们做一点改变 
And if we change it,
改变我们关于快乐和成功的定义准则
if we change our formula for happiness and success,
我们需要改变 自己影响现实的方式 
what we can do is to change the way that we can then affect reality.
我们发现只有25%的职业成功 是由智商决定的
What we found is that only 25% of job successes are predicted by IQ,
其余75%工作的成功
75 percent of job successes
是由你的积极程度 人脉 
are predicted by your optimism levels, your social support
以及把压力视为挑战而不是威胁的能力决定的
and your ability to see stress as a challenge instead of as a threat.
我跟新英格兰一个寄宿学校谈起这个问题
I talked to a boarding school of New England.
这个学校应该是最著名的寄宿学校 
probably the most prestigious one,
他们说:“我们知道这个问题
and they said, “We already know that.
所以每年 我们不仅教学
So every year, instead of just teaching our students,
我们还有一周健康课 
we have a wellness week.
这个事情让我们都很兴奋
And we’re so excited.
周一晚上可能请来世界著名专家
Monday night we have the world’s leading expert
讲述青少年抑郁问题 
coming in to speak about adolescent depression.
周二晚上讲校园暴力和恃强欺弱问题 
Tuesday night it’s school violence and bullying.
周三晚上是饮食紊乱问题 
Wednesday night is eating disorders.
周四晚上是吸毒问题 
Thursday night is illicit drug use.
周五晚上我们正在讨论危险的性行为与快乐之间的抉择 
And Friday night we’re trying to decide between risky sex or happiness.”
我说:“大多数人周五晚都考虑这个”
I said, “That’s most people’s Friday nights.”
很高兴你们喜欢这个回答 但是他们似乎一点都不喜欢 
Which I’m glad you liked, but they did not like that at all.
电话里一阵沉默 
Silence on the phone.
为了打破沉默 我说:“我很乐意在贵校做演讲
And into the silence, I said, “I’d be happy to speak at your school,
但是你们也知道 这其实不是健康周 而是疾病周 
but just you know that’s not a wellness week, that’s a sickness week.
你们列出了可能发生的消极事情 
You’ve outlined all the negative things that can happen,
却没有提到积极的方面”
but not talked about the positive.”
没有疾病并不代表健康 
The absence of disease is not health.
我们应该这样获得健康: 
Here’s how we get to health:
我们需要重新定义健康和成功的概念 
We need to reverse the formula for happiness and success.
过去的三年里 我到过45个国家 
In the last three years, I’ve traveled to 45 countries,
和那里的学校 公司合作 在这个经济危机时期
working with schools and companies in the midst of an economic downturn.
我发现大部分公司和学校 
And what I found that most companies and schools
有这样一个成功的准则 就是:
follow a formula for success, which is this:
如果我更努力 我就会更成功 
If I work harder, I’ll be more successful.
如果我更成功 我就会更快乐 
And if I’m more successful, then I’ll be happier.
这符合我们大多数父母的教育方式 以及公司的管理方式 
That undergirds most of our parenting and managing styles,
也符合我们行为激励的原则
That was the way that we motivate our behavior.
但问题是从科学角度 这个观点是不成立 落后的有两点原因 
And the problem is scientifically broken and backwards for two reasons.
第一 每次你觉得成功的时候 
First, every time your brain has a success,
你就会对成功重新进行定义 
you just changed the goalpost of what success looked like.
比如你取得了好成绩 接下来你必须取得更好的成绩 
You got good grades, now you have to get better grades,
你进了一所好学校 之后你必须进入更好的学校 
you got into a good school and after you get into a better one,
你找到了一个好工作
you got a good job,
下一步你得找到一个更好的工作 
now you have to get a better job,
你达到了销售目标 下一步必须改变目标了
you hit your sales target, we’re going to change your sales target.
如果说快乐与成功对立
And if happiness is on the opposite side of success,
那你永远不会快乐
your brain never gets there.
我们所做的是
When we done,
把成功抬高到了社会的认知层面以外
we’ve pushed happiness over the cognitive horizon, as a society. 
这是因为我们觉得我们必须成功
And that’s because we think we have to be successful,
这样我们才会更开心
then we’ll be happier.
但真正的问题是我们的大脑却在相反的方向运行 
But the real problem is our brains work in the opposite order.
如果你现在可以提高某个人的积极心理程度 
If you can raise somebody’s level of positivity in the present,
那么他的大脑就会经历我们称为快乐优势论的过程 
then their brain experiences what we now call a happiness advantage,
这时你的大脑在积极方面的表现 明显优于
which is your brain at positive performs significantly better
它在消极 中立或者沮丧方面的表现 
than at negative, neutral or stressed.
你的智商 创造力 精力也提高了 
Your intelligence rises, your creativity rises, your energy levels rise.
事实上 我们发现 每件事的结果都改善了 
In fact, we’ve found that every single business outcome improves.
处于积极状态的大脑的生产力
Your brain at positive is 31% more productive
比处于消极 中立或者沮丧状态下高31% 
than your brain at negative, neutral or stressed.
你的销售额能提高37% 
You’re 37% better at sales.
医生得出正确诊断的速度和准确率
Doctors are 19 percent faster, more accurate
也提高了19%
at coming up with the correct diagnosis
当他的大脑处于积极状态而不是消极 中立或沮丧状态下 
when positive instead of negative, neutral or stressed.
这意味着我们可以彻底改变这个准则 
which means we can reverse the formula.
如果现在我们可以找到一种使自己变得积极的方法 
If we can find a way of becoming positive in the present,
那么大脑运转会更成功 
then our brains work even more successfully
我们会工作得更努力 更快速 更聪明
as we’re able to work harder, faster and more intelligently.
我们需要改变这个准则  
what we need to be able to reverse this formula
所以我们现在就来看看大脑究竟有多大能力 
so we can start to see what our brains are actually capable of.
当你有积极的心态时 多巴胺就会进入你的大脑系统 
Because dopamine, which floods into your system when you’re positive,
它有两个作用 
has two functions.
多巴胺不仅可以使你更快乐
Not only does it make you happier,
还可以打开大脑中所有的学习中心 
it turns on all of the learning centers in your brain
让你以另一种方式来适应这个世界
allowing you to adapt to the world in a different way.
我们发现你可以通过训练自己的大脑
We’ve found there are ways that you can train your brain
让自己更加积极 
to be able to become more positive.
在一个连续21天进行的每次持续两分钟的实验里 
In just a two-minute span of time done for 21 days in a row,
我们可以重新连接你的大脑线路 
we can actually rewire your brain,
使你的大脑可以变得 更积极 更成功 
allowing your brain to actually work more optimistically and more successfully.
在我合作过的每一个公司
We’ve done these things in research now
我们都在进行这样一个研究
in every company that I’ve worked with,
让他们写下三件他们要感谢的事情 
getting them to write down three new things that they’re grateful for
连续21天 每天三件新的事情 
for 21 days in a row, three new things each day.
这个实验结束的时候 
And at the end of that,
他们的大脑会形成一种模式 
their brain starts to retain a pattern
首先会以积极的心态看待这个世界
of scanning the world not for the negative,
而并非消极
but for the positive first.
回顾过去24小时你经历的一件积极的事情
Journaling about one positive experience you’ve had over the past 24 hours
会让你的大脑重新经历一遍那件事情 
allows your brain to relive it.
实践告诉人们你的行为是很重要的 
Exercise teaches your brain that your behavior matters.
我们发现冥想可以 
We find that meditation allows your brain
克服文化多动症 
to get over the cultural ADHD that we’ve been creating
这个多动症是由于我们同时做不同的事情造成的 
by trying to do multiple tasks at once
冥想可以让你的大脑集中精力在手头的一项工作中 
and allows our brains to focus on the task at hand.
最后 看似随机的善举其实是有意识的善举 
And finally, random acts of kindness are conscious acts of kindness.
当人们打开收件箱时  
We get people, when they open up their inbox,
我们让他们写一封积极的邮件 
to write one positive email
表扬或者感谢他们社交网中的某个人
praising or thanking somebody in their support network.
通过这些行为 
And by doing these activities
就像训练身体一样训练大脑
and by training your brain just like we train our bodies,
我们可以彻底改变快乐和成功的准则 
what we’ve found is we can reverse the formula for happiness and success,
通过这些事情 不仅可以创造出积极的影响力 
and in doing so, not only create ripples of positivity,
还可以创造一个真正的革命
but create a real revolution.
非常感谢大家
Thank you very much.

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视频概述

幸福感,积极的心态会让我们获得成功,但是研究幸福感,并不应该局限于数值自己平均水平研究。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

喋喋

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fLJsdqxnZb0

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