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《使女的故事》:如何使用近焦摄影 – 译学馆
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《使女的故事》:如何使用近焦摄影

The Handmaid's Tale: How To Use Shallow Focus

约在2008年
Since around 2008,
业余导演和摄像师手中的数码单反相机
when the DSLR revolution put full frame sensors in the hands
掀起了内置全画幅传感器的革新
of amateur film makers and videographers
超近景摄影技术
Super shallow depth of field
在独立制片领域已变得普及
has become something of a cliche in indie filmmaking
对于我和其他很多导演来说
For a lot of film makers, myself included
其效果不止作为一个制作手段
This effect was used not just as a tool
而是作为技术支撑制成影片并呈现给观众
but as a crutch to achieve that cinematic look.
这段时间超近焦摄影随处可见
These days super shallow focus is everywhere.
与其说它是技术 不如说它是时尚
It’s a fashion more than a technique.
可见该技术制作的场景真的很酷
So, it’s really really cool to see an episodic show,
《使女的故事》
like the Handmaid’s Tale,
吸收该技术效果并贯穿整个影片
incorporate the effect in a systematic way,
将其作为其可视化语言的主题
as a motif of its visual language.
片子前两集的导演
The director of the first two episodes of the show,
即为影片定基调的里德·莫拉诺
the director who set the tone is Reed Morano,
是一个前卫的摄影师
a former cinematographer.
她和该片摄影指导沃特金森
She and her own DP for this project calling Watkinson
创造了一个极度浓缩的狂热场景
created an extremely concentrated ecstatic,
该场景兼具美好与可怕的视觉效果
one that is beautiful and terrifying at the same time.
她们拍的基列反乌托邦世界
They captured the dystopian world of Gilead,
意味着选择了正确的相机和镜头
meant choosing the right camera and the right lenses.
莫拉诺使用爱丽莎4k迷你摄影机拍摄
Morano shot on the Arri-Alexa minis in 4k
并将镜头完全打开
and use lenses that open all the way up to apertures
直到光圈为1.3或1.4 这意味着
of 1.3 and 1.4, which means
景深会变得更浅
your depth of field is going to be raisor thin,
而范围外景象则失去表现力
and everything outside of that field is going to be blown out
甚至一片模糊
and pretty uniform blur.
近焦摄影在故事中以三种方式服务
And the shallow focus serves the story in three ways.
第一 它们用来拍主角的故事线
First,They capture the main characters’ point of view.
伊丽莎白·莫斯演的奥芙瑞德是基列
Offred played by Elisabeth Moss is a handmaid
共和国女仆
in the republic of Gilead,
一个神权和极权超越美国的国家
a theocratic and totalitarian state that has overtaken America
那里的女人没有任何权利
in which women no longer have any rights.
这些女仆是仅存的可以生育的女人
Handmaids are the last women who can still have children,
而社会中其余多数女人无法生育
the rest of society being largely sterile.
女仆们被迫为政权领导人生孩子
And they’re forced to bear children for leaders of the regime.
但并非始终如此
But it wasn’t always like this.
在不幸遭遇前 奥芙瑞德生活于当代美国
Before the revolution, Offred lived in the America of our time.
《使女的故事》讲述了
And the story of The Handmaid’s Tale is
从美国到基列所发生的罕见的故事
rarely the story of the transition between America and Gilead.
奥芙瑞德的经历贯穿其间
told through the experience of Offred.
其故事至今令人发指
Today I listen to that horror.
里德和沃特金森在人物的脸上聚焦
Reed and Watkinson focus on the face
仅靠一个特写镜头来拍摄
It’s hard to remember a show that relies so much
令人很难想起这是表演
on one extreme close-up.
她们用相机在距伊丽莎白·莫斯鼻尖
But Elisabeth Moss is definitely up to the task,
几英寸位置拍摄 她出色完成了任务
with a camera mere inches from her nose.
导演将宽20毫米的蔡司镜头结合起来
The filmmakers combine a wide 20 milimetre Zeiss lens
用于拍摄这些场景
used only for these shots,
并使用近景创造紧张的激情场面
with a shallow depth of field to create intense intimacy.
女主演戴着帽子 就像是
With her bonnet on, it’s almost as if
把自己藏在镜头之下
were under a blanket with the character.
从近景到特写是卓有成效的手法
The shallow depth of field extreme close-ups are an effective way
使观众对奥芙瑞德印象深刻
to get the audience to identify with Offred.
同时 也点出一个重要主题
But, they also point to an important theme
作为新宗教极权国家的奴隶
that as a slave in the new therotorian state
你的肉体被他人掌控
where your physical being is effectively controlled by someone else,
精神是你仅有的力量
your only agency is mental.
你必须做自己思想的主人
The mind is where you have to retreat
来掌握命运 并始终铭记这一点
to escape the plan, and to remember.
这只是拍摄计划的部分内容
It’s only a thin plan of focus,
但仍会给你深刻印象
but it’s still yours.
第二 近焦摄影常用于
Second, shallow focus is used to help
帮助构建基列世界
create the world of Gilead.
不同于影视常见的反乌托邦
Unlike many distopias you see in film and TV,
基列并非充满瓦砾和废墟的现实
Gilead is not a post of park of political world
政治世界的影射
of rubble and ruin
它完全不同
It’s actually the opposite.
精剪新英格兰充满阳光和绿植的画面
Meticulously manicure new England full of sunlight and green foliage.
里德和沃特金森在库布里克
Reed and Watkinson site Kubric as an inspiration,
拍摄是个灵感 她们参考很多以前的取景
and they echo a lot of his one point perspective framings,
并拍摄了其中可怕的场景
and definitely captured the creepiest of that.
不过对基列女人来说这世界发生了什么事
But for the women of Gilead, what’s notable about this world
她们知道甚少
is how little they know about it.
想想你可以从网络得到所有信息
Think of all the knowledge that’s accessible to you through the internet
而基列的女人不但被禁止上网
In Gilead women are not only prohibited from going online.
甚至不允许她们阅读任何刊物
They are prohibited from reading anything.
由此对拍摄的影响是表现视野非常有限
Result is a perspective that’s extraordinarily narrowed.
近景摄影在此方面效果堪称完美
The shallow depth of field captures this perfectly,
因为它实际上缩小了焦点的视觉信息
because it literally narrows the visual information in focus.
《使女的故事》集合了很多事件
The Handmaid’s Tale is constructed in fragments.
你能看到美国 能看到基列
You have America and you have Gilead,
穿插于两地的场景没有连贯感
and the show give you the pieces in between the two.
不过 并非始终如此
But, never the full timeline.
重要的是该剧的主要情节
This is important because the show’s primary characters
并不是按顺序时间来叙述
don’t have the full timeline themselves.
这个残忍的新世界
This brutal new world,
至少应尽可能将它呈现出来
or at least the conditions that make it possible
使人了解它
snock up on them.
我必须带你走什么?
-I have to let you go. -What?
尽管虚无世界非主导
But that doesn’t mean a king out of nowhere
但与现实存在关联
but they are somehow connected.
例如 即使里德和沃特金森为倒叙
For example, even though Reed and Watkinson adopt
采用了很多不同方式来表现细节
a more handheld variety style for the flashbacks.
而近景拍摄仍是主要的
The shallow focus remains.
我认为她们只是想说明
and they do this I think just to suggest that
这两个世界面临的问题和透视手法的局限
both worlds suffer from problems of limited perspective.
在基列 由塑造压迫的氛围 使用有限的透视
In Gilead, perspective is limited by force.
而在我们的世界 视角的选择是有限的
But in our world, perspective is limited by choice.
我们低头注视着屏幕
We keep our heads down, eyes glued to our screens,
任世界充满污浊仍徜徉在“回音室”里
stuck in our echo chambers while the blurry world around us.
改变是影片带回的一个重要信息
Changes, it brings home a vital message
即这个世界无法保证我们的权利
that our rights are not guaranteed by the world.
我们要战斗
we fight for them,
必须时刻保卫自己的权利
and have to protect them everyday, because
如果我们不放眼看外面的世界
they can be taken away from us,
就可能失去我们的权利
if we don’t pay attention to the world beyond our focus.
每个人都喜欢近焦摄影的效果
Everyone likes shallow depth of field.
近焦很美 因为美 每个人都使用它拍摄
It’s beautiful. And because it’s beautiful, everyone uses it
从而使影片更好看
to make their work look better
更专业 更具电影感
more professional, more cinematic.
因此我们常常看到近焦摄影
And as a result, we get used to seeing it.
当我看到《女仆的故事》
When I watched the Handmaid’s Tale,
我惊讶于它是如何通过景深感染了我
I was amazed at how much the depth of field influenced my feelings
无论是对于角色 世界 还是故事
about the characters and the world, and the story.
这种情况是罕见的 你看到这些设备
It’s just rare that you see these devices used with
用于类似的拍摄意图竟如此系统和有效
such purpose, so methodically, and so effectively.
它真的很有效
And it really is effective.
如果你不相信我
If you don’t believe me,
请去看几集《女仆的故事》
been to watch a few episodes of the Handmaid’s Tale
现在去看吧
Then, go outside.
我保证你对电影会产生新的敬意
I guarantee you’ll have a new film respect
敬佩它是如何呈现出来的
for how much there is to see.

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译制信息
视频概述

该视频讲述了近焦摄影对于拍摄《使女的故事》强大的表现力和感染力

听录译者

茂盛大侠

翻译译者

摩鲤鱼

审核员

审核团GK

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cY4aCnfrqss

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