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光环效应:高颜值人群的超能力

The Halo Effect: The Superpower of Beautiful People

What do you think?
你怎么看?
Would this man make a good doctor?
这位男士会是个好医生吗?
What about him?
这位呢?
Would you trust him with your surgery?
你会放心他给你做手术吗?
Most people would probably want to get treated
大多数人可能都会想让左边
by one, rather than the other.
而非右边这位给自己看病
And most people are likely to be wrong about that.
但这些多数人可能想错了
When you look at the sun, you sometimes see it clearly.
朝着太阳看 有时候你能看清
But sometimes you’ll see it shining
但有时候你看到发光的太阳
way bigger than its actual shape.
要比它的实际形状大得多
That circle of light that makes it look bigger is called a halo.
让太阳看起来更大的那圈光叫光环
The halo effect also happens when a person, product,
一个人 产品或公司像太阳那样发光时
or company shines like the sun.
光环效应也会发生
Then we don’t see them clearly
这时我们就看不清他们了
and associate all sorts of unrelated qualities to them.
还会把一些不相关的品质联系到他们身上
The halo effect was first identified in 1907
光环效应最初是在1907年
by the American psychologist Frederick Wells
由美国心理学家弗雷德里克·韦尔斯发现
and was then studied by the psychologist Edward Thorndike,
心理学家爱德华·桑代克随后研究了这一效应
who asked flight commanders to
他让飞行指挥官们
evaluate their officers in various distinct aspects
从几个不同方面评价他们的手下
such as physical appearance, intelligence, and leadership
比如外貌 智商和领导能力
Examining the results, Thorndike found that
仔细看结果 桑代克发现
the officers that got high scores for their physical qualities,
外形条件得分高的军官
also got rated high on intelligence and leadership skills
在智商和领导技巧上得分也很高
– a correlation that seemed wrong.
这种关联看起来不太对劲
It appears that the commanders were unable to
似乎指挥官没法
evaluate specific traits independently of others.
对别人的每个特点做出独立的评判
They thought of their officers in broad terms: either “good” or “bad”,
他们对军官的评价非常宽泛:好或不好
and allowed this general feeling
并任由这种总体感觉
to influence the specific qualities they attributed to them.
影响他们认为军官所具有的特定品质
Some officers profited from their halo.
有些军官沾了光环效应的光
Others were put at a disadvantage by what is called the horn effect.
而其他的则吃了尖角效应的亏
The halo effect also explains
光环效应也解释了为什么
why some teachers give better looking students higher grades
一些老师会给长得更好的同学更高的分数
One study looked at the grades of 4,500 pupils,
一项研究以4500名学生的成绩为对象
who were sorted by volunteers into three groups:
志愿者们把这些学生分为三组:
below-average, average, and above-average looking.
低颜值 中等颜值和高颜值
Did the better looking people get better grades?
学生颜值越高 分数就越高吗?
The researchers then compared students’ grades
接着研究者们比较了
between classes taken in traditional classrooms
在传统教室里上课
with those taken online
和几乎没有面对面交流
where there was little to no face-to-face interaction.
上网课学生们的成绩
The researchers later found evidence that
研究者们之后发现了证据
students who were rated as good looking,
证明那些高颜值组的学生
earned significantly lower grades in online courses
上网课的分数显著低于
compared to traditional classrooms
他们在有光环效应加持的
where they got help from their halo.
传统教室里上课的分数
Since the physical attributes of good looking people
既然长得好看的人拥有的外貌特征
seem to naturally make them also appear intelligent,
似乎自然让他们看起来
strong, and trustworthy,
聪明 强壮且值得信赖
here is one good rule of thumb.
这里就有一条实用经验
If you have an accident
如果你受了点伤
and you have to choose between two equally qualified doctors,
要在两位同样称职的医生中选一位
ignore their halo and choose the less handsome one.
别管光环 选那个丑一点的
He might have worked twice as hard
他可能付出了两倍努力
to gain the same reputation
才赢得和另一位一样的口碑
and is likely better at his job.
他的工作可能做得更好
What do you think?
你怎么看?
Do you think it is possible to avoid the halo effect
你觉得在工作 学校或公共生活中
at work, in school or in public life?
可不可能避免光环效应?
And what about other credentials that may signal success?
其他可能证明成功的因素能不能避免呢?
Please share your thoughts and ideas in the comments below.
请在下方评论区留下你的看法
This and all other Sprouts’ videos
本期视频和其他《铅绘心理》的视频
are licensed under the Creative Commons.
都在知识共享许可协议里
That means teachers from all around the world can use them in classrooms,
也就是说全世界的老师都能在
online courses or to start projects
课堂 网课中或开启研究时使用这些视频
– and today, thousands already do!
现在已经有几千名老师用上了!
To learn how it works and download this video
想知道如何使用及下载去广告
without Ads or background music,
或背景音的视频
check out our website or read the description below.
请查看我们的网站或阅读下方介绍
If you want to support our mission and help change education
如果你想支持我们的事业 为改变教育出力
visit our Patreon – that’s patreon.com/sprouts.
可以访问我们的Patreon网站 网址是patreon.com/sprouts

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视频概述

什么是光环效应?在生活中光环效应会有什么影响呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

KJQWXYZC

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kpjeMaOirvg

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