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史上最伟大的演讲 – 译学馆
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史上最伟大的演讲

The Greatest Speech of all Time?

雅典人每年都会聚集一起
Every year the Athenians gathered,
为战争中死去的人
to have a massive public funeral
举行一次大型的公开的葬礼
for all the dead who died in war.
雅典是个古老的征战帝国
And the Athenians as an imperial state and an ancient warrior state
几乎不断在作战
were engaged in warfare almost all the time.
所以总会有需要去祭奠一些战士
So there were almost always a few soldiers who had to be commemorated.
但在公元前431年
But in 431, which is the year that the
伯罗奔尼撒战争爆发
Peloponnesian War first broke out,
这场战争涉及人数巨大
there were of course far more people,
很多的年轻男性战死
far more young men had been killed.
事实上他们大多数是在希腊北部和岛上战死的
Most of them actually in northern Greece and around the islands
这场战争持续了很多年
than had for many many years.
所以事实上伯里克利被邀请
So Pericles was actually asked
不是因为他的将军身份
not because he was general,
而是因为他被认为拥有这个城市最动听的声音
but because he was regarded as having the most beautiful voice in the city.
由伯里克利来发表年度演讲
To deliver the annual speech
纪念在战争中死去的人
in honor of the war dead.
这是一年当中特别感人的一个活动
An extraordinarily moving occasion in the civic calendar, because
因为很多在这场战争中死去的人实际上
of course many of the war dead were never going
都没法被带回来 什么都没有
to be brought back in any form at all.
所以有很多空棺材 为了举行仪式放在现场
There were empty coffins, which were ceremonially placed there,
这样即使尸体没被带回来 人们仍然会铭记他们的牺牲
so that people could remember their dead even if they hadn’t been brought back.
而被带回来的 也只剩骨头了
Others were brought back just as bones.
伯里克利发表了演讲 很幸运的是
And he gave his speech and we are so fortunate
雅典著名历史学家修昔德底斯
because Thucydides, the great Athenian historian
是伯里克利的朋友
who was certainly a friend of Pericles
几乎可以肯定他当时就在演讲现场
and was almost certainly actually there
他见证了这场盛会 还记录了演讲的内容
and an eyewitness to this extraordinary occasion, recorded the speech.
这场演讲非常庄严 高尚 大气磅礴
Another thing to remember about this extraordinary speech, which is very very solemn,
但值得一提的是
very very elevated, full of grandeur.
伯里克利避免了那种
Is that Pericles avoided really blatant,
华丽的词藻和极端爱国主义论调
nationalistic or jingoistic rhetoric
不像我们在其他葬礼上听到的那种
of the kind that we have in some other funeral speeches
古代延续下来的演讲风格
that we have from antiquity.
反之 他描绘了一副画面
And instead painted a picture
呈现他所看到的
of what he saw the glories of
希腊民主制度的繁荣 这也正是烈士们誓死捍卫的
the Athenian democratic system, that these men had died to defend.
这场演讲是一年之中 唯一一个
It’s the only occasion in the entire civic annual calendar,
除了男性公民外 所有女性也都参加的活动
where not only the citizen men, but all the women attended to.
包括妇女 孤儿
The women, the orphaned children,
寡居的老妇人
the bereaved old ladies and indeed
以及居住在雅典的外国人
the resident foreigners.
所以这是在一年之中里唯一一件
So this was the one occasion in the civic
所有雅典人都被号召到一起的事情
calendar where all of Athens was addressed together and
我们知道 妇女们也听着
we know that women are listening.
伯里克利的演讲里包含一些很著名的句子
Pericles’ own speech contained very famous lines
你可能听过这些话 却不知道它出自伯里克利的演讲
that you may have heard even though you don’t know they came from Pericles’ speech
并且由修昔得底斯记录下来 比如
as recorded by Thucydides, like:
不要问国家可以为你做什么
Ask not, what your country can do for you,
问问你自己可以为国家做什么
Ask what you can do for your country.”
其中还有许多其他佳句
And many other beautiful lines in it
让它非常有影响力
made it so influential that actually
事实上林肯在葛底斯堡演说中就套用了伯利克利演讲的描述
Lincoln modelled part of the Gettysburg Address on Pericles’ funeral speech.
巴拉克·奥巴马在他的就职演讲
And there are resonances of it in Barack Obama’s inauguration speech
和上任总统前后所发表的其他演讲中也化用过一些句子
and in other speeches he gave around the time when he began his presidency.

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视频概述

古希腊伯里克利进行的公共葬礼演讲简介。"不要问国家能为你做什么,问问你能为祖国做什么"

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bl1WoNkMxTM

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