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那些你未曾遇见的太平洋垃圾

The Great Pacific Garbage Patch Is Not What You Think It Is | The Swim

He looks like the captain of this garbage boat.
它看起来就像这艘垃圾船的船长
Scenes like this are a daily reality
在太平洋上航行的探索号船员
for the crew of seeker on their Pacific trek.
每天都能看到这样的景象
Some estimates hold that by 2050,
一些预测表示 到2050年
there could be as much plastic
海洋中的塑料垃圾数量
as there are fish in the ocean.
将会和太平洋里鱼的数量一样多
Every day we see the plastic
我们每天都会看到塑料
I’m already worried
我现在非常担心
That is why I want to show what is happening
这就是我想向人们展示太平洋现状的原因

We got back with this net
我们带回了这张网
So it’s not only one net, it’s many nets that are tangled together.
它不止是一张网 而是由许多张网缠在一起组成的
Also some other very interesting items, like this toothbrush
还有许多其他有趣的东西
was trapped in the net.
就像这个被缠在网里的牙刷
But what is all this junk, exactly?
但这堆垃圾究竟是什么?
Where dose it come from?
它来自何处?
And is it really concentrated in a giant garbage patch somewhere out there?
它真的聚集在一个巨大的垃圾带里吗?
Marcus Erickson is an environmental scientist
Marcus Erickson是一位环境科学家
who has made it his life’s mission to
他一生致力于解决
solve the problem of marine plastic.
海洋垃圾问题
It’s a global issue,
这是个全球性的问题
because plastic accumulates in gyres,
因为塑料会积存于
large circular currents
流经世界各个海洋的
that thread through the world’s oceans
大型洋流循环系统中
What’s leaving land heading out to sea
从陆地漂到海里的垃圾
is all the single-use packaging
全都是一次性包装材料
It’s the straws, the bags, the bottles,
诸如吸管 塑料袋 塑料瓶
the cup lids, the stir sticks,
以及瓶盖 搅拌棒等
all this junk that we use once and throw away.
这些垃圾都是我们用过一次就丢掉的东西
A plastic bottle leaving California
一个塑料瓶从加利福尼亚漂走
will get to Japan in about three to five years
会在三到五年的时间里到达日本
and come back across the northern half of the North Pacific.
然后横跨北太平洋的北半部流回来
That spinning mass of water is a gyre.
这股呈螺旋状的水流就是环流
Plastic trash will migrate to those zones and get stuck.
塑料垃圾会漂流到这些区域 并堆积下来
We actually take boats out in the middle of nowhere,
我们在船后面系上一只网
we drag our net behind the boat
然后坐船来到海洋深处
and we count the plastic particles that are floating.
统计漂浮在海面上的塑料垃圾
Working with ocean modelers,
通过与海洋建模人员合作
we can get these regional maps of how much trash is out there,
我们可以分析出这部分区域有多少垃圾
what it is and where it is.
主要是什么垃圾以及它们的位置
But answering even these basic questions about marine debris
但即使是这些海洋垃圾的基本问题
has proven to be surprisingly challenging.
要得到答案也是非常有难度的
In fact, everything we know about the proverbial
事实上 我们了解到的所有关于
“great Pacific garbage patch” started in 1990,
“大太平洋垃圾带”的信息始于1990年
when a container ship spilled 61,000 sneakers into the ocean.
当时一艘货船上的61000双运动鞋丢进了海里
Realize that a lot of these sneakers would never come to shore
大多数鞋子再也不会返回岸上
and they would just be stuck in this vortex,
而是困在洋流中
Curtis Ebbesmeyer, working with James Ingraham Jr. at NOAA,
美国国家海洋和大气管理局的Curtis Ebbesmeyer和James Ingraham Jr.
they’re the ones that came up with the term Great Pacific Garbage Patch
共同提出了“大太平洋垃圾带”这一术语
Captain Charles Moore is often credited
人们认为Charles Moore船长
with the first observations of the patch,
是第一个观察到大太平洋垃圾带的人
a constellation of microplastic particles
它由大量塑料组成
that captured the public’s imagination.
这一发现引起了人们的关注
Captain Charles Moore had described the area
Charles Moore船长这样描述该区域
he said: “Look, I’m in an area roughly twice the size of Texas
他说:“在我做截面调查的地方发现的垃圾带
where I’m doing my transects.”
几乎是德克萨斯州的两倍大”
and that hit the media by storm.
这一言论轰动了媒体界
There aren’t these islands of trash; they don’t exist.
世界上没有垃圾岛 它们根本不存在
It’s more like a smog of microplastic particles,
它更像一片微塑性颗粒组成的烟雾
billions of them, very toxic over a wide area.
数以亿计 毒害一方
Even when they become brittle and break apart,
即使在其变脆后破碎
plastic pieces persist.
塑料颗粒仍然存在
Unable to oxidize or become
既不能被氧化
waterlogged like metals, wood or paper,
也不会像金属 木头或纸一样被水侵蚀
all types of plastic are designed to defeat natural decay.
所有种类的塑料都有抗天然腐蚀性
In general, high density polyethylene, number two plastic,
总的来说 高密度的聚乙烯即2号塑料
is the most common plastic in consumer use,
是消费者使用的最常见的塑料
and it makes your soap bottles, it makes your toothbrushes,
它可以用来制作洗发水瓶 牙刷
it makes many of the consumer goods
以及许多其他消费品
that float out in the garbage patch.
这些产品最终都会漂进垃圾带里
If we think in terms of all the plastic
如果我们考虑
that’s been produced since 1950,
自1950年以来生产的所有塑料
since it’s a synthetic material, hydrocarbons,
因为它是一种合成材料 碳氢化合物
it’s probably still here today on the planet.
所以如今可能仍然还在地球上
Dr Sarah-Jeanne Royer works with Dr. Nikolai Maximenko
Sarah-Jeanne Royer博士和Nikolai Maximenko博士
and his team at the University of Hawaii
以及他在夏威夷大学的团队
to tackle the problem of tracking trash.
一起解决追踪垃圾的问题
Most of the time
大多数时候
we find only bottle caps and not the bottle itself
我们只能找到瓶盖 却找不到瓶身
because the bottle is made out of PET.
因为瓶身是用PET制成
And it’s sinking because the density
又因为PET的密度要比海水密度大
of PET is higher than seawater.
所以瓶身会沉入海底
Despite the dramatic amount of plastic
尽管探索号的船员们
the crew of seeker has encountered,
已经发现了大量的塑料垃圾
some estimates hold that 99% of
一些预测显示
ocean-bound plastic waste is still unaccounted for.
仍有99%的海洋塑料垃圾未被发现
That’s why Sarah’s team is working with the Swim Expedition
所以Sarah的团队和游泳探险队
and the Ocean Voyages Institute
以及海洋航行研究所共同合作
to tag and track the waste they find.
对找到的垃圾进行标记和追踪
Sarah-Jeanne Royer: The Swim are using two different protocols,
游泳探险队采取了两种不同的方案
and the first protocol is a visual survey
第一种是目测法
of all marine debris they see from the vessel itself.
即观察从船上可以看到的所有海洋垃圾
Whenever they find an object that is large enough,
只要他们发现了足够大的垃圾
they will get closer to the debris,
就会靠近它
they will take pictures of it.
然后对其进行拍照
If there are numbers or lettering,
如果垃圾上有数字或文字
they will share this information with us,
他们就会分享这些信息给我们
so we can track back the origin of that debris.
我们就可以追溯那些垃圾的来源
The second protocol is basically to
第二种方法基本上就是
attach a GPS buoy onto a marine debris
在垃圾上安装一个GPS浮标
to track their movement in the ocean.
追踪它们在海洋中的漂流轨迹
We go to the net and tag it
我们游到网边 安装追踪器
And then we take out of this, and this activates the tracker
然后我们把这个拿出来 它可以激活追踪器
Once the tracker is activated,
一旦追踪器被激活
it enables scientists to both improve models
它就可以帮助科学家们
of how trash travels in the ocean,
改进垃圾漂流路线模型
and learn where to focus cleanup efforts.
并且发现需要集中进行清理的地方
Most of the time, Sarah and her team
大多数时候 Sarah和她的团队
can’t immediately tell where a piece of plastic comes from.
并不能立刻判断出塑料的来源
But they can look for other clues.
但是他们可以寻找其他线索
Sarah-Jeanne Royer: We need to use an FTIR
我们需要借助FTIR
or Micro-Raman spectroscopy.
或者显微拉曼光谱
This spectrum is matching a spectrum that is found
这种光谱如果和数据库中的某种光谱匹配
in the library telling us what is the type of plastic.
我们就能知道对应塑料的类型
It’s probably the dream of all scientists
拥有一台卫星或新型设备
to have a satellite and a new instrumentation
来计算海洋中漂浮的塑料垃圾的数量
to be able to quantify the amount of plastic floating at sea.
大概是所有科学家的梦想
The entire life cycle of plastic is poisonous.
塑料的整个生命周期都是有害的
Its manufacturing process depends on harmful chemicals,
塑料的生产过程会有有害化学物介入
and when released into the environment,
在排放到外界中后
it soaks up even more toxins,
它会吸收更多的毒素
and transports them far and wide,
并且大范围地传播
including into our bodies.
同时也会进入我们的身体中
Plastic can choke the ocean’s ability to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere,
塑料制品会抑制海水从大气中吸收二氧化碳的能力
exacerbating climate change.
加剧气候变化
Only 10% of the habitat is on land.
陆地上只有10%的生物
The rest, 90% of the habitat’s in the ocean,
剩下90%的生物都生活在海洋中
and it’s totally unexplored for the most part.
而且大部分生物还没被发现
Imagining all the jungles, all the deserts,
想象一下 所有的丛林 沙漠
all the savannas, all the rocky mountains,
所有的热带草原和落基山脉有多大
the ocean would be nine times more.
而海洋面积是它们面积的九倍多
The idea that somehow it could be 50 percent plastic,
有一种说法是 大约30年之后
50 percent fish in a mere 30 years
海洋就会一半是鱼 一半是塑料
is horrifying.
这多么可怕
The ocean is in peril right now
如今的海洋前景堪忧
and if we don’t do something that
如果我们在接下来的几年里
is going to reverse that in the next few years
对这种处境袖手旁观
then it’s going to be much more difficult
那么海洋环境将变得更加糟糕
But the situation is far from hopeless.
但目前的状况并非没有希望
Organizations are developing innovative solutions to clean up ocean plastic.
各个组织都在为处理海洋垃圾研发新的解决方案
Materials scientists are turning their attention
材料学家们将注意力转移到
to new packaging solutions.
新型包装材料的研发上
And consumers are making more informed choices everyday.
消费者们每一天都在做出更加正确的选择
Sarah-Jeanne Royer: How can we use our science
我们怎样用科学
to influence laws and policymakers?
来影响法律和政策制定者呢?
When you refuse the single-use plastics,
在你拒绝使用一次性塑料制品时
it has an effect on your neighborhood,
对你所处的社区
on your local watershed, and the ocean.
对当地的水域和海洋都会产生影响
Now, seeing the UN talking about it,
现在 看到联合国讨论这件事
seeing companies rise up
看到越来越多的公司站出来
and say: “We’re going zero waste.”
并承诺 “我们要做到零污染”
To see countries make a commitment to stop the flow
看到各个国家做出承诺
of trash from land to sea,
禁止塑料垃圾流入海洋
I feel optimistic that we can solve this problem.
我认为我们可以战胜这个问题
你做了哪些减少塑料使用的事情?来告诉我们吧 #加入THE SWIM
Be sure to visit seeker.com/theswim
欢迎访问seeker.com/theswim
to read daily updates from Ben Lecomte,
查看Ben Lecomte的每日更新
and watch more videos about the science
想要观看更多有关科学的视频
Click here for this next episode,
点击这里观看下一集
and don’t forget to subscribe.
别忘了订阅
Thanks for watching.
感谢您的收看

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视频概述

我们每天与塑料接触,可当你望向无边的大海时,你能想象海洋里的塑料垃圾数量有多惊人吗?大海接纳了我们,我们却把它当成了垃圾场

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Yi

审核员

审核员FW

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6HBtl4sHTqU

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