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针对尤利乌斯·恺撒的阴谋 – 译学馆
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针对尤利乌斯·恺撒的阴谋

The great conspiracy against Julius Caesar - Kathryn Tempest

如果你认为你的国家正在走向暴政
What would you do if you thought your country was
你会怎么做?
on the path to tyranny?
假如你看到一个人太过专权
If you saw one man gaining too much power,
你会尝试阻止他吗?
would you try to stop him?
即使他曾是你最亲近的朋友和盟友之一?
Even if that man was one of your closest friends and allies?
这些都是公元前44年困扰罗马议员
These were the questions haunting Roman
马可斯•尤尼乌斯•布鲁图斯的问题
Senator Marcus Junius Brutus in 44 BCE,
也正在这一年尤利乌斯•凯撒遭刺杀身亡
the year Julius Caesar would be assassinated.
对布鲁图斯来说 反对不受监督的权力 不仅是政治问题
Opposing unchecked power wasn’t just a political matter for Brutus;
也是自己的责任
it was a personal one.
他曾质疑卢修斯•朱厄尼斯•布鲁特斯的血统
He claimed descent from Lucius Junius Brutus,
后者曾助力推翻残暴的“傲慢王塔克文”
who had helped overthrow the tyrannical king known as Tarquin the Proud.
年长的布鲁特斯并没有自己掌权
Instead of seizing power himself,
而是引导人民许下了激动人心的誓言——
the elder Brutus led the people in a rousing oath
再也不要让一个国王来统治国家
to never again allow a king to rule.
基于个人不该手握大权的原则
Rome became a republic
罗马成为了一个共和国
based on the principle that no one man should hold too much power. Now,
而4个半世纪之后 这一原则却受到了威胁
four and a half centuries later, this principle was threatened.
尤利乌斯•凯撒迅速崛起 成为执政官
Julius Ceasar’s rise to the powerful position of consul
手握重权
had been dramatic.
数年的军事胜利已使他成为罗马最富有的人
Years of military triumphs had made him the wealthiest man in Rome.
在一次激烈的内战中
And after defeating his rival Pompey the Great
打败庞培大帝后
in a bitter civil war,
他的权力达到了巅峰
his power was at its peak.
他取得的胜利和实行的政策 比如将土地分给穷人
His victories and initiatives, such as distributing lands to the poor,
使他深受民众拥戴
had made him popular with the public,
许多议员通过给予他大量的荣耀 以期受其青睐
and many senators vied for his favor by showering him with honors.
雕塑被竖起来了 供奉他的庙宇也建起来了
Statues were built, temples were dedicated,
一个月也被重新命名 直到今天仍被称作7月
and a whole month was renamed, still called July today.
更重要的是 “独裁者”这一头衔
More importantly, the title of dictator,
即 可以在战乱时期便宜行事的权力
meant to grant temporary emergency powers in wartime,
早已在他的连任中被授予了数次
had been bestowed upon Caesar several times in succession.
公元前44年 他被奉为“永久的独裁者”
And in 44 BCE, he was made dictator perpetuo,
——即本质上没有期限的独裁者
dictator for a potentially unlimited term.
对害怕罗马倒退回
All of this was too much for the senators
其先辈曾努力废除的
who feared a return to the
君主专制的议员
monarchy their ancestors had fought to abolish,
包括自身权力 抱负受凯撒的统治阻挠的人来说
as well as those whose own power and ambition
所有这一切都太过分了
were impeded by Caesar’s rule.
于是一批自称解放者的反叛者们
A group of conspirators calling themselves the liberators
开始秘密策划刺杀计划
began to secretly discuss plans for assassination.
带头人就是议员加伊乌斯•凯瑟斯•朗基努斯
Leading them were the senator Gaius Cassius Longinus
和他的朋友即内弟——布鲁图斯
and his friend and brother-in-law, Brutus.
加入密谋计划对布鲁图斯来说并非易事
Joining the conspiracy was not an easy choice for Brutus.
虽然在那注定失败的内战中
Even though Brutus had sided with Pompey
他站在庞培一边
in the ill-fated civil war,
凯撒还是直接介入救了他的性命
Caesar had personally intervened to save his life,
不仅宽恕了他的反叛 甚至还
not only pardoning him but even accepting him
接纳他为亲密的顾问
as a close advisor
并提升他任职重要岗位
and elevating him to important posts.
密谋杀害曾待自己如儿子的人
Brutus was hesitant to conspire
布鲁图斯一开始很犹豫
against the man who had treated him like a son,
但最终
but in the end,
凯瑟斯的坚持和布鲁图斯自身对凯撒意志的恐惧获得了胜利
Cassius’s insistence and Brutus’s own fear of Caesar’s ambitions won out.
他们一直等待的时刻在3月15日这天到来
The moment they had been waiting forcame on March 15.
凯撒刚结束一个元老院会议
At a senate meeting
正准备离开
held shortly before Caesar was to depart
去参加下一个军事活动
on his next military campaign,
60多位反叛者围住他
as many as 60 conspirators surrounded him,
抽出宽外袍下刀鞘中的匕首 从四面八方刺向他
unsheathing daggers from their togas and stabbing at him from all sides.
正如故事中所说的那样 凯撒奋力挣扎 直到看见布鲁图斯
As the story goes, Caesar struggled fiercely until he saw Brutus.
尽管莎士比亚写过“那你呢 布鲁图?”的著名台词
Despite the famous line,”Et tu, Brute?”written by Shakespeare,
但我们并不知道凯撒临终前究竟说了什么
we don’t know Caesar’s actual dying words.
一些古老的记载宣称他什么也没说
Some ancient sources claim he said nothing,
而一些人记录下了这样一句话“那你呢 孩子?”
while others record the phrase,”And you, child?”,
激发人们猜测布鲁图斯可能真的是凯撒的私生子
fueling speculation that Brutus may haveactually been Caesar’s illegitimate son.
但是所有人都相信 当凯撒在袭击者中看到布鲁图斯时
But all agree that when Caesar saw Brutus among his attackers,
他掩面 并放弃了反抗
he covered his face and gave up the fight,
在被刺23下之后倒在了地上
falling to the ground after being stabbed 23 times.
不幸的是
Unfortunately for Brutus,
布鲁图斯和其他反叛者低估了凯撒在罗马共和国
he and the other conspirators had underestimated Caesar’s popularity
受推崇程度
among the Roman public,
民众大多视凯撒为卓有成效的领袖
many of whom saw him as an effective leader,
而视议会为腐败的上层社会
and the senate as a corrupt aristocracy.
凯撒遇刺后 罗马很快陷入恐慌的状态
Within moments of Caesar’s assassination, Rome was in a state of panic.
其他很多议员逃出罗马
Most of the other senators had fled,
而行凶的议员们将自己困在卡比托利奥山上
while the assassins barricaded themselves on the Capitoline Hill.
凯撒的朋友兼顾问——马克•安东尼
Mark Antony, Caesar’s friend and co-counsel,
迅速抓住机会
was swift to seize the upper hand,
在数日后凯撒的葬礼上发表了言辞激烈的演讲
delivering a passionate speech at Caesar’s funeral days later
使得民众群情悲愤
that whipped the crowd into a frenzyof grief and anger.
结果 所谓的“解放者”被迫离开罗马
As a result, the liberators were forced out of Rome.
而凯撒去世后的权力真空又引发了一系列的内战
The ensuing power vacuum led to a series of civil wars,
在这期间 布鲁图斯面对注定的败局 选择了自杀
during which Brutus, facing certain defeat, took his own life.
讽刺的是 最终结局
Ironically, the ultimate result
和反叛者们希望达到的完全相反:
would be the opposite of what the conspirators had hoped to accomplish:
共和国统治结束
the end of the Republic and the concentration
君主集权统治出现
of power under the office of Emperor.
对刺杀凯撒从一开始就有多种不同意见
Opinions over the assassination of Caesar were divided from the start
直到今天也是如此
and have remained so.
而对布鲁图斯个人 很少有历史人物会引发这样充满争议的“遗赠”
As for Brutus himself, few historical figures have inspired such a conflicting legacy.
在但丁的《地狱》中 他被放在地狱的正中心
In Dante’s”Inferno,” he was placed in the very center of Hell
因背叛罪而被撒旦永远地放在嘴中咀嚼
and eternally chewed by Satan himselffor his crime of betrayal.
但在斯威夫特的《格列佛游记》中
But Swift’s”Gulliver’s Travels”
他却被描述为世上最道德 最仁慈的人之一
described him as one of the most virtuous and benevolent people to have lived.
无论将布鲁图斯视为反对独裁统治的自私斗士
The interpretation of Brutus as eithera selfless fighter against dictatorship
或是一个投机取巧的叛乱者
or an opportunistic traitor
都会随着历史和政治的潮流变化而变化
has shifted with the tides of history and politics.
但即使到今天 两千年以后
But even today, over 2000 years later,
自由的代价
questions about the price of liberty,
个人忠诚和普世理想间的冲突 出乎意料的后果
the conflict between personal loyalties and universal ideals,
之间的关系问题却连接的比任何时候都紧密
and unintended consequences remain more relevant than ever.

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凯撒大帝竟是死于刺杀阴谋

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审核员 V

视频来源

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