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天才玛丽居里——Shohini Ghose – 译学馆
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天才玛丽居里——Shohini Ghose

The genius of Marie Curie - Shohini Ghose

如果你想一睹玛丽·居里的手稿
If you want a glimpseof Marie Curie’s manuscripts,
必须要签署一份免责同意书并穿上防护服
you’ll have to sign a waiver and put onprotective gear
以防遭辐射污染
to shield yourselffrom radiation contamination.
居里夫人的遗骸 同样的 被收殓在铅衬的棺材里
Madame Curie’s remains, too,were interred in a lead-lined coffin,
触及放射物是她毕生研究的重心
keeping the radiation that was the heartof her research,
而且可能也是她的死因所在
and likely the cause of her death,well contained.
(她)在俄国占领下的波兰华沙长大
Growing up in Warsawin Russian-occupied Poland,
年轻的玛丽 一开始名叫玛丽亚•斯克洛多夫斯卡
the young Marie, originally namedMaria Sklodowska,
是个聪颖的学生 但却面临些难逾越的障碍
was a brilliant student,but she faced some challenging barriers.
作为女性 她被限制追求高等教育
As a woman, she was barred from pursuinghigher education,
为表示抗争
so in an act of defiance,
玛丽在自由大学
Marie enrolled in the Floating University,
即为年轻人进修提供私下教育的秘密机构注册入学
a secret institution that providedclandestine education to Polish youth.
通过节省开支并兼职家庭教师和助教
By saving money and workingas a governess and tutor,
她最终搬到了巴黎 在享有盛誉的巴黎大学学习
she eventually was able to move to Paris to study at the reputed Sorbonne. There,
玛丽主要靠着面包和茶点过活
Marie earned both a physicsand mathematics degree
获得了物理和数学两个学位
surviving largely on bread and tea,
有时几因挨饿而昏厥
and sometimes faintingfrom near starvation.
在巴黎 玛丽遇到了物理学家皮埃尔•居里
In Paris, Marie met the physicistPierre Curie,
对方和她分享自己的实验室并倾心于她
who shared his lab and his heart with her.
但她一心想返回波兰
But she longed to be back in Poland.
然而回到华沙后
Upon her return to Warsaw, though,
她发现作为女性 想保留学术职位
she found that securing an academic position as a woman
仍然是种挑战
remained a challenge.
所有的一切都没改变
All was not lost.
回到巴黎 害相思病的皮埃尔还在等她
Back in Paris,the lovelorn Pierre was waiting,
这对恋人很快结婚并成为珠联璧合的科学搭档
and the pair quickly married and becamea formidable scientific team.
另一位物理学家的工作激起了玛丽•居里的兴趣
Another physicist’s work sparkedMarie Curie’s interest.
1896年 亨利•贝克发现铀会自动放射
In 1896, Henri Becquerel discoveredthat uranium spontaneously emitted
一种神奇的 像X射线的放射物 能和胶卷相互作用
a mysterious X-ray-like radiation thatcould interact with photographic film.
居里不久后发现 元素釷也会放射类似放射物
Curie soon found that the elementthorium emitted similar radiation.
更重要的是 这种放射物的强度
Most importantly,the strength of the radiation
只取决于该元素的量
depended solely on the element’s quantity,
不会被物理或化学变化所影响
and was not affected by physicalor chemical changes.
她由此推断出
This led her to conclude that
放射物来自于
radiation was coming from something fundamental
各种元素都有的原子内部的基本物质
within the atoms of each element.
这个想法是较激进的
The idea was radical
而且有助于反驳长期存在的 原子结构是不可再分的物质(这一观点)
and helped to disprove the long-standing model of atoms as indivisible objects. Next,
接下来 通过专注于辐射性强的沥青铀矿的矿物质
by focusing on a super radioactiveore called pitchblende,
居里夫妇意识到 单凭铀无法产生这种辐射
the Curies realized that uranium alone couldn’t be creating all the radiation. So,
是不是有其它有影响的放射性元素呢
were there other radioactive elementsthat might be responsible?
1898 他们宣布了两种新的元素 “钋”
In 1898, they reported two new elements, polonium,
以玛丽的祖国“波兰”命名
named for Marie’s native Poland,
还有“镭” 拉丁文中意为“射线”
and radium, the Latin word for ray.
他们同样依此方法创造出“放射性”这一术语
They also coined the term radioactivityalong the way.
到1902年 居里夫妇从数吨沥青铀矿中
By 1902, the Curies had extracted a tenth
萃取出0.1克
of a gram of pure radium chloride salt
纯净的镭氯化盐
from several tons of pitchblende,
一时间成为惊人的壮举
an incredible feat at the time.
那年晚些时候 皮埃尔•居里和亨利•贝克勒尔
Later that year, Pierre Curieand Henri Becquerel
获诺贝尔物理学奖提名
were nominated forthe Nobel Prize in physics,
但玛丽被忽视了
but Marie was overlooked.
皮埃尔表明了自己支持妻子应受认可的态度
Pierre took a stand in supportof his wife’s well-earned recognition.
因此 居里夫妇和贝克勒尔分享了1903年的诺贝尔奖
And so both of the Curies and Becquerel shared the 1903 Nobel Prize,
使玛丽•居里成为第一位女性诺贝尔奖获得者
making Marie Curie the first femaleNobel Laureate.
得到资金支持 获得尊重 居里夫妇(事业上)顺风顺水
Well funded and well respected,the Curies were on a roll.
但灾难袭来
But tragedy struck
1906年 皮埃尔在穿过车水马龙的十字路口时
in 1906 when Pierre was crushed by a horse-drawn cart
被马车压碾
as he crossed a busy intersection.
玛丽绝望中 让自己埋头于研究中
Marie,devastated, immersed herselfin her research
取代皮埃尔在巴黎大学的教学职位
and took over Pierre’s teaching positionat the Sorbonne,
成为学校的首位女教授
becoming the school’sfirst female professor.
她的独立工作卓有成效
Her solo work was fruitful.
1911 她获得了另一项诺贝尔奖
In 1911, she won yet another Nobel,
这次化学奖是对她早先
this time in chemistry for her earlier discovery
对镭和钋的发现
of radium and polonium,
及对镭及其化合物的提取和分析的奖励
and her extraction and analysis ofpure radium and its compounds.
这使她(成为)第一位并且到目前为止
This made her the first,and to this date,
唯一在不同科学领域获得诺贝尔奖的人
only person to win Nobel Prizesin two different sciences.
居里教授把她的发现运用到工作中
Professor Curie puther discoveries to work,
改变了医药研究和治疗的领域
changing the landscape of medical researchand treatments.
她在一战期间开创了移动射线放射装置
She opened mobile radiology unitsduring World War I,
并在肿瘤上研究了放射性物质的效果
and investigated radiation’seffects on tumors.
尽管这些对人类的益处价格不菲
However these benefits to humanity may have come at a high personal cost.
居里在1934年死于白血病
Curie died in 1934 ofa bone marrow disease,
今天很多人认为这是由射线辐射引起的
which many today think was causedby her radiation exposure.
玛丽•居里的革命性研究
Marie Curie’s revolutionary research
为我们理解物理和化学铺平了道路
laid the groundwork for our understandingof physics and chemistry,
举例来说 成果为肿瘤学 科技 医药
blazing trails in oncology, technology,medicine, and nuclear physics,
核物理等领域指明了方向
to name a few.
无论好坏
For good or ill,
其在放射领域的发现开创了新纪元
her discoveries in radiation launched a new era,
揭露了科学上的某些最伟大的秘密
unearthing some ofscience’s greatest secrets.

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视频概述

你了解居里夫人吗?两次获得诺贝尔奖,一生致力于科学研究,并为此付出生命的代价,值得尊重!

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w6JFRi0Qm_s

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