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肉的未来

The Future of Meat

1931年12月 温斯顿·丘吉尔
In December 1931, Winston Churchill
在《斯特兰德杂志》上发表了一篇文章
published an article in The Strand Magazine,
叫做《今后50年》
called 50 years hence. In it he
在文中 他对未来做了几个预测
made a couple of predictions about the future.
以下是预测之一
One of which was the following:
“我们应该摆脱这样一个荒诞的逻辑
“we shall escape the absurdity of growing
即为了吃鸡胸或鸡翅而培养一整只鸡
a whole chicken in order to eat the breast
可以通过适宜的介质分别培养这些部位”
or wing by growing these parts separately under suitable medium”
这是……
that’s….
这是我对丘吉尔的印象
that’s my Churchill impression. With this
丘吉尔通过这一声明承认了肉类生产效率低下
statement Churchill acknowledged the inefficiency of meat production, which
八十年来 这正成为
eighty years hence is becoming an even
一个更大的问题
bigger problem.
要生产1公斤的牛肉
To produce one kilogram of beef,
需要6.5千克的庄稼
it takes six and a half kilos of crops,
15000公升水和550天的时间
15,000 liters of water, and 550
实际上
days of time. Actually to scale it’s a
它更像是 330平方米的土地
bit more like this, 330 square meters of
排放超过16千克的二氧化碳
land emits over 16 kilos of CO2,
和½千克的甲烷
and a half a kilo of methane
甲烷是一种非常糟糕的温室气体
which is a greenhouse gas so bad that it is
它相当于另外10公斤的二氧化碳
equivalent to another 10 kilos of CO2,
而这仅仅是对1公斤牛肉来说
and that’s just for one kilo of beef. We
我们生活在工厂化农业时代
live in the age of factory farming, and
每年生产数千亿公斤的
produce hundreds of billions of kilos of
牛肉 猪肉
beef every year. Same goes for pork and
鸡肉和其他肉类
chicken and every other animal you can buy
你可以在餐厅或市场购买到午餐大小的肉
in lunch sized pieces in restaurant, or market.
简而言之
In a nutshell no matter how
不论你有多么喜欢吃肉
much of a meat lover you are. You have to
你必须承认现在出现的各种问题
accept that there is a range of problems here
资源匮乏 环境破坏 动物受难
resource scarcity, environmental destruction, animal suffering,
由于抗生素的大量使用 使细菌产生了耐药性
bacterial resistance due to the massive overuse of
以及自从动物脂肪被证实是多种疾病的罪魁祸首
antibiotics and human health since animal fats as has been largely
人类的健康问题
proven are responsible for a variety of diseases.
我告诉你们这些不是要指责谁
I’m not telling you this to point fingers.
抱怨问题很容易
It’s easy to complain about a problem.
提供好的解决方案才是难点
Offering a good solution is the hard part.
什么是好的解决方案?
What would a good solution be? Easy,
简单地说
we could simply all
变成素食主义者 不
become vegetarians. Right, no that’s a
那是一个蹩脚的解决方案 就像是在说
crappy solution it’s like saying just
所有人都别开车了
stop driving cars everybody. We have to
我们必须承认许多人都爱吃肉
accept that many people just like meat.
嗯 我真的很努力在吃素食
Well I really try my best to mostly eat vegetarian.
我知道 对于许多人来说
I know that for many people
这种生活方式介于两个范围之间
this lifestyle is anywhere between I’m
即 我不确定我是否能做到吃素
not sure I could do it, and you damned
而你这个可恶的素食主义者却吃得津津有味
vegetarians are eating my foods food.
改变人们很难的
Changing people is hard and never mind
更别提西方肉食爱好者
Western meat lovers go to China and try
到中国餐馆里点素食了
to order vegetarian in a restaurant.
只能祝我们好运!
Good luck!
在日益富裕起来的社会中
In many increasingly wealthy societies meat is a
肉是新中产阶级不想失去的奢侈品
luxury that the new middle class doesn’t
这就是为什么
want to do without. That’s the reason why
全球肉类消费正在不断上升
in fact global meat consumption is
这使得所有的问题都变得更糟
on the rise, which makes all of these
我们该如何解决这个问题?
problems worse. How do we solve this?
欢迎来到未来!在这里
Welcome to the future! Over here all meat
所有的肉不是产自动物 它们来自于植物
doesn’t come from animals. It comes from plants.
我知道你在想什么
I know what you’re thinking ah
那肯定不是肉!……听我说
Then it’s not meat! Bear with me, there
事实上有两个方法可以做到这一点
are actually two ways to do this. One is
一个是肉类似物或替代品
with meat analogues or substitutes. The
另一个是人工培养或人工合成的肉
other one is cultured or synthetic meat
肉类似物是以植物为基础的肉
meat analogues are plant-based meat.
通常是大豆蛋白分离物
Imitations usually soy protein isolates,
或大豆面粉加上面筋
or soy flour and gluten are used as the
做成面团
foundation of a dough which is then
然后通过挤压 或纤维转化成肉的类似物
transformed by extrusion, or fiber spinning into something that closely resembles meat.
这种仿制肉的艺术
This art of meat
已经被素食行业所完善
imitation has been perfected by the
遇见”不可能的食物”
veggie industry. Meet”Impossible Food” a
一家加利福尼亚的公司
Californian company that produces the
生产的“不可能汉堡”
impossible burger made with a
是用美味的纯植物制成的肉类似物
delicious solely plant-based meat analogue.
杰里米·克拉克森也许不是最好的肉食鉴赏家
Now maybe Jeremy Clarkson isn’t the biggest meat connoisseur out there,
你也不认为他是
and you are not convinced.
好消息是 我们也在研究人工培养类肉
Good news we are also working on cultured meat.
人工培养类肉是真正的肉
Cultured meat is actual meat, only that
它不像传统方式那样
instead of growing it along with hair bones and skin,
将肉类和毛发 骨头放在一起培育
as is the traditional way.
而是把它们分别培育在
We are growing it separately in a
一个受控的实验室环境中就像温斯顿·丘吉尔设想的那样
controlled lab environment, as good old Winston imagined.
简单地说
In a simplified way, we
我们从一些动物干细胞开始培育
start out with a few animal stem cells,
将它们培育成完整的肌肉组织
which we then grow into full out muscle tissue,
通过给它们提供所需的所有蛋白
by providing all the proteins it needs,
它就会长成我们要的肉排
to eventually get us our steak.
事实上 从理论上讲 这会是你见过的最完美的肉排
In fact theoretically the most perfect steak you’ve ever tasted,
因为我们可以
because we can
控制它的各个方面
control every aspect of it, from nutrition,
从营养到生长速度 甚至是运动
to growth speed and even movement,
通过正确的方式定期拉伸它
by periodically stretching it in just
我们只需要
the right way, and we only need to
提取一次干细胞
take the stem cells once, and from then
然后就可以无限期地生产养殖肉
on we can produce cultured meat indefinitely,
而这只需生产传统肉类所需的一小部分资源
with a fraction of the resources of traditional meat production, and pretty
而且几乎没有任何问题
much none of the problems, for example in
例如在一个完美的实验室环境中并不需要抗生素
a perfect lab environment, there is no need for antibiotics,
这解决了当今工厂化农业中最大的问题之一
one of the biggest problems in factory farming today.
不幸的是 人工培育类肉
Unfortunately cultured meat is not
还没准备好量产
mass-market ready yet.
当然 有几家不错的公司正在努力
Well there are certainly a few great companies working on it.
我们还需要几年时间
We will still take a few more years until this can
才能从经济上参与竞争 因为有合同的约束
economically compete with that, for a contract with them,
最终 一定会的
but it will, eventually.
对一些人来说
To some of you this might
这听起来可能有点毛骨悚然或反常
sound a bit creepy or unnatural, but if
但你想想 工厂化农业就是如此同时也会更加残酷
you think about it, so is factory farming, while also being
也许有一天
much more cruel. Possibly we will one day
我们会回顾工厂化农业就像我们今天回顾奴隶制一样
look back on factory farming the same way we look back on slavery today.
我们能接受它是一件非常糟糕的事情
It’s an awful thing that we accept it, because
因为我们已经习惯了它
we are used to it,
并且围绕它建立了一个巨大的经济体
and there’s a huge economy built around it, but as
但随着科技为我们提供更好的方式
technology is providing us with better
无论我们采取哪种方式
ways to do things, whichever way we go
肉一定会改变
meat has to change
[音乐]
[Music]
视频字幕来自Amara.org社区
Subtitles by the Amara.org community

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一起去未来看看植物种出来的肉!

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