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蘑菇塑造时尚的未来

The Future of Fashion – Made from Mushrooms | Dan Widmaier | TED

I’m a proud lifelong nerd,
当了一辈子书呆子 我很自豪
and I have a PhD in chemistry and chemical biology to prove it,
我有一个化学与化学生物学的博士学位能证明这一点
which is why I never thought I’d be that guy standing up here,
我从没想过自己会站在这儿
talking about my love affair with fashion.
谈论的却是我对时尚的热爱
[Laughter]
[笑声]
And there’s someone else in my life
我生命中还有另外一个人
who’s equally shocked by this turn of events,
同样对我的转变感到震惊
and that’s my wonderful wife,
那就是我优秀的妻子
who literally has a degree in fashion.
她确实拥有时尚方面的学位
[Laughter]
[笑声]
But here I am, standing with these two wallets.
但现在我站在这儿 拿着两个钱包
One of these is made out of leather,
其中一个是用皮革做的
one of these is made out of mushrooms.
另一个是用蘑菇做的
And I’m not going to tell you which one is which.
我不会告诉你们哪个是哪个
The average consumer can’t tell you the difference,
普通消费者看不出其中的区别
that’s kind of the whole point.
这就是问题的关键
Because even if you hate fashion,
因为即使你讨厌时尚
you’ve got an entire room in your house devoted to it.
你家里也会有一整个专为时尚而生的房间
It’s called your closet.
那就是你的衣橱
And your closet is full of all kinds of materials—
你的衣橱里装满了各种面料的服饰
cotton, leather, nylon, polyester—
有棉的 皮革的 尼龙的和涤纶的
that list goes on and on.
不胜枚举
And those materials matter,
这些材料很重要
because those materials are the reason
正是这些原材料
fashion is in the midst of a sustainability crisis.
导致时尚正处于可持续性发展的危机之中
This is an industry that makes 100 billion plus items per year.
这是一个每年生产超过1000亿件商品的产业
When I started my journey, I thought this was going to be a really easy answer.
刚接触时尚行业时 我认为这个问题很好解决
We just consume less,
只要减少消费就行了
we have fewer, better things.
我们只需要少而精的时尚单品
But in the last decade,
但是在过去的十年里
I’ve come to believe that ignores fundamental realities
我开始相信这忽视了
of both fashion and human nature.
时尚和人类的本质
You see, fashion is not purely functional.
时尚不只是功能性的
It’s about confidence, creativity, self-expression.
它还关乎自信 创造力和自我表达
It’s a pure reflection of our innate desire, as humans,
时尚纯粹反映了我们作为人类与生俱来的欲望
to always want more.
总是想要更多
And it satisfies our insatiable appetites
时尚迎合了我们永不满足的
to discover, buy, collect, show off.
发现 购买 收集和炫耀的欲望
In truth, fashion is intrinsic to who we are.
事实上 时尚是我们的本质
There is a piece of good news, though.
不过 也有一个好消息
We can make fashion sustainable,
我们能让时尚发展可持续化
and we’re going to do it with science,
我们要用科学来做到这一点
and we’re going to do it not by changing the humans,
我们要做的不是改变人类
but by changing those materials themselves.
而是改变这些材料本身
And lucky for us,
对我们来说幸运的是
the answers to all of fashion’s materials problems
所有时尚材料问题的答案
are available today, out there in nature,
如今都能在大自然中找到
and it’s our job, as scientists,
作为科学家
to go find the best inventions
我们的工作就是
from nature’s four-billion-year catalog of greatest hits
从大自然40亿年的历史中找到最好的发明
and bring them to the world of design.
并把它们应用于设计领域
So I started a PhD,
当时我开始攻读博士学位
and I actually fell in love with one of these materials from nature.
爱上了一种来自大自然的材料
And it’s this, it’s spider silk.
它就是蜘蛛丝
It’s this fine, elegant, tough fiber that spiders make.
一种蜘蛛制造出的精细 优雅 坚韧的纤维
Umm…I mean you’ve probably seen a Spider-Man movie, you know.
你们可能看过《蜘蛛侠》电影
You may have wanted to make Peter Parker’s web slinger.
想模仿彼得·帕克的吐丝
It’s OK, I did too; it’s badass.
没关系 我也想 这太酷了
I wanted to recreate that material in a lab,
我想在实验里重造这种材料
so I started a company, and we did just that.
所以我开了一家公司 专做这种材料
And the very first product we made was this:a tie.
我们做的第一件产品就是这个:一条领带
I took the very first tie, and I sent it to Stan Lee himself,
我把第一条领带送给了斯坦·李本人
cocreator of Spider-Man,
他是《蜘蛛侠》的共同创作者
idol to nerds around the planet,
是全世界书呆子的偶像
all-around amazing human.
了不起的全能者
And he loved it.
他很喜欢这条领带
He actually cold-called my phone from a blocked number,
他用加密号码给我打了电话
and we geeked out over the technology.
我们探讨了这项技术
And back in those days, almost nobody was working on sustainable materials in fashion.
那时 几乎没人在时尚界开发可持续材料
So I excitedly ran off
于是我兴奋地跑去
to go talk to designers and fashion executives.
找设计师和时尚高管们谈话
And they thought this was fine, cool,
他们认为这项技术很好很酷
but they couldn’t shut up about their problem with leather.
却对皮革问题闭口不谈
And for really good reason.
他们这样是有原因的
Leather is one of the most pivotal materials in the fashion world.
因为皮革是时尚界最关键的材料之一
In 2020 alone, the five biggest European luxury houses
仅2020一年 欧洲五大奢侈品公司
sold over 50 billion dollars of leather goods.
就销售了超过500亿美元的皮革制品
And the challenge with leather
今天皮革面临的挑战是
is that today, it’s inextricably linked to raising cows,
它与牛的饲养有着千丝万缕的联系
and not just a few— like, lots of cows.
我们说的不是几头牛 而是很多头
And cows, at the global scale, are terrible for our environmental future.
在全球范围内 这些牛对未来环境的影响是可怕的
And so I left this conversation thinking,
所以在那次谈话后我一直在想
“OK, what makes leather leather?”
“皮革之所以是皮革的原因是什么?”
And the truth is,
事实上
nobody loves leather because it comes from a cow.
我们不是因为皮革来自牛而喜欢它
We love it because it’s strong, it’s soft, it’s beautiful.
我们爱皮革是因为它坚固 柔软和美丽
It plays from the runway in Paris
从巴黎的T台到德克萨斯的牛仔竞技表演
to a rodeo in Texas.
都有皮革的身影
So if we can take cows out of the equation,
如果我们要去掉牛这个元素
what’s the thing we have to replicate to make a great material like leather?
我们要用什么来代替皮革这样的好材料呢?
And the answer is microstructure.
答案是微观结构
So this is a microscope image of the collagen in cowhide.
这是牛皮中胶原蛋白的显微镜图像
And it looks like a mess, it’s just this jumble of fibers mixed together.
它看起来一团乱 其实就是一堆纤维混在一起
At its essence, that structure is why leather is both pliable and strong.
从本质上讲 这种结构就是皮革既柔韧又坚固的原因
Now, contrast that to your closet.
现在 对比一下你衣橱里的材料
All those materials are what we call knits or wovens.
这些材料都是我们所说的针织品
They look like this under a microscope.
它们在显微镜下是这样的
Essentially, you take a single thread, and you loop it around itself,
本质上说 你拿一根线把它绕在自己身上
or you crisscross it over itself, and you make a fabric.
或交叉缠在自己身上 就做成了一种织物
If we want to make a new material
如果我们想要制造出一种
with the same amazing properties as leather,
具有皮革一样神奇属性的新材料
we need to go out and find a natural material
我们需要去寻找一种
with the same microstructure as the collagen in cowhide.
与牛皮中的胶原蛋白微观结构相同的天然材料
Now, my brain gets going with this,
现在我的大脑开始思考这个问题
and I think, “OK, we can grow skin, we can grow pure collagen,
我想 “我们可以培养人造皮和纯胶原蛋白
we can use plant fibers ……”
使用植物纤维……”
Those all fail.
这些都失败了
Quality, cost or scalability reasons tank those ideas.
质量 成本和能否大规模生产让这些想法搁浅了
And that’s what brought me to the world of fungi.
这就是我进入真菌世界的原因
I’m going to assume you all know what mushrooms are.
我就当你们都知道蘑菇是什么
I’m going to show you some mushrooms on the side of a dead tree.
我要给你们看一些枯树边上的蘑菇
And I’m much more interested in what’s happening just beneath the surface.
我对树表之下发生的事情更感兴趣
Inside that tree are millions of stringy little strands
在这棵树里面有数百万条线状物
that are called mycelium, that are eating away at it.
叫做菌丝体 它们正在吞噬着这棵树
They look like this.
它们长这样
So you see those white fibrous roots underneath the mushroom,
你能看到蘑菇下面的那些白色纤维状的根
those are mycelium.
这些就是菌丝体
They’re these long branch networks.
形成了长长的分支网
And what they’re doing is eating dead stuff in the soil
它们吸收土壤中的死物
and releasing nutrients to the mushroom and to the ecosystem around it.
然后把营养物质传递给蘑菇和周围的生态系统
And so now, I’m going to show you side by side.
现在我要并列展示给你们看
Collagen on the left, mycelium on the right.
左边的是胶原蛋白 右边的是菌丝体
We’re looking at microstructure;
都是微观结构
I’m saving you six years of getting a PhD.
我帮你们省了六年读博士的时间
[Laughter]
[笑声]
We’re on to something here.
我们已小有成果
But to pull this off, we need to do this at the scale of fashion.
但我们想把它推广成为新的时尚潮流
We donot need a little mycelium, we’re going to need a lot.
所以我们需要的不是一点 而是大量菌丝体
Not a lab, but a factory.
不是实验室 而是工厂
So that’s exactly what we did.
这正是我们所做的
So here, what you’re seeing is our first factory,
这里你看到的就是我们的第一家工厂
and you’re seeing rows and rows of pure mycelium
你可以看到一排排的菌丝体
growing in these trays.
在这些托盘中生长
And those mycelium are eating leftover sawdust,
这些菌丝体在吸收剩下的木屑
so they’re doing what fungi do best in nature,
这就是真菌在自然界最擅长的事情
they eat something nobody wants, and they turn it into something useful.
吸收别人不要的物质 将其转化为有用的物质
And instead of growing into the soil,
这些菌丝体不是生长在土壤中
these mycelium are growing up in these big puffy clouds
而是生长在我们可以很容易收割的
that we can easily harvest.
大而蓬松的云状物中
And this is where science has to meet design.
这就是科学与设计相结合的地方
We take that material and turn it into something leatherlike.
我们把这种材料变成皮革一样的东西
It has to be beautiful, has to be functional.
一种既漂亮又实用的东西
And designers need to be able to easily incorporate it
得让设计师能够轻松地将其应用于
into the world of fashion products.
时尚领域的各种产品
The first prototypes were none of those things.
最初的产品原型远不是这样的
But after many many many many thousands of iterations,
但经过成千上万次的迭代
we have a material, and we call it Mylo.
我们很到了一种材料 称之为Mylo
And Mylo does everything we set out for it.
Mylo实现了我们对它的所有期望
It’s beautiful, it’s functional,
它美丽的而实用
but most importantly, it’s sustainable.
但更重要的是 它是可持续的材料
So when you grow mushrooms,
当你种植蘑菇时
it takes about a little under one square meter of land
种植一公斤蘑菇
to grow one kilogram of mushrooms.
大约需要不到一平米的土地
Contrast that to cows,
和养牛相比
takes about 97 square meters of land to grow one kilogram of cow.
每养1公斤的牛大约需要97平米的土地
And when we’re growing Mylo,
当我们种植Mylo时
we’re doing this in high-density vertical agriculture,
我们在高密度的垂直农业中种植
and we power it with 100 percent renewable energy.
并用100%的可再生能源为其供电
And this is technology.
这就是科技
We’re constantly getting better.
我们在不断进步
Contrast that to the cow. It’s about as good as it’s going to get,
和养牛相比 这已经是最好的结果了
and the cows really don’t like it
因为牛肯定不喜欢
when you stack them up in high-density vertical agriculture.
被堆在高密度的垂直牛棚中饲养
[Laughter]
[笑声]
And so the question remains:
现在 问题是:
how are we going to distribute this material at global scale to meet the moment?
如何在全球范围内推广这种材料以满足需求?
I have bad news for you here.
我有个坏消息要告诉你们
Historically, it takes decades
从历史上看
for a new material to reach global-scale adoption.
一种新材料要在全球范围内普及需要几十年
Take spandex, that stretchy fiber.
以氨纶为例 它是一种弹性纤维
It’s in your blue jeans, your yoga pants.
你的蓝色牛仔裤和瑜伽裤里都有这种材料
Makes your butt look amazing.
很好地修饰了你的臀部曲线
That material was invented in the 1950s,
这种材料是20世纪50年代发明的
and it wasn’t until the athleisure megatrend 50 years later
可直到50年后 运动休闲风兴起
that it was truly everywhere on this planet.
它才真正流行起来
And thank you, climate change,
由于气候变化
we humans don’t have 50 years to wait.
人类等不了50年了
We need to solve this problem.
我们需要解决这个问题
We need new materials, and we need them now.
需要新材料 现在就要
And this is where fashion can be transformational.
这就是时尚可以改变的地方
So I went out and constructed what we call the Mylo Consortium.
所以我开始着手建立所谓的Mylo联盟
These are fashion brands you know.
这些都是你知道的时尚品牌
Stella McCartney, Lululemon, Kering and Adidas.
麦卡妮 露露乐蒙 开云集团和阿迪达斯
Normally, fashion brands are renowned for their competitive nature
通常 时尚品牌以其竞争性
and their desire for exclusivity.
和对独特性的渴望而闻名
But I was able to convince these brands
但我说服了这些品牌
that no one group can solve this problem alone.
没有一个团体能够单独解决这个问题
And to meet this moment, it was time to act in collaboration instead of competition.
为达成这一目标 是时候变竞争为合作了
We did just that.
我们这样做了
With the idea that we’re going to solve this really big problem really fast.
想着尽快解决这个大问题
And here’s a taste of how they’re supporting Mylo.
让我们来看看他们是如何支持Mylo的
Lululemon wove Mylo into yoga and wellness accessories.
露露乐蒙品牌将Mylo编织成瑜伽和健身配件
Celebrity environmentalist Paris Jackson
著名环保主义者帕丽斯·杰克逊
modeled Mylo in this fashion editorial.
在这篇时尚社论中为Mylo做模特
Adidas redesigned the Stan Smith—
阿迪达斯品牌用Mylo重新设计了
it’s their most iconic style with Mylo.
他们最经典的Stan Smith款运动鞋
And Stella McCartney designed the Frayme Mylo handbag,
麦卡妮设计了Frayme Mylo款手袋
and debuted it on the Paris runway.
并在巴黎时装秀上首次亮相
And that little black handbag that you see right there,
你看到的这个黑色小手袋
that’s now part of Stella’s commercial collection.
现在是麦卡妮商业系列的一部分
And what that means is that this is not some far-off idea
意味着这不是什么遥远的想法
that’s a dream that may one day be real.
而是有一天可能会实现的梦想
Mylo’s commercially viable today.
Mylo如今的商业模式是可行的
We sell it for 30 dollars a square foot.
每平方英尺售价30美元
It’s about the price of premium calf leather.
相当于高级小牛皮的价格
And this, this is the tipping point.
这就是转折点
This is the first tangible proof that the future of fashion
这是第一个切实的证据 证明时尚的未来
can and will be made with sustainable materials.
可以而且将会由可持续材料塑造
And this is our road map.
这就是我们的路线图
We went looking to nature for a better alternative to leather,
我们去大自然中寻找更好的皮革替代品
and we found that mycelium.
我们找到了菌丝体
It was hiding in plain sight.
它就藏在众目睽睽之下
And this story, Mylo’s story,
这个关于Mylo的故事
is just one small example in a much broader movement.
只是更大规模运动中的一个小例子
It’s the one I know.
一个我能分享的例子
But in the last few years,
但在过去的几年里
countless scientists have joined us
无数的科学家加入了我们
in this journey of a sustainable materials revolution.
这场可持续材料革命的旅程
And in the coming years,
在未来的几年里
I think we’re going to see amazing advances
我认为我们会看到惊人的进步
that replace all the harmful materials in your closet,
你衣橱里 家里和车里的所有有害物质
in your home and your car.
都会被取代
And my hope is that, by sharing this journey with Mylo,
我希望通过分享这段Mylo旅程
it can act as a blueprint that these others can follow
让它成为其他人可以遵循的蓝图
to more quickly improve this world for all of us.
从而加速改善所有人的世界
Because in my heart, I’m still that nerd from the beginning,
因为内心深处 我还是开始时的那个书呆子
and I want to know what else is hiding out there in nature.
我想知道自然界还隐藏着什么
I want to know what’s the number-one spot
我想知道在40亿年的进化过程中
on the best-of playlist from four billion years of evolution.
是什么能在最佳播放列表里常年占据首位
And the incredible part of all this is that
令人难以置信的是
fashion undoubtedly compounded our sustainability crisis.
时尚无疑加剧了人类可持续发展的危机
But fashion has a golden opportunity to lead the charge,
但时尚有一个绝佳的机会来引领潮流
to live with nature, instead of against it.
与自然共存 而不是与之对抗
And now, and in the future,
现在和未来
fashion’s not just about making yourself beautiful.
时尚不仅仅是让自己变得美丽
It’s also about making this planet beautiful
也是为了让这个星球变得美丽
and livable for generations.
让人们世世代代都能在此生活
Thank you.
谢谢
[Cheers and applause]
[喝彩声和掌声]

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视频概述

时尚正处于可持续发展危机之中,我们需要从自然界中寻找一种新材料来代替皮革,令人没想到的是蘑菇就是作者找到的材料。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

黄洪宇

审核员

审核员ART

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OcdumFcGdfU

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