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素肉的未来

The Future of Fake Meat

所有火鸡都害怕的一天来临了
Well, it looks like it’s that day that all turkeys fear:
那就是 感恩节
Thanksgiving.
你今年对什么心怀感激呢?
Are You thankful for something this year?
告诉你吧 火鸡最感激素食火鸡的出现
I can tell you turkeys are thankful for Tofurkey.
素食者也许会讨厌一起吃饭的人的投来的目光
You herbivores out there are probably sick of getting looks from people
他们会问 “你们怎么能吃那些?”
around the dinner table, and questions like “how can you EAT that?”
似乎素肉是在化学的角度上满足了
Looks like it’s on chemistry’s shoulders to make sure that fake meats meet
肉食者对肉类的大量需求
the standards of our carnivore masses,
并且给了地球母亲些许欣慰
and maybe give planet Earth something to be a little thankful for itself.
(Splash Intro)
(Splash Intro)
今天的节目由美国化学科研中心赞助播出
Today’s episode was sponsored by ACS Central Science.
到2050年 世界上将有约96亿人口需要填饱肚子
By 2050 there’s going to be around 9.6 billion human stomachs to fill, and at
从目前消耗的比率来看
current consumption rates, we’ll need
根据一项近期研究报告
an estimated 73% increase in livestock
牲畜的数量需要增加大约73%
to do it, according to a recent report.
而现有家畜已制造地球上大约15%的温室气体
Livestock currently produce about 15% of greenhouse gasses on the planet.
并且据估计
Also it’s been estimated that one pound
每生产一磅牛肉
of beef can require up to 24,000
就会消耗多达24000加仑的水源
gallons of water to produce.
长话短说 我们正在面临着
Long story short, with the way we’re
肉类生产无法持续的情况
headed, meat production is anything but sustainable.
怎么会无法持续呢?
How unsustainable?
一些研究者认为
Some researchers believe that ending
停止牛肉的生产
beef production will reduce our
比停止汽车的碳排放更有效
carbon footprint more than cutting out driving cars.
因此 为什么不制造素肉呢?
So, why not go fake?
因为真实的肉尝起来太香了
Well, because the real thing just taste too darn good.
肉类的香气源于脂肪和肌肉被破坏时
Meat gets its flavor from the thousands of molecules that are released
无数分子的传播
during muscle and fat cell destruction.
在牲畜被屠宰之后 肌肉组织中的酶
After slaughter, enzymes in meat tissue
会分解成更简单的氨基酸
break it down into simpler amino acids,
糖类和脂肪酸
sugars, and fatty acids that create
它们会制造出肉类美味的香气
a cocktail of delicious meaty flavor.
在烹饪时 高温让糖
When cooked, the heat makes the sugars
还有脂肪酸发生了美拉德反应
and amino acids undergo the Maillard
这就是让肉散发出迷人香气的原因
reaction, which is to thank for a lot of the amazing meat smells.
红色肉类的香气中很重要的一部分
An important part of red meat flavor is an oxygen
就是一种叫肌红蛋白的携氧蛋白
carrying protein called myoglobin.
当烹饪肉类时 肌红蛋白会释放
When meat is cooked, myoglobin releases
一种叫做亚铁血红素的铁介化合物
an iron bearing compound called heme
帮助制造肉类特有的香气和味道
that helps produce aromas and flavors specific to meats.
这种肌红蛋白里的铁也是让生肉呈现红色
This iron in myoglobin is also what makes uncooked meat red
熟肉变成棕色的原因
and cooked meat turn brown.
所以如果想正确地制造出素肉
So if you want to get fake meat right,
你就必须制造出这些化学反应
you’ve got to cover these reactions and you’ve got
而且要保持肉的柔软及其纤维纹理
to nail meat’s soft, fibrous texture.
火鸡的假冒兄弟素鸡
Take turkey’s imitation brother Tofurkey.
就像许多素肉是由豆腐或面筋制成的
This like many other fake meats is made up of tofu or seitan.
面筋是由谷蛋白生产的 它是小麦中的主要蛋白质
Seitan is produced from gluten, the primary proteins found in wheat.
没错 谷蛋白
Yes, THAT gluten.
另一种肉类替代品
Another common substitute meat is
是组织性植物蛋白 简称TVP
Texturized Vegetable Protein, or TVP for short.
这些产品可以用来提鲜
While these products can have umami
从而让它们尝起来像肉
flavors added to help them taste like
它们有些轻软筋道 吃起来口感与肉类不同
meat, they are just kind of spongy and don’t have the same mouth feel.
因此 全新的技术出现
For this reason, new techniques have
来帮助把肉类的纹理按压进植物产品中
emerged that help massage a meat-like texture into the plant proteins.
高湿挤压
High-moisture extrusion is a process
是一个水和蛋白粉在螺旋机中加热并混合的过程
that heats and twists a mix of water and powdered proteins on a screw.
当蛋白质水解时
As the proteins unfold, they start
就开始调整螺旋的移动方向 一旦冷却下来
aligning in the direction of the moving screw, and once cooled, maintain a
它纤维状的纹理就与肉类十分相似
fibrous texture quite similar to meat.
新的条件也正在探索中
New conditions are also being set up
它可以用植物性肌红蛋白制作素肉
to grow this style of fake meat using a plant version of myoglobin, to
以提高它的口感和外观
improve both its taste and appearance.
但如果植物蛋白的设想是错误的 会怎样呢
But what if plant proteins are the wrong idea?
如果最好的素肉可能是实验室里细胞培养出来的 会怎样呢
What if the best fake meats could be grown from cell cultures in the lab?
回到2013年 荷兰的一间实验室
Back in 2013, a lab in the Netherlands
推出了一个价值32.5万美元的汉堡它是由牛的干细胞培养而来的
offered up a $325,000.00 burger grown from cow stem cells.
然而 一个相同的汉堡现在最多花费11美元
Well guess what, that same burger now costs a whopping $11.00.
可是它是真正的肉制成的第一个幸运品尝素肉天价汉堡的人注意到
While that was real meat, the lucky first tasters noticed the flavor
它的口感有些干瘦 那是因为它仅由肌肉细胞培养而来 没有任何脂肪
to be a little lean, as it was only muscle cells grown, and had no fats.
随着这个过程变得更加经济可行
As this process becomes more economically
并且实验室更加致力于
viable, and as labs work hard at tailoring
让素肉变得营养健康
this style of fake meat to be more nutritious, it’s starting to look
素肉的未来似乎可以有一系列的选择
like a series option for the future of fake meats.
一项研究甚至建议
One study even suggests that this process
这种细胞培育的过程显然
of cellular agriculture could be significantly better for the
比让细胞在牛体内生长的环境更有益
environment that growing cells in cows.
至于桌上的素食火鸡 它也许没有
As for that Tofurkey on the table, look folks, it may not be good as the
真肉好 但至少是一个起点
real thing, but at least it’s a start.
我们想对美国化学研究中心表达谢意
We just wanted to say thanks to
感谢他们让这个视频变成可能
ACS Central Science for making this video possible.
如果你想了解更多关于素肉的未来
If you want to learn more about the future of fake meats,
请阅读他们的论文《呈现素肉的全新开始
check out their article “A Fresh Take on
由化学与工程新闻联合制作》
Fake Meats, produced in collaboration with Chemical & Engineering News”
下方说明处附有链接
A link’s down in the description.
当你在感恩节贪吃时
As for you thanksgiving gluttons,
如果你吃得太多 请观看左边视频
check out this video on what happens
看看会发生什么
when you eat too much, also check out
也要看看右边这个视频
this video to find out what chemical
找出我们的朋友感谢化合物的原因
compounds our friends over at Speaking of Chemistry are thankful for.
欢迎点赞 欢迎订阅
Hit the thumbs up button and subscribe on the way out.

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“素肉”好处多,引领未来饮食潮流,再也不用担心吃胖啦~

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uOT2_LNJmzg

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