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那场杀死12000人的烟雾

The Fog That Killed 12,000 People

[音乐]
[♪ INTRO]
伦敦是有名的雾都
London is famously foggy.
雾有时意味着一次惆怅的漫步或是成为再续一杯茶的借口 但当雾
Sometimes that can mean a wistful stroll or another excuse for a cuppa tea, but when fog
与烟和工厂排放的化学物质混合 它就变成了一种新的物质:烟雾
mixes with the smoke and chemicals produced by industry, it become something new: smog.
在几个世纪里 伦敦的烟雾足以致命
And for a couple of centuries, London’s smog could kill.
非常严重的烟雾能在几天内杀死一千人 人们却无动于衷
Really bad smogs could kill a thousand people in a few days, but no one did much about it
直到1952年 一次持续五天的烟雾在伦敦
until 1952, when a five-day smog in London
杀死了约一万两千人
killed an estimated twelve thousand people.
该事件被称为“伦敦烟雾事件”
It was called The Great Smog of London, and
它唤醒了这个国家以及全世界
it helped wake up the country and the world
对无限排污危害的关注
to the dangers of unrestricted pollution.
雾只是在地面上形成的云状物
Fog is just a cloud that forms down here on the ground,
就它本身而言并没有那么糟糕
which by itself isn’t that bad;
你在开车时你可能无法看得很清楚
you might not be able to see well when you’re driving,
或者你可能无法使飞机着陆 这还不算糟糕
or you might not be able to land your plane, but it’s nice.
但云状物能像海绵那样活动
But clouds can act like sponges,
形成并吸收已经存在于空中的物质
forming around and trapping whatever’s already in the air.
这也还不成问题 直到13世纪很多伦敦人
This wasn’t a problem until the 1200s, when a lot of London
用煤炭代替木头来温暖房子
switched from wood to coal for heating their homes.
烧煤产生了能够刺激肺部的油烟和烟尘
Burning coal creates soot and smoke, which can irritate your lungs,
同时产生了二氧化硫和一氧化碳这样的有毒物质
and also creates poisons like sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.
由一个硫原子和两个氧原子键合成的二氧化硫
Sulfur dioxide, which is a sulfur atom bonded to two oxygen atoms,
和水反应形成硫酸时
reacts with water to form sulfuric acid,
正如你想象那般会严重伤及人体内脏
which can harm your internal organs, as you might imagine.
而由一碳一氧与血红蛋白结合形成的一氧化碳
And carbon monoxide, which is one carbon and one oxygen,
在你的血液中阻止氧气进入身体
binds with the hemoglobin in your blood to stop oxygen from getting around your body.
所以伦敦开始烧煤时
So when London started burning coal,
所有的烟和化学物质与自然界中的雾混合
all the smoke and chemicals mixed with the natural fog,
随着时间的流逝 它变得愈发浓厚乌黑
and it became thicker and darker as years passed.
起初它还不是一个健康危机
It wasn’t a health crisis at first,
但人们确实抱怨过那些烟雾很难闻
but people did complain that the smoke smelled terrible.
这就回溯到13世纪
And this was back in the 1200s,
一切都变得无比难闻
when everything smelled terrible already.
但因为继续烧煤比退回去用木头要方便
But it was easier to keep burning coal than to switch back to wood,
所以几百年来人们任由时而灰暗 厚重 且恶臭的云层
so for centuries, they just accepted the occasional thick, dark, smelly cloud
挂在城市上空
hanging over the city.
如你所做的一样
As you do.
18世纪工业革命开始 危害更加严重
Things really got dangerous when the Industrial Revolution happened in the 1700s.
因为那时 煤不仅是用来温暖房屋
Because now, coal wasn’t just heating homes.
它还为遍布城市的大工厂提供动力
It powered huge factories throughout the city,
然后所有那些多余的烟和烟灰使得
and all that extra smoke and soot made the
伦敦上空的雾变得更加灰暗
air in London’s fogs much darker.
它成了普遍现象以至于一位叫Harold Antoine Des Voeux的内科医师
It became so common that a physician named Harold Antoine Des Voeux
发明了术语“烟雾”来描述它
invented the term “smog” to describe it.
真正烟雾弥漫的日子使市中心变得全然漆黑 所以你不可能
Really smoggy days completely blacked out the center of the city,
看见前方几米外的事物
so that you couldn’t see more than a few meters ahead of you,
甚至在中午也是如此
even in the middle of the day.
烟灰同样刺激着人们的肺 使得支气管炎这样的疾病
The soot also irritated people’s lungs, causing illnesses like bronchitis
变得越来越普遍
to become more common.
有人甚至因为呼吸过多空中的烟和有毒物质而窒息
Some people even suffocated from breathing so much smoke or the poisons in the air.
1873年和1892年 私人工厂排放的烟雾
Individual smogs in 1873 and 1892
分别杀死了超过一千人和家畜
each killed over a thousand humans and livestock.
我们甚至不知道有多少人在早期生活中
And we don’t even know how many people died early
因为肺部吸入大量烟灰而去世
from collecting soot in their lungs over the course of their lives.
但是煤炭繁荣了伦敦 所以人们对此无动于衷
But coal kept London flourishing, so nobody did anything to stop it.
然后烟雾事件发生了
Then came The Great Smog.
1952年12月5日 一阵混合了伦敦污浊空气的浓雾 滚滚而来
On December 5, 1952, a thick fog rolled in and mixed with London’s dirty air,
就像它在大多数冬天叫嚣的那样
just like it did most winters.
但是这次 环绕着伦敦的高压天气系统
But this time, high-pressure weather systems surrounded London
使得云层持续前进
and kept the cloud from moving on.
所以一个尤其浓密的黑色烟雾在伦敦上空停留了五天 悲惨的五天
So an especially dense, black smog stopped on London for five miserable days.
烟雾非常浓厚 导致航班停飞
The smog was so thick that flights were grounded,
多数公共交通被取消
most public transportation was canceled,
火车碰撞 剧院和影院也都关闭
trains collided, and theaters and movies stopped,
因为伸手不见五指 什么也看不见
because people couldn’t see what they were watching.
难以想象事情发生在1952 而不是很久以前
This is difficult to imagine, this was 1952, not that long ago.
估计烟雾消散前有四千人在那糟糕的五天里丧命
An estimated four thousand people died in those five awful days before the smog dissipated.
其中很多人是因为吸入过多烟灰 导致肺部发炎而窒息身亡
A lot of them suffocated because their lungs were inflamed from breathing in so much soot.
并且随着烧煤产生的二氧化硫
And with sulfur dioxide from the burning coal
与烟雾中的水蒸气反应
reacting with water vapor in the smog,
伦敦人也在那五天吸入了含有大量硫酸的空气
Londoners also spent those five days breathing air full of sulfuric acid.
含硫酸的空气和烟雾带来了呼吸和其它的健康问题
That and the smoke contributed to respiratory and other health problems,
在接下来的一个月里 又有大约八千人过世
which killed around another eight thousand people in the following months.
最后 约一万两千伦敦人死于这起烟雾事件
Ultimately, roughly one in a thousand Londoners died because of The Great Smog.
有人事后争论认为这次死亡激增是因为流感 但科学家们
Some people argued afterward that the spike in deaths was due to a flu epidemic,
已经通过各式手段调查 表明流感真的不太可能
but scientists have investigated that in all sorts of ways, and it’s really unlikely that the flu
像烟雾本身那样具有毁灭性
could have been anywhere near as devastating as the smog itself.
四年后 议会终于通过了《空气清洁法》
Four years later, Parliament finally passed a Clean Air Act that dictated
以此规定城市中的燃烧
what kinds of fuels could be burned within the city.
这和其它的法律一起控制了伦敦的烟雾问题
It and other laws have helped rein in the smog problem in London.
但是直至今日 伦敦的空气污染降低了许多人的预期寿命
But even today, London’s air pollution lowers the life expectancy of a lot of people,
每年全英国数以千计早逝的生命
and is indirectly linked to tens of thousands of early deaths
都与其间接相关
every year throughout the United Kingdom.
尽管烟雾事件造成巨大灾难 过了很长时间
Despite the Great Smog’s devastation, it took a while
才让其它工业强国吸取教训
for other industrial powerhouses to take the hint.
20世纪60年代纽约城的一系列烟雾事件 影响了超过一千六百万人的生活
New York City had a series of smogs in the 1960s that affected more than 16 million people,
同时 黑色且烟灰弥漫的雨包裹着波士顿
and black, soot-filled rain coated Boston around the same time.
但终于 全世界的立法者介入了
But eventually, lawmakers around the world stepped in.
从70年代开始 关于限制空气污染的法律变得严格 强烈要求汽车公司
Starting in the 1970s, laws got serious about limiting air pollution, forcing car companies
生产更多节能发动机 工厂更加减少排放
to make more efficient engines, and factories to produce fewer emissions.
因为事实证明 将空气变成毒药不是明智之举
Because it turns out, turning air into poison, is not a great idea.
感谢你观看这一期的科学秀 你真棒
Thank you for watching this episode of SciShow, you’re great.
特别感谢所有节目的赞助人和众筹网站
And a special thanks to all of our patrons on Patreon for making it happen!
如果你愿意帮助我们制作更多诸如此类的节目 供所有人观看
If you’d like to help us make more episodes like this, so that everybody can have them,
不管他们是否会回报 你都可以前往众筹网站patreon.com/scishow
regardless of whether they can pay, you can go to patreon.com/scishow,
而如果你只是想通过观看节目来支持我们 请在youtube.com/scishow观看
and if you just want to support us by watching, please do that at youtube.com/scishow.
[结尾音乐]
[♪ OUTRO]

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视频概述

伦敦是有名的雾都。本期科学秀将带你走进1952年那浓烟滚滚的黑色五天。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

半碗凉茶

审核员

译学馆审核员F

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4fkcTA7YX44

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