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五大世界宗教

The five major world religions - John Bellaimey

翻译:安德里亚•麦克多诺校对:杰西卡•鲁比
Translator: Andrea McDonoughReviewer: Jessica Ruby
历史上 无论何时何地 人类一直想弄清
In all times and places in our history, human beings have wondered,
“我们来自何处?
“Where did we come from?
在这世上 我们在哪里安身立命?
What’s our place in the world?
我们死后又会怎样?”
What happens to us after we die?”
宗教是多种的信仰体系
Religions are systems of belief
它对于上述问题 以及其他永恒的谜团
that have developed and evolved over time
给出了回答 并随着时间的推移 发展和演化
in response to these and other eternal mysteries,
人们觉得
driven by the feeling
这些谜团中有些问题只能用宗教信仰解释
that some questions can only be answered by faith
并且直觉上感到
and based on an intuition
我们之外 还有更强大的事物
that there is something greater than ourselves,
—— 一种令我们必须回应的力量
— a higher power we must answer to,
亦或是我们的源头
or some source we all spring from
和归宿
and to which we must return.
印度教 本意是印度的宗教
Hinduism means the religions of India.
它并非单一式宗教
It’s not a single religion
而是多种多样且相互联系的宗教信仰和习俗
but rather a variety of related beliefs and spiritual practices.
印度教可追溯至五千年前的
It dates back five millennia
克利须那时期
to the time of Krishna,
由于品德高尚 人们认为他是毗湿奴的化身
a man of such virtue that he became known as an avatar of Vishnu,
而毗湿奴是神的人形化身之一
an incarnation of the god in human form.
克利须那教导众生
He taught that all life follows karma,
追随因果准则“业”
the law of cause and effect,
还教导人不求结果 依照社会地位 尽职尽责
and our job is to do our duty, or dharma,
这种职责又称“达摩”
according to our place in society without worrying how things turn out.
我们死去之时 会转世投胎 获得新生
When we die, we are reincarnated into a new body.
如果遵守了达摩之法
If we followed our dharma and
在过去的一生中司尽本职
did our proper duty in our past life,
我们就能得到善报 灵魂也会被送进高阶社会
we get good karma, which sends our soul upward in the social scale.
如此一来 通过我们今生的所作所为
Our rebirth into the next life is thus determined
来世的重生就得到了安排
by what we do in this one.
重生之轮被称作“轮回”
The wheel of rebirths is called samsara.
圣洁之人过行善的生活
It’s possible for a very holy person
从而逃脱轮回
to lead a life with enough good karma
是可能的
to escape the wheel.
这种逃脱叫做“解脱”
This escape is called moksha.
印度教教义认为万物一体
Hinduism teaches that everything is one.
整个宇宙是一个超然实体——婆罗门
The whole universe is one transcendent reality called Brahman,
婆罗门只有一个 但其中神明诸多
and there’s just one Brahman but many gods within it,
传统信仰不同
and their roles, aspects, and forms differ
他们的角色和外表也各不相同
according to various traditions.
梵天是创造者
Brahma is the Creator,
毗湿奴是维护者 有时以人形示人
Vishnu is the preserver who sometimes takes on human form,
而湿婆是破坏者
and Shiva is the transformer,
他也被称为“舞蹈之神”
or Lord of the Dance.
杜尔伽是神圣母亲 凶残且具有保护性
Durga is the fiercely protective divine mother.
伽内什象头人身 是智慧和财富的支持者和捍卫者
Ganesha has an elephant head and is the wise patron of success.
印度教是世界第三大宗教
Hinduism is the third largest religion in the world.
尽管大多数印度教徒居住于印度
And although most Hindus live in India,
但每一片大陆上都有他们的足迹
they can be found on every continent,
人数足有10亿
one billion strong. Now,
好 我们向西游历吧
let’s travel west,
穿过沙漠 翻越山峰抵达4000年前肥沃富饶的月牙形地区
across deserts and mountains to the fertile crescent about 4,000 years ago.
犹太教由亚伯拉罕和萨拉创立
Judaism began with God calling Abraham and Sarah to leave Mesopotamia
上帝召唤他们离开美索不达米亚 移居至迦南
and migrate to the land of Canaan.
他们信仰唯一神上帝——
In return for their faith in the one true God,
那个时代的多神论世界中一个革命性概念
a revolutionary concept in the polytheistic world of that time,
作为回报 他们会得到土地和众多后代
they would have land and many descendants.
这个诺言得到了实现
From this promise came the land of Israel
以色列 以及被选中的人们就诞生了
and the chosen people,
但使人们留在那片土地上 并聚集在一起将是十分困难的
but staying in that land and keeping those people together was going to be very difficult.
在埃及 以色列人被奴役
The Israelites were enslaved in Egypt,
但是在摩西的帮助下 真主解放了他们
but God freed them with the help of the prophet Moses,
摩西被授以“十诫” 其后又增加了数百条
who received the Ten Commandments and later hundreds more.
以色列人征服了应许之地(迦南)
They conquered the Promised Land,
但只在那儿留了几百年
but could only keep it for a few hundred years.
以色列处在十字路口
Israel sits at a crossroads
几个世纪以来 许多军队行进通过
through which many armies marched over the centuries.
公元70年
And in the year 70,
罗马人摧毁了都城耶路撒冷的圣殿
the Romans destroyed the temple in their capital, Jerusalem. So,
许多教士牺牲了
the religion transformed itself from a temple religion
犹太教也由圣殿传教转变成经卷传教
with sacrifices and priests to a religion of the book.
因此
Because of this, Judaism is a faith
犹太教有了象征 尊敬等深层含义
of symbolism, reverence, and deep meanings
有关犹太教历史的文献资料也与这些含义紧密相关
tied to the literature of its history.
希伯来圣经《塔纳赫》由许多神圣的经文组成
The many sacred scriptures make up the Hebrew Bible, or Tanakh,
其概要全面收录了
and hundreds of written discussions and interpretations
大量书面记载的论述和说明
are contained in an expansive compendium
这份含义深奥的概要叫做《塔木德》
of deeper meanings, called the Talmud.
犹太教徒在日常中发掘了丰富多彩的象征意义
Jews find rich, symbolic meaning in daily life.
逾越节晚餐菜单上
At the Passover meal,
每道菜都有着象征摆脱奴役的某层意思
every item on the menu symbolizes an aspect of the escape from slavery.
达到行受诫礼年龄之时
The importance of growing up is emphasized when
人的成年就会受到重视 在这个仪式期间
young people reach the age of bar and bat mitzvah–ceremonies during which
人们会对自己的行为承担责任
they assume responsibility for their actions
并为能按照犹太民族的信仰 历史以及经文
and celebrate the weaving of their own lives into
谱写自己的人生而庆祝
the faith, history, and texts of the Jewish people.
当今全世界有1400万犹太教徒
There are 14 million Jews in the world today,
其中600万在以色列
6 million in Israel,
他们在恐怖的二战大屠杀后自食其力
which became independent following the horrors of genocide in World War II,
另有500万生存在美国
and 5 million in the United States.
但现在让我们回到2500年前的印度吧
But now let’s go back 2500 years and return to India
在那里 年轻的王子悉达多创立了佛教
where Buddhism began with a young prince named Siddhartha.
据说 在他母亲怀胎的那个夜晚
On the night he was conceived, his mother, Queen Maya,
睡梦中
is said to have been visited in her sleep
一只白象来到了她的身边
by a white elephant who entered her side.
十个月后 悉达多王子在荣华富贵中降生了
Ten months later, Prince Siddartha was born into a life of luxury.
在年轻时
Venturing forth from his sheltered existence
冒险放弃了备受呵护的生活
as a young man, he witnessed the human suffering
并目睹了被隐瞒的人类苦难后
that had been hidden from him
他当即启程 去调查其根源
and immediately set out to investigate its sources.
为什么我们必须忍受苦难?
Why must people endure suffering?
我们一定要上百次地转世投胎吗?
Must we reincarnate through hundreds of lives?
起初 他以为问题在于贪恋物质享受
At first he thought the problem was attachment to material things,
因此他放弃了全部财产
so he gave up his possessions.
成了四处游荡的乞讨者但发觉结果并不令人满意
He became a wandering beggar, which he discovered certainly made him no happier.
后来 他偶然听到一位音乐老师告诉学生
Then he overheard a music teacher telling a student,
“别把弦绷得太紧 它会断掉的
“Don’t tighten the string too much, it will break.
但也别太松
But don’t let it go too slack,
否则会弹不出声音”
or it will not sound.”
一念间 他意识到 以血肉之躯寻求究极答案
In a flash, he realized that looking for answers at the extremes
是错误的
was a mistake.
奢华和贫穷之间的中庸之道才最明智
The middle way between luxury and poverty seemed wisest.
在菩提树下冥想时
And while meditating under a bodhi tree,
他得出了完整的答案
the rest of the answer came to him.
芸芸众生 苦海无边
All of life abounds with suffering.
原因是个人为满足自己的欲望
It’s caused by selfish craving for one’s own fulfillment
而牺牲他人利益
at the expense of others.
遵守八步规划 我们就能学会缓解欲望
Following an eight-step plan can teach us to reduce that craving,
进而减轻痛苦
and thus reduce the suffering.
在那一天 悉达多顿悟成佛 开明的一位
On that day, Siddhartha became the Buddha, the enlightened one.
他并非唯一的佛 但却是佛祖
Not the only one, but the first one.
修佛被划成“八正道”
The Buddhist plan is called the Eightfold Path, and
虽然遵循八正道很难
though it is not easy to follow, it has
但它为许多人指明了顿悟之路
pointed the way for millions to enlightenment,
顿悟是佛性所在
which is what Buddhahood means,
它指的是一种怜悯苍生 洞悉万物平和而又坚定的状态
a state of compassion, insight, peace, and steadfastness.
从离开树下
From the time he got up from under that tree
到终老之时
to the moment of his death as an old man,
佛祖始终教导人们如何顿悟:
the Buddha taught people how to become enlightened:
正语 正定
right speech, right goals, a mind focused on what is real,
专注 求实 向善 博爱
and a heart focused on loving others.
许多佛教徒相信天主和众神
Many Buddhists believe in God or gods,
但比起信念 行动更重要
but actions are more important than beliefs.
当今世界有近10亿佛教徒
There are nearly a billion Buddhists in the world today,
多数分布在东亚、东南亚和南亚
mostly in East, Southeast, and South Asia.
2000年前 在犹太教徒的应许之地
2,000 years ago in Judaism’s Promised Land,
基督教诞生了
Christianity was born.
与印度教徒将克利须那称作“人形神明”类似
Just as Hindus called Krishna”God in Human Form,”
基督教徒也称耶稣为人形上帝
Christians say the same thing about Jesus,
同时 正如佛教源自印度教一样基督教源自犹太教
and Christianity grew out of Judaism just as Buddhism grew out of Hinduism.
亚伯拉罕神派天使加百利
The angel Gabriel was sent by the God of Abraham
请求一位年轻女子玛丽成为他孩子的母亲
to ask a young woman named Mary to become the mother of his son.
这个男孩就是耶稣 由玛丽和她的丈夫
The son was Jesus, raised as a carpenter by Mary and
木匠约瑟夫抚养至30岁后
her husband Joseph, until he turned 30, when he began
他开始了向平民传递上帝福音的事业
his public career as the living word of God.
比起传教
Less interested in religiousness
耶稣更关注公平和仁慈
than in justice and mercy,
为了吸引大众 他治愈了病人
Jesus healed the sick in order to draw crowds
并教人们了解他身在天堂的父亲——
and then taught them about his heavenly father — affectionate,
慈爱宽容 又关怀民生
forgiving, and attentive. Then,
后来 为证实天国的存在
he would invite everyone to a common table
他邀请所有人
to illustrate his Kingdom of God, outcasts,
包括流亡者 罪人和圣洁之人共进晚餐
sinners, and saints all eating together.
仅三年后 非凡的智慧令他陷入了麻烦
He had only three years before his unconventional wisdom got him into trouble.
他被敌人抓住
His enemies had him arrested, and he
罗马帝国按照处死煽动民众者的方式
was executed by Rome in the standard means
把他钉死在了十字架上
by which rabble-rousers were put to death–crucifixion.
但被埋葬后不久
But shortly after he was buried,
几位女门徒发现坟墓空了 她们迅速传开消息
women found his tomb empty and quickly spread word,
说服人们相信耶稣起死回生了
convinced that he had been raised from the dead.
第一位信徒对他复活后的面貌进行了描述
The first Christians described his resurrected appearances,
说他对自己的话坚信不疑 而且意气风发 令人振奋
inspiring confidence that his message was true.
这句话就是:爱他人吧!像我爱你一样
The message: love one another as I have loved you.
基督徒于12月的圣诞节
Christians celebrate the birth of Jesus
庆祝耶稣的降生;
in December at Christmas,
于春季的圣周
and his suffering, death, and resurrection
歌颂他的受难 死亡和复活
during Holy Week in the spring.
于受洗仪式
In the ceremony of baptism–
洗净罪恶 接纳新信众
a washing away of sin and welcoming into the Christian community,
回顾耶稣受洗 并离弃木匠身份的经过
recall Jesus’s own baptism when he left his life as a carpenter.
于圣餐仪式
In the rite of Communion,
祝圣耶稣的身体和血液
Christians eat the bread and drink the wine
吃面饼 喝葡萄酒
blessed as the body and blood of Jesus,
回顾耶稣主持的最后晚餐
recalling Jesus’s last supper.
全世界有20亿基督徒
There are two billion Christians worldwide,
几乎相当于总人口的三分之一
representing almost a third of the world’s people.
1400年前 在阿拉伯沙漠里的一个山洞里
Islam began 1400 years ago
一位品行高尚的男子冥想时
with a man of great virtue,
伊斯兰教诞生了
meditating in a mountain cave in the Arabian desert.
这个男子就是穆罕默德
The man was Muhammad.
上帝的使者 天使加百利也同样探望了他
He was visited by a divine messenger,
在阿拉伯语中 加百利的叫法是吉卜利勒
again the angel Gabriel, in Arabic, Jibril,
他把安拉 即唯一真主亚伯拉罕的消息
delivering to him the words of Allah,
传递给了穆罕默德
the one God of Abraham.
接下来的几年里 传来的信息越来越多
In the next few years, more and more messages came,
穆罕默德就将它们记住 并传授下去
and he memorized and taught them.
穆罕默德吟诵的经节充满了睿智的格言
The verses he recited were full of wise sayings,
美妙的韵律和神秘的隐喻
beautiful rhymes, and mysterious metaphors.
但他只是个商人 不是诗人
But Muhammad was a merchant, not a poet.
许多人都相信那些经节确实出自上帝之口
Many agreed the verses were indeed the words of God,
后来这些人就成了第一批穆斯林
and these believers became the first Muslims.
穆斯林意为“顺从之人”
The word Muslim means one who surrenders,
它指的是那些顺从上帝意志的人
meaning a person who submits to the will of God.
身为穆斯林
A Muslim’s five most important duties
首要任务是“五功” 它分别是
are called the Five Pillars: Shahada,
念功:公开宣称
Muslims declare publicly,
除了安拉 不存在其他神
there is no other God but Allah,
此外 穆罕默德才是毋庸置疑的先知
and Muhammad is his final prophet; Salat,
拜功:每天面朝麦加 祈祷五次
they pray five times a day facing Mecca; Zakat,
课功:每个穆斯林应该用净收入的2%到3%施舍穷人
every Muslim is required to give 2 or 3 % of their net worth to the poor; Sawm,
斋功:斋月期间
they fast during daylight hours
从日出到日落禁食
for the lunar month
来加强意志力和对上帝的信任
of Ramadan to strengthen their willpower and their reliance on God;
以及朝功:有条件的穆斯林
and Hajj, once in a lifetime,
一生中必须去圣城麦加朝拜一次
every Muslim who is able must make a pilgrimage
为在上帝面前
to the holy city of Mecca,
接受是否值得永生的审判
rehearsing for the time when they will stand before God to be judged worthy or unworthy
而预先排演
of eternal life with Him.
23年间 上帝揭示给先知的福音
The words of God, revealed to the prophet over 23 years,
被收录于《古兰经》
are collected in the Quran,
直译过来就是“朗诵本”
which literally translates into”the recitation.”
穆斯林认为《古兰经》是唯一一本
Muslims believe it to be the only holy book
没有遭到人类堕落行为摧残的圣书
free of human corruption.
它也被许多人认作是阿拉伯语文学作品中
It’s also considered by many to be the finest work
最佳的作品
of literature in the Arabic language.
伊斯兰教是世界第二大宗教
Islam is the world’s second largest religion,
奉行的穆斯林遍布全球 超过15亿
practiced by over one and a half billion Muslims around the globe.
宗教自诞生以来
Religion has been an aspect of culture for
就一直是种文化 信奉方式变化无穷 数不胜数
as long as it has existed, and there are countless variations of its practice.
但所有宗教的共同之处在于其内涵
But common to all religions is an appeal for meaning
这些内涵极具吸引力它超越了虚罔的浮华 卑微的现实
beyond the empty vanities and lowly realities of existence,
超越了原始的罪孽 无数的劫难 生命的终止
beyond sin, suffering, and death,
超越了我们自身的恐惧
beyond fear, and beyond ourselves.

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视频概述

世界五大宗教:印度教、佛教、犹太教、基督教和伊斯兰教。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Bingo

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m6dCxo7t_aE

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