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塑造战略的五大竞争力

The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy

[Music Playing]
[音乐播放中]
I am Tom Stewart, Editor and Managing Director of the Harvard Business Review.
我是汤姆·斯图尔特《哈佛商业评论》的主编和总经理
Our guest today is Michael Porter, Professor at Harvard University
我们今天的嘉宾是迈克尔·波特 哈佛大学教授
and Head of the Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness.
战略与竞争力研究所所长
He is the author of the forthcoming HBR article,
他是即将发表的HBR文章
“The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy”,
《塑造战略的五大竞争力》的作者
a reaffirmation, update, and extension
该文章对1979年他的开创之作
of his groundbreaking 1979 article “How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy”.
《竞争力如何塑造战略》进行了重申 更新以及扩展
Mike, thanks for joining the program.
迈克 谢谢你来参加节目
To start, let us remind our viewers of what the five competitive forces are.
首先 让我们为观众回顾下这五种竞争力是什么
Well Tom, the basic idea of the competitive forces starts with the notion
好的 汤姆 有关竞争力的基本观点
that competition is often looked at too narrowly by managers,
源于管理者通常把竞争看得过于狭隘
and the five forces say that, yes you are competing with your direct competitors,
这五种力量是说 你确实是在和直接对手竞争
but you are also in a fight for profits with a broader extended set of competitors,
但实际上也在与更广泛的竞争者争夺利润
customers who have bargaining powers,
有议价能力的客户
suppliers who can have bargaining power,
也有议价能力的供应商
new entrants who might come in and kind of grab a piece of the action,
还有可能会来分一杯羹的新入行者
and substitute products or services
以及本质上限制了
that essentially place a constraint or a cap on your profitability and growth.
盈利能力和增长的替代产品与服务
So the five forces is kind of a holistic way of looking at any industry
五力模型是一种适用于研究任何行业的整体方法
and understanding the structural underlying drivers of profitability and competence.
能弄清该行业盈利和竞争力的结构性底层驱动因素
So I use this to think about my rival makes it difficult for me.
所以 我以此方法思考竞争对手给我制造的困难
The threat of substitutes means I cannot overcharge.
替代品的威胁意味着我不能多收费
The threat of new entrants means I cannot overcharge.
新入行者的威胁意味着我不能滥收费
Right.
没错
– The same thing with the buyers and suppliers. – Buyers and suppliers.
– 购买者和供应商也一样 – 是的 也一样
And there is underlying drivers of each of those forces
这一模型确实似乎揭示了五力中的
that the model really sort of unveils
每一种都有潜在的驱动力
and then you can actually apply this.
你真的可以将其加以利用
Every industry is different.
每个行业都不相同
Every industry will have a different set of economic fundamentals,
每个行业有其不同的经济基础
but the five forces help you hone in on,
但五力模型能帮你深入理解
first of all, what is really causing profitability in the industry.
首先 真正给这个行业带来盈利能力的是什么?
What are the trends that are most likely to be significant
行业内最有可能在改变规则方面
in changing the game in the industry?
发挥重大作用的趋势是什么?
Where are the constraints, which if you can relax,
那些如果一经放松 就能让你找到
it might allow you to find a really strong competitive position?
强有力竞争地位的制约因素在哪呢?
so how would you apply this analysis to an industry, airlines for example.
那你如何用它来分析行业呢?比如航空业
Airlines is a great industry.
航空业是个伟大的行业
Actually you will see in the article or you have seen in the article
实际上 你将看到或已经在文章中看到
that there is a chart that compares profitability of industries,
有一个比较了各行业盈利能力的图表
and airlines, I think has been on the bottom of that list for decades.
我认为数十年来航空业一直处于名单的末位
It is among the least profitable industries known to man,
它是人类已知的利润最低的行业之一
and the five forces really allow you very quickly to understand why.
五力模型确实能帮你快速理解其中缘由
I mean, let us just go around the chart.
我的意思是 让我们来看看这个表格
The nature of rivalry is incredibly intense and it is almost exclusively on price.
竞争的本质极其激烈 几乎完全取决于价格
It has been very hard to differentiate,
而价格战让人很难区分孰优孰劣
to get the customer to wait even an extra two or three minutes for another flight
并且如果乘客能以更低价格乘坐其它航班的话
if they can get on the flight with a cheaper price.
也很难让乘客为另一趟多等两三分钟
So there has been a very intense price competition,
所以这个行业的价格竞争非常激烈
low barriers to entry.
入行的门槛很低
Constant stream of new airlines coming into the industry
尽管现实是该行业盈利很低
despite the fact that probability is low.
还一直有新的航空公司加入进来
It always puzzles me.
这点一直困惑着我
Low barriers to entry because you can rent a plane,
低门槛是因为你能租赁飞机
you do not have to buy them.
而不必买
You can rent a plane. You can lease a gate.
能租赁飞机 也能租赁登机口
You know, it is all generic technology.
你懂的 这都是共性技术
You can start with one flight between two city pairs.
你可以从往返于两个城市之间的一个航班开始
You don’t have to, you know there is no real need to have a whole network in the beginning,
其实 你并不需要一开始就拥有完整的网络
and yet, people keep coming in.
但是 人们不断加入进来
I think it is just one of those “sexy” industries.
我认为 航空业就属于 “诱惑性” 行业
It is a great example of how sexiness or coolness or hotness or cheapness
这个例子很好地说明了极度的诱惑力或低价
has nothing to do with industry profitability.
与行业盈利能力无关
The underlying structure is what drives profitability.
基础结构是驱动盈利能力的因素
Yeah, the customer is very fickle and price sensitive.
顾客颇为善变 还对价格敏感
Suppliers of aircraft and aircraft engines
飞机和飞机引擎的供应商
and even aircraft gates at airports now have a lot of clout.
甚至机场登机口大门的供应商如今都很有影响力
They can bargain away most of the profits.
他们可以讨价还价拿走大部分利润
GE, and Rolls-Royce, and Airbus, and Boeing make a lot more money than Airlines.
通用 劳斯莱斯 空客还有波音比航空公司赚的多多了
They get most of the profit.
他们赚到了大部分利润
And then of course, there is always the substitute of getting on the train or driving your car
当然 总是有替代出行方案 火车或自驾
or shipping your goods by air
或航空货运
and that set has kind of kept a continuum.
可以说这一系列在持续地限制航空业的盈利
You have powerful suppliers of labor too.
还有强大的劳务供应商要面对
That is another powerful supplier.
这是另外一个强大的供应商
Right, exactly.
对 完全正确
There is a great case where you have unionized labor.
有一个很好的案例 就是工会的劳工
Unlike other industries, in this industry particularly with the pilots,
不同于其他行业 这个行业的劳动力 特别是飞行员
the labor can literally shut you down, and there is no way around them.
他们能让你彻底停工 束手无策
So, it is an industry where there are spurts
所以 这个行业可以说盈利能力普通
of what you might call mediocre profitability
但是会有小幅度激增
punctuated by long periods of terrible profitability.
但这种激增会被长期的惨淡业绩中断
So everyone of the five forces is very strong in that industry
所以这五个竞争力在此行业的表现都很强势
and you could take another industry where the five forces are relatively benign.
那你可以从事五个竞争力的影响相对较小的行业
Right, like soft drinks.
同意 比如 软饮料
I mean, soft drinks have been a license to mint money
软饮料一直是一本万利的生意
and again, it is the opposite kind of analysis.
而这又是一种截然相反的分析
When I talk with students, we kind of joke around,
我和学生们一起讨论的时候 会打趣地说
five-star industries
像软饮料般的五星级行业
where all the forces are attractive like soft drinks.
其所有竞争力都极具吸引力
There are zero-star industries
而像航空公司般的零星级行业
where all the forces are unfavorable like airlines,
其所有竞争力都是不利的
and we are always trying to understand,
并且我们一直在努力去理解
okay, what is the configuration of underlying economic drivers
那些将真正塑造行业盈利潜力的
that is going to really shape the profit potential of this industry
基本经济驱动因素的配置是什么
and then armed with that insight, what do I do about it?
当我明白了那个观点 我可以做些什么
How do I try to relax the constraint that is holding back industry profitability?
我该如何突破束缚行业盈利的制约因素?
How can I position myself
我可以如何定位自己
to kind of insulate from some of the gales, gale winds of those forces?
让自己少受这些狂风 竞争飓风的影响?
Those implications of the five forces are something
新文章中对五力模型的潜在影响
that this new article has developed in much more detail.
进行了详细阐述
You conceived this framework nearly three decades ago
你在近三十年前构思出的这一框架
and it has been the most extensively used
不论是在学术管理方面
both in management scholarship and management practice of any strategy framework,
还是在任何战略框架的管理实践方面 应用都是最广泛的
it changed the definition of strategy in a lot of ways.
它在许多方面改变了战略的定义
In these three decades, what have you learned?
这三十年来 你有什么收获吗?
What have you learned about the application of these ideas
关于这些想法在现实商业世界中的运用
in the real world of business?
你从中学到了什么?
Well, the wonderful thing of course we learned is
当然 我们学到的妙事是
that these concepts can be applied to literally any, any industry,
这些概念可用于任何行业
to product, to service, high-tech, low-tech,
无论是产品 服务 高科技 低技术
emerging economies, developed economies.
新兴经济体 还是发达经济体
Indeed, what one of the powers of the framework is
事实上 框架的作用之一
it helps you get avoid getting trapped or tricked
是帮助你避开
by the latest trend or the latest technological sensation,
那些来自最新科技热点 最新趋势的圈套和骗局
and really allows you to focus on the underlying fundamentals.
真正让你专注于潜在的基本面
The internet is a good example.
互联网是个绝佳的例子
We got very, very confused by the internet
我们对互联网感到极其困惑
because people saw the internet as a force
因为人们把互联网看作是一种力量
as opposed to really enabling technology
而不是一种真正的
that might or might not impact the underlying structure of the industry.
有可能影响产业基本结构的使能技术
So I think one thing I have learned is the framework is very, very robust,
所以 我认为我的一个收获是 这个框架相当强大
but I have also learned
但我也了解到
that there is a lot of confusion and complexity in
实际运用框架相当复杂
actually applying the framework in actual practice
也产生了很多疑惑
and we tried to clear as many of those areas up as we could in this new article.
在新文章中 我们试图尽可能多地对这些加以澄清
For example, how to think about rivalry?
例如 如何看待竞争?
What what’s the really… How do we understand
什么是真正的……我们要如何弄清楚
when rivalry is really positive-sum, which allows many companies to do well?
何时会产生让许多公司运转良好的正和竞争?
When does rivalry become really zero-sum,
何时会产生没有赢家的
where everybody is kind of dragged down into a destructive battle that you cannot win.
大家都被拖进来遭受损失的毁灭性的零和竞争?
Well, I can understand zero-sum.
我能理解零和竞争
I mean, if we get in a price war,
意思是 如果我们卷入价格战
the only one who wins is the consumer, which is nice if you are a consumer.
唯一获胜的是消费者 作为消费者当然开心
– Yeah. – But what do you mean by positive-sum competition?
– 是的 没错 – 不过 你说的正和竞争是什么意思?
Well, you know the trouble with the zero-sum competition
零和竞争的问题是
is then the consumer gets a little price,
让消费者拿到了很低的价格
but they really got no choice,
但他们真的别无选择
and a positive-sum competition is where companies can compete
而正和竞争是指公司
on different attributes, services, features, customer support,
基于不同属性 服务 特征 客户支持的
that is actually relevant to particular groups of customers.
能面向特定客户群体展开的竞争
And the most really positive-sum competition
最真实的正和竞争是
is where companies are really competing on different things
公司为满足不同细分市场的需求
in order to meet the needs of different segment.
在不同领域展开的竞争
So we are growing the pie and there is a piece for each of us.
所以 我们在做馅饼 每人都有一份
There is a piece for each of us.
每个人都能分到
In fact, one of the things we talked about in the new article,
事实上 这是我们在新文章里提出的
one of the things I did in the new article
也是我在新文章中所做的
that we really probably did not have the experience to do so many years ago,
可能我们多年前没有经验去做的一件事
was really talk a lot about the implications.
就是真正谈论竞争的潜在影响
If this is the way competition works, what do you do about it?
如果竞争就是如此 你会怎么做呢?
One of them is might be
可能之一是
in some industries rather than go for market share against your rivals,
在一些行业里 与其和对手争夺市场份额
you might be much better off just really expanding the pie,
倒不如把馅饼做大些 扩大整个行业利润池
expanding the whole profit pool of the industry.
这样你会好过很多
That may be the best way for a market leader
扩大市场可能是市场领导者
to actually improve their circumstances
实际改善环境的最佳方式
rather than to trigger a destructive battle with their head-to-head rival.
而不是去触发一场毁灭性的正面竞争
How should a company get started using the five forces framework?
公司应该如何开始运用五力模型呢?
You are working your strategy and you decide, “This really works for me.”
你在制定自己的战略 并决断 “这真的于我有益”
How do you begin?
那怎样开始呢?
Well, I think industry analysis and looking at the competitive environment is of course,
我认为行业分析以及对竞争环境的关注
probably the starting basic discipline of any strategy formulation process.
当然可能是任何战略制定过程的起始基本锻炼
If you do not know what your industry looks like,
如果你不了解你的行业
if you do not know how it is changing,
如果你不知道它在怎样变化
if you do not know what the drivers or competition are,
如果你不知道驱动力或者竞争是什么
you know, strategy is going to be marginally useful, if not destructive.
你懂的 即便没有破坏作用 战略所起到的作用也微乎其微
So we got to start with industry analysis figuring out
所以我们一定要从行业分析开始
what your industry is and drawing the right boundaries.
弄清楚你的行业并正确划定边界
That is not always easy.
并非总是那么容易
It is not always easy.
确实不总是那么容易
We have added a box in this new article,
我们在新文章里添加了一点
which really addresses that question
真正解决这类问题的方法
because I encountered so many companies that struggled with industry definition,
因为我遇到过很多苦恼于行业定义的公司
you know, identifying really
实际上就是识别出
what the industry structure is in your particular industry.
你所在行业的行业结构是什么
And then there is another thing that a lot of managers do.
然后 还有件很多管理者都在做的事情
They kind of go through the industry analysis
他们在做过行业分析后
and they say, “Okay. This is good, this is bad.
会说 “这个可以 那个不行
This is good, this is bad.
这个不错 那个不对
This is an attractive industry or unattractive industry.”
这个行业有吸引力 那个行业没有”
But of course the real question is how is that industry changing?
但当然 真正的问题是那个行业正发生怎样的变化?
Some have believed and taken the five forces as really a static snapshot,
有些人会把五力模型当作静态快照来使用
but of course the five forces give you the tools
但当然 五力模型提供给你工具
for understanding the dynamics
帮你理解行业动态
and where is that industry structure changing?
以及行业结构在哪里发生着变化?
How are buyers and suppliers and substitutes and potential entry evolving?
买家 供应商 替代品以及潜在进入者是如何演化的?
And then what implications does that hold for your strategy?
以及这对你的战略会有什么影响?
How do you position yourself to find that spot within the industry
考虑到五力模型 应如何给自己定位
that you’re at where you can command a really good profit given the five forces?
以找到自己行业里能获得丰厚利润的那个点?
How can you maybe reshape the nature of the industry structure?
还有 你如何才能重塑行业结构的本质?
We have got some great new examples
我们在这篇文章里用了全新案例
that are very, very contemporary in this article
相当符合当今社会
that I think will help the manager community and the investor community
我认为这些会有助于管理方和投资方
really understand the application of this.
真正地理解五力模型的应用方法
Sometimes when people think about strategy, they think about a group of people,
有时人们一谈到战略 就会想到这样一群人
maybe from a management consulting firm
要么是管理咨询公司来的
or maybe on the 33rd floor of the building, whatever it is,
要么是摩天大楼33层的同类人等
but it is sort of elite strategy priesthood that goes in and does this.
但那种走进公司干这个的 似乎是精英型的战略神父
They are almost divorced from the rest of the management of the company,
他们几乎与公司其他管理层
the 99% of the other people working in the company.
和99%的员工脱节
How can a strategy become part of the day-to-day life
战略怎样才能成为一个公司
of a working stiff manager in a company?
低薪管理者日常生活的一部分?
How do you apply this framework, this thinking?
你如何运用这个框架即这种思考方法?
How do you use it?
要怎么用呢?
We think that this way of looking at an industry
我们认为分析看待行业的方法
needs to be very, very broadly understood in the organization, I mean.
需要在组织里得到非常广泛的理解
And the thing about it is that managers, even rank and file employees, it is intuitive.
关键管理者 甚至普通员工也是凭直觉理解
People understand. We have these customers, we have these suppliers,
人们清楚 我们有这些顾客 有这些供应商
we are struggling with them everyday.
我们每天都在与他们斗争
They are trying to get a better deal, we are trying to get a better deal.
大家都在努力获得自认为更好的交易
So intuitively, I think this is a way of helping people sort of step back
所以凭直觉看 我认为正是这种方式在帮人们
from all the excruciating little details that characterize any business
从任何行业都有的 令人痛苦的所有琐事中抽离出来
and say “what’s really important here?”
并确定“在此 真正重要的是什么?”
And then of course we have learned that strategy is completely useless,
当然 我们也明白了 战略本身完全起不了作用
again, unless the results of the strategy process,
还是那句话 除非战略进程的结果
the position that you choose to occupy
和你所选择的定位
the way you’re going to drive your company is well understood quite broadly
以及你要推动公司发展的方式已被众人理解
because the number one purpose of strategy is aligned.
因为战略的首要目的是团结一致
It’s really to get all the people in the organization
就是让组织中的所有人都参与进来
making good choices reinforcing each other’s choices
一同做出好的选择 强化彼此的选择
because everybody is pursuing a common value proposition
因为每个人都在追求一个共同的价值主张
or common way of gaining competitive advantage.
或获得竞争优势的常用方法
So you know, I remember when I wrote this article,
你知道吗?记得我写这篇文章时
there were many people who believed
很多人认为
that strategy documents should be locked in the safe at night
战略文件应该被锁在保险箱里过夜
and should not be made available to the rank and file.
而且是不应该提供给普通员工的
There was a concern that some competitor would find some secret.
因为大家担心有些竞争对手会发现某些秘密
Well, we have actually learned now that it is the opposite.
而事实上 我们现在已经知道 情况恰恰相反
Your employees got to know your strategy, your channels have to know your strategy,
你的员工 你的渠道商都有必要了解你的战略
your suppliers have to know your strategy.
你的供应商也有必要了解
Your competitors probably knew it already.
你的竞争对手可能也已经了解咯
Well, and frankly, again the competition is not zero-sum.
坦率讲 再说一遍 竞争不是零和的
If every company finds a unique need that it can set out to meet,
如果每家公司都能找到可以满足的独特需求
if it tries to deliver something different than its rivals,
如果一家公司尽力去交付区别于竞争对手的产品
multiple rivals can be successful.
那么很多竞争者都能成功
And If your competitors can understand what you stand for
如果你的竞争对手能明白你主张的是什么
and what you are committed to,
以及承诺的是什么
maybe they will make a different choice,
或许他们会做出不同的选择
rather than get dragged into this kind of mindless price wars that we see in so many industries.
而不是被拖进许多行业都存在的无脑价格战
The five forces that shape strategy have been around for 30 years,
塑造战略的五力模型诞生已约有30年了
they are going to be around for, well, they have been around long before you wrote about it.
且在你把这个理论写出来之前就已经运转了很久了
– That is right. – They have been around as long as business has been around.
– 的确是 – 五力模型和商业存在的时间一样久
They are going to be around as long as business is around.
只要商业存在 五力模型就会一直存在
The new article is just fabulous.
这篇新文章相当精彩
-Thank you so much. -Thank you.
-非常感谢你 -也要谢谢你
Well, I am looking forward to kind of getting another surge of feedback
好 我期待收到来自从业者的另一轮反馈
from the practitioners, and we will keep learning.
我们也会持续学习下去
Thanks.
谢谢
Thanks, Tom.
多谢 汤姆

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视频概述

迈克尔·波特在世界管理思想界可谓是“活着的传奇”,他是当今全球第一战略权威,是商业管理界公认的“竞争战略之父”。五力模型是他在上世纪80年代初提出的经典管理理论,帮助了全球企业管理者和投资人理解五力模型的不同组合变化对企业乃至行业盈利能力的重要影响。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

毛毛虫

审核员

审核员CICL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mYF2_FBCvXw

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