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在陆上行走的鱼

The fish that walk on land - Noah R. Bressman

[intro]
前奏
This pond is the only home this fish has ever known.
这个池塘是这个鱼唯一的家
But lately, it’s gotten crowded and food is scarce.
但最近 池塘变得拥挤且食物短缺
Luckily, it has an option many don’t:
幸运的是 它有别的鱼没有的选择
as a walking catfish, it can dance its way out of the water
作为一个会走路的鲶鱼 它可以跳出水面
and onto bigger and better things.
到更大更好的地方
However, it faces many challenges on its terrestrial journey:
然而 在陆地旅行中它面临着许多挑战
it’s now in danger of suffocating, drying up,
此刻面临着窒息 干涸
suffering physical damage from rough terrain,
因地形崎岖而致身体损伤
and being hunted by land predators.
以及被陆地掠食者猎杀的危险
We think of fish as completely aquatic animals.
我们认为鱼完全是水生动物
But the walking catfish is just one of hundreds of fish species
但是鲶鱼只是数百种两栖鱼类的一种
that are actually amphibious,
这意味着他们有适应能力
meaning that they possess adaptations that enable them to survive on land.
能在陆地生存
Fish amphibiousness is a spectrum.
鱼的两栖性有一个范围
At one end are species like the mosquitofish
一端是像食蚊鱼这样的物种
that’ll only move on land when forced.
它们只有在被迫的情况下才会在陆地上移动
And at the other end are species like mudskippers
而另一端则是像弹涂鱼这样的物种
that nonchalantly hop around mudflats for days at a time.
他们在泥潭上一蹦就好几天
But why do fish make the exodus from water to land?
但鱼为什么要从水里游到陆地上呢?
And how do they cope with this drastic transition?
它们如何应对这剧烈的转变?
If temperatures get too high for the mangrove rivulus
如果生活在热带浅水池的
in the shallow tropical pools it inhabits,
红树鹫觉得水温太高
it’ll flip itself onto a bank and cool off in the shade.
它会翻到河岸上 在阴凉处乘凉
During the dry period,it can survive for two months
它可以在干旱期离开水
out of the water by staying in moist environments.
在潮湿的环境中存活两个月
Meanwhile, the eel catfish makes its onshore voyage
与此同时 鳗鲶开始了它们的陆地旅行
to satisfy its hearty craving for beetles.
以满足对甲虫的强烈渴望
And for others, the terrestrial draw is more ritualistic.
对另一些鱼来说 地面上的吸引更像是惯例
Every year under the cover of night,
每年 在夜幕的掩饰下
masses of California grunion flop their way onto sandy beaches,
加利福尼亚的小银鱼成群结队地爬上沙滩
where females deposit thousands of eggs into the sand
雌性小银鱼在返回海洋前
before re-entering the ocean.
会在沙滩上产卵数千枚
Underwater, fish breathe with gills,
鱼在水下用腮呼吸
which are feathery organs packed with blood vessels
腮是充满血管的羽毛状器官
that absorb dissolved oxygen from the water.
这种器官可以从水中吸收溶解氧
But in the open air, their gills collapse and are rendered useless,
但在户外 它们的腮会萎缩 变得无用
so amphibious fishes need other ways to breathe.
所以两栖鱼需要其他的呼吸方式
The armored catfish’s stomach is packed with blood vessels,
甲鲶鱼的胃里全是血管
so it can gulp down air and breathe through its stomach lining.
所以它可以吞咽空气 通过胃粘膜呼吸
And lungfish, being related to the ancestors of all tetrapods,
肺鱼是四足动物的祖先
or four-limbed vertebrates, are equipped with true lungs.
或四足脊椎动物的祖先的亲戚 它们拥有真正的肺
They’ll actually drown if they’re kept underwater too long.
如果在水下呆太久它们会被淹死
Fish have thin, permeable skin that allows for essential compounds
鱼有薄的 可渗透的皮肤 当它们在水下时
to diffuse into and out of their bodies while they’re underwater.
允许必要的化学物质扩散进出身体
But this works against them on land as their bodily moisture
但在陆地上这对它们很不利
diffuses into the air.
因为身体的水分会蒸发到空气中
To dodge dehydration, mudskippers roll in the mud like puppies.
为了避免脱水 弹涂鱼会像小狗一样在泥地里打滚
But the lungfish takes the cake:
但肺鱼处境最为恶劣
the rivers it inhabits disappear during dry seasons,
它们栖息的河流会在干涸季节消失
so it buries itself in the earth and coats its body in a mucus cocoon.
所以它把自己埋到土里 身体包裹在粘液茧中
It can survive like this for years until being resuscitated
它可以像这样存活数年
by the next big rainstorm.
直到下一次大暴雨才苏醒
Amphibious fishes use powerful fins to move on land
两栖鱼用强壮的鳍在陆地上移动
and clever tools to navigate as they go.
用它们的触须来导航
The Nopoli rock-climbing goby, no bigger than a few centimeters,
诺波利攀岩虾虎鱼只有几厘米大
scales hundred-meter-tall Hawaiian waterfalls,
它将嘴和腹鳍上的吸盘交替吸附
inching its way up by alternately attaching the suction cups
在几百米高的夏威夷瀑布
on its mouth and pelvic fins.
慢慢地向上爬
To find water while on land, the mummichog,
为了在陆地上找到水 底鳉像大多数两栖鱼类
like most amphibious fishes, is on the lookout for reflective surfaces.
会留心反光的表面
Other species, like mosquitofish,
其他物种 比如食蚊鱼
exercise their inner ear to determine where they’re oriented on a slope,
通过内耳来确定它们在斜坡上的方位
relying on the probability that they’ll find water by moving downhill.
他们依赖下坡就能找到水源的可能性
Our walking catfish, meanwhile,
与此同时 我们的鲶鱼
uses the taste buds that coat its body for navigation.
利用身体上的味蕾来导航
These taste buds are concentrated in its whiskers,
这些味蕾集中在它的胡须上
which whip through the air,
这些胡须在空中飞来飞去
sensing compounds that signal the proximity and quality
可以感应临近信号以及附近水域
of nearby water— and prey.
和猎物质量的化合物
The walking catfish will shimmy towards attractive volatile amino acids
当避开硫化氢的污染水域时
while steering clear of foul waters emanating hydrogen sulfide.
鲶鱼会扭动向有吸引力的挥发性氨基酸
While amphibious fishes face a multitude of new challenges upon leaving the water,
虽然两栖鱼在离开水时面临着许多新的挑战
they’ve evolved ingenious ways to overcome them.
它们进化出了巧妙的方法来克服困难
They’re resilient in the face of droughts and floods
在面对干旱和洪水时很有韧性
and have access to new prey as well as a plan B
如果它们需要避开竞争
if they need to escape competitive,
以及污染或不健康的环境
polluted, or unhealthy environments.
它们不仅有机会实行B计划 而且有机会捕食新的猎物
While being a “fish out of water” is generally regarded as a bad thing,
虽然离开水的鱼通常被认为是一件坏事
for these species, it offers an undisputed edge.
但对这些物种来说 它提供了无可争议的优势
would you rather be able to smell drop of blood from hundreds of meters away
你愿意闻到几百米之外的一滴血的味道吗
or generate your own electricity
或者自己发电
choose the fish super power with one of this videos
那就观看这个超能力鱼的视频吧

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视频概述

不是每一条鱼都喜欢生活在水里~

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qWyLtYrTLYo

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