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第22周:香槟地区第一战 - 高加索冰雪里的死亡

The First Battle of Champagne - Dying In Caucasus Snow I THE GREAT WAR Week 22

差不多五个月之前 战争爆发之时 这将会是一场荣耀的战争 而交战各国
When the war began, nearly five months ago, it was to be glorious, and the warring nations
都认为战争将在圣诞之前结束 然而现在 数十万士兵
all saw a war that would be over by Christmas. And now, hundreds of thousands of men had
已战死沙场 平民亦然 更多的人身受重伤或是因其致残
been butchered- civilians too- and many more horribly wounded or maimed. The war was anything
今天就是圣诞节 而战争远远没有结束
but over and today it’s Christmas.
我是印地·奈德尔 欢迎来到《伟大战争》栏目
I’m Indy Neidell; welcome to the Great War.
上周 我们了解到俄罗斯计划入侵匈牙利 其结果是利马诺瓦战役爆发
Last week we saw Russian plans for an invasion of Hungary dashed with the conclusion of the
在西线 由于天气愈发恶劣 协约国刚开始大规模的进攻
battle of Limanowa. On the Western Front, the Allies were just about to begin a huge
非洲爆发了小规模冲突 英国海滨
offensive as the weather worsened, there were skirmishes in Africa, and British seaside
小镇遭到了德国人的轰炸 这是自1600年以来的第一次
towns were bombarded by the Germans, with British civilians killed by enemy forces for
the first time since the 1600.
众所周知 当你处于攻击的一方时
It was pretty much a truism that the abysmal December weather was always on the side of
十二月糟糕的天气总是对敌方有利 倾盆大雨经常使
the enemy when you were the one attacking, and the rainfall often made the trenches that
西线上下的所有战壕 几乎无法让人生存并带来
now ran the length of the western front almost impossible to inhabit and brought in a whole
slew of new problems.
数千名英军士兵因战壕足病而失去战斗能力 且常因此病被迫截肢
Thousands of British soldiers were invalidated for trench foot, which often resulted in amputation,
临近圣诞节时 英军阵地已变成 根据总司令
by Christmas because the ground in the British sector had become, according to commander-in-chief
法兰西·弗伦奇所言 “只是一个泥潭” 史密斯·多尔乐将军走得更远 他说
John French, “only a quagmire.” General Smith-Dorrien went further, and said “…there
“这里似乎没有石块或者沙砾 雨水使土壤变成了一种
appeared to be no stones or gravel, and rain converted the soil into a sort of liquid mud
of the consistency of thick porridge… to walk off the roads meant sinking at once….”
建造任何建筑物 比如胸墙 都会慢慢沉陷下去 并且维护任何掩体
Any structures built, like parapets, would slowly subside and to maintain any cover at
总是意味着繁重的劳动 即便你维护了掩体 通常你就不能
all meant constant labor. And even if you maintained cover, quite often you were unable
进攻 因为踏台一旦被冲刷 你就无法站在足够高的地方
to attack, since if the fire step had washed away you couldn’t stand high enough to fire
over the parapets.
人们仍然要战斗 因为持续数月之久的香槟进攻 开始了
And still the men had to fight, as the Champagne offensive, which would continue for months,
这是自堑壕战开始以来 在西线的第一次联合进攻
began. This was the first major allied attack on the western front since trench warfare
但是对攻守双方而言 冬季的天气状况使得
took over. But the winter conditions just increased the misery and the desperation off
both attacker and defender.
18日 印度军团在纪梵希进攻了德国人 而且他们
On the 18th, the Indian corps attacked the Germans at Givenchy and, after initial successes
在夺得德军前线战壕的初步胜利后 在交通壕遭遇了
taking the German front line trenches, were met by enemy soldiers coming up a communication
高举双手准备投降的敌军士兵 而他们身后的机枪早已准备好
trench with their hands up in surrender. Right behind them, though, were machine guns ready
to fire on any soldier foolish enough to show himself.
在同一场战役中 在印度人的旁边发动进攻的高地人部队却无法
At the same battle, the Highlander troops attacking beside the Indians were unable to
开火 因为他们的步枪被战壕中齐腰深的泥水堵塞住了
fire since most of their rifles had been clogged by mud from the waist deep water of the trenches.
They were captured.
两天之后 德国人重新夺回了他们所失去的 这种反复拉锯的情况
Two days later, the Germans recaptured what had been lost. This pattern of give and take
将会在这几个月中不断上演 尽管协约国军队占据人数优势
would repeat itself for months, in spite of the allied numerical advantage, with men dying
every single day for the smallest of temporary gains.
攻击不顺使得协约国人心浮躁 法国司令部于12月21日发布命令
The desperation of the attacks created great cynicism. Commander French issued orders December
21st for instant fire on any white flag shown by Germans on the western front or any white
德国船只开火 如果对一艘船是否陷入困境有疑问 那么它就应被击沉
flag raised on a German ship, and if in doubt whether a ship is helpless or not, it should be sunk.
And then suddenly, it was Christmas.
平安夜 一个年轻的中尉 爱德华·赫尔斯爵士 在战争日记中写道“一个叫
On Christmas Eve, a young lieutenant, Sir Edward Hulse, wrote in a war diary, ”A scout
F.默克尔的侦查员外出并遇见了一个德国巡逻兵 德国人给了他一杯威士忌和
named F. Murker went out and met a German patrol and was given a glass of whiskey and
一些雪茄 还有一条消息也被传达回来 即如果我们不向他们开火 那么他们也将
some cigars, and a message was sent back saying that if we didn’t fire at them, they wouldn’t
不向我们开火” 当晚在前线 枪炮无声
fire at us.” That night, there on the front, the guns went silent.
次日清晨 史上最不同寻常的战争场景之一出现了
The next morning, one of the most remarkable scenes in the history of warfare occurred.
德军士兵穿过无人区 向英军的防线走去 英国的
German soldiers came walking across no-mans land toward the British lines and the British
士兵也出来同他们相见 随后发生的故事我想你们当中有许多人已经听说过了
soldiers went out to meet them. What followed I imagine many of you have heard of already.
敌军走出了战壕 这是一次圣诞休战 他们交换了纪念品 雪茄和巧克力
The enemies hung out. It was a Christmas truce. They exchanged souvenirs, cigars and chocolate,
甚至还玩起了足球 双方还就辟出一些区域来埋葬
even played football. Arrangements were made in some places to bury the dead that still
战场上零落的尸体作出了安排 这种停战在英军的无人区上几乎到处发生
littered the battlefield. This truce took place almost everywhere in British no mans
在比利时和法国的许多阵地上也发生过 几乎每一次停战都是
land, and at many places in the Belgian and French sectors. In nearly every case it was
initiated by German soldiers.
Here’s a very interesting scene I read about in Martin Gilbert’s “the First World War”
though it originally comes from Bruce Bairnsfather’s book of trench tales: “the last I saw of
“我最后看到的这件小事是从我的一个机枪手那听来的 在平时生活中
this little affair was a vision of one of my machine gunners, who was a bit of an amateur
他是一名业余理发师 他给一个温和的德国人剪掉了长得过分的头发
hairdresser in civil life, cutting the unnaturally long hair of a docile Boche, who was patiently
这个德国人耐心地跪在地上 理发师用手中的自动剪刀帮他剪头发”
kneeling on the ground while the automatic clippers crept up the back of his neck”.
当司令官弗伦奇听闻了这种行为时 下令禁止这种情况
Commander French, when he heard of this conduct, issued orders to prevent it from ever happening
再次发生 尽管这种情况后来没有在整条战线再度发生 在阿尔萨斯 法军
again, but it didn’t happen all along the line anyway, though. In Alsace, the French
向德军的阵地发起进攻 事实上 九架英国水上飞机于圣诞节袭击了德军
attacked the German positions, and actually nine British seaplanes attacked the German
zeppelin sheds at Cuxhaven on Christmas Day.
尽管通常来说 圣诞节对西部战线上的人们来说是一个短暂的休息时间
Though in general, Christmas Day was a brief respite for the men on the western front,
on the newest front in the Caucasus such was not the case.
回溯到11月 土耳其人狠狠地击退了俄军的伯格曼进攻 但是
Back in November, the Turks had badly beaten back the Russian Bergmann Offensive but the
俄军已在萨瑞卡密斯重新部署完毕 土军以埃尔祖鲁姆为根据地
Russians had now regrouped at Sarikamis. The Turks were based at Erzurum.
The Russians were worried that the Turks would try to take the strategic fortress of Kars,
but the Ottoman strategy was fairly simple: to make one large envelopment of the Russians
虽然这么做困难不小 第一 此时正处冬季
using three different corps. There were some big difficulties here, though. One, it was
而土耳其东北部的冬天极其寒冷 其次 战线长度远远超过1000
winter and in winter northeastern Turkey is COLD. Two, the war zone was well over 1,000
公里 这是一个非常棘手的情况 而且都是在
kilometers long, which is a hassle in good conditions, but this was all at a plateau,
2000米高的高原进行 而通过的唯一一条道路是高山的山隘
like, 2,000 meters high and the only way to really get through was the high mountain passes
或是几不可行的小道 而俄军拥有的另一个优势是
or the smaller tracks where artillery couldn’t go. There was also the Russian advantage that
they held the Sarikamis railway line.
土耳其军队的总人数大约150000人 但是他们装备简陋 而且很多人
The Ottoman forces totaled around 150,000 but they were poorly equipped and many had
没有冬衣 与之对照的是 俄罗斯的高加索部队装备优良 但是
no winter clothing. The Russian Caucasus army was by contrast well equipped but a large
部队中的大部分人被船送往东线作战 仅仅剩下了约65000人的正规
part of it had been shipped to fight on the Eastern Front, leaving around 65,000 regular
部队 这些人现在得到了亚美尼亚和希腊志愿者的支持 这些志愿者把向
troops. These were now bolstered by Armenian or Greek volunteers who saw service with the
俄军提供服务 如果俄军获胜的话 视为保住领土的一个方式
Russians as a means of securing territory with a Russian victory.
实际上 沙皇本人于12月20日视察了高加索战线 在他寻找
Actually, the Tsar himself visited the Caucasus front December 20th and in his search for
盟友时 他告诉亚美尼亚教会的负责人“最辉煌的未来正等待着亚美尼亚人”
allies told the head of the Armenian Church, “a most brilliant future awaits the Armenians.”
这立即使得成千上万的亚美尼亚人深陷险境 因为在土耳其看来
This immediately endangered hundreds of thousands of Armenian lives since Turkey got the idea
that it’s own large Armenian population was a possible source of treason.
土军的军事行动于22日打响 虽然取得了一些初步的成功 但是到了圣诞节
Turkish maneuvers began on the 22nd, and though there were some initial successes, by Christmas
day the men were marching over 12 hours a day through the snows of the mountain passes,
他们疲惫痛苦 并死于体温过低 他们甚至
exhausted, suffering frostbite, and dying of hypothermia. They hadn’t even gotten
to the battle yet.
在所有前线 这似乎是作为过渡的一周 在东部
This was very much a week of transition, it seems, on all of the fronts. In the East,
双方都十分冷静 重新集结准备开展下一步的冬季攻势 除了
it was calm as both sides regrouped for further winter offensives, with the exception of the
超过100000人的奥匈帝国守军 他们仍被围困在俄罗斯的普热梅希尔
Austrian garrison, over 100,000 strong, still under siege behind Russian lines at Przemysl
时长超过了一个月 在西部 一场浩大的进攻打响了 但是有一天
after well over a month. In the west, a great offensive had begun, but for one day there
那里弥漫了一种对和平与兄弟情谊的回忆 而在土耳其的大雪中 这一周
was a remembrance of peace and brotherhood, and in the snows of Turkey the week brought
只带来了痛苦 因为土耳其帝国军队在群山中行军 以期
nothing but misery, as the Ottoman Imperial army marched through the mountains to meet
the might of the Russians.
显然 今天我所引用的部分出自于彼得·哈特的《伟大战争》
Today’s my day of quotes, apparently, so here’s something from Peter Hart’s “the Great War”:
“到了1914年年底 阿尔弗雷德·冯·施里芬的观点有对有错
“By the end of 1914 it was evident that Alfred von Schlieffen had been both right
正确的是如果战争持续很长时间 德国的敌人
and wrong. He was right that if the war continued for a substantial time Germany’s enemies
将会使用他们绝对的人数优势来击败她 但在寻求快速胜利的过程中
would use their sheer press of numbers to defeat her. But in seeking a swift victory
the Germans had lost their best chance of maximizing lesser tactical gains and then
从而无法以一个相对强势的地位来谈判议和 他们迫切地想在1914年夏天取得
negotiating peace from a position of relative strength. In seeking outright victory in the
彻底胜利 这致使其最终走向失败 战争是一种
summer of 1914 the Germans had in the end fallen short. The war was set on a grim path
消耗兵力的残酷途径 各方都试图将对方的力量削弱到
of attritional fighting, with all sides engaged in attempting to degrade the opposition forces
无法抵抗的程度 由于各方都能征募多达数百万
to the level that they could no longer resist. With all sides able to draw on millions more
人的军队 所以轻松地获得胜利几乎是不可能的 许许多多的人都会
men it was nigh on impossible to secure an easy victory. Far too many would die before
the war would be resolved.”
在今天 圣诞节 花点时间想一想百年以前
This Christmas- today- spend a moment thinking of the millions of men fighting 100 years
来自交战各国的数百万人 目睹了战友的死去 其尸体在泥浆中渐渐僵硬
ago, from all of the warring nations, watching their comrades killed, freezing in the mud,
也有人在雪中挨饿 在周遭世界被摧毁时陷入绝望
maybe starving in the snows, falling into despair as their world was destroyed around
有人还充满希望 或者祈祷我们能从这些经历的恐怖中学到足够多的东西
them, and hope, or pray that we can learn enough from the horror that world went through
to prevent it from ever happening again.
在1914年的平安夜 发生了军事史上最奇怪的事情之一
On Christmas Eve 1914, one of the strangest events in military history unfolded when 100,000
在西线 100000名士兵放下了他们的武器 命令以及偏见
soldiers on the Western Front laid aside their arms, their orders and their prejudices and
并拥抱了彼此 如果你想观看我们的《圣诞停战特别节目》 那么请点击这里收看
embraced. If you want to see our Special on the Christmas Truce, then click here to watch it. it.
如果你想知道更多异闻集锦 那么就通过下方的评论区让我们知道
And if you have ideas for more Special Episodes then let us know in the comment section below.
And click subscribe to never miss an episode.
我祝大家节日快乐 也祝我的团队节日快乐
Happy Holidays from me and the whole THE GREAT WAR TEAM.