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海地的第一位也是最后一位的国王

The first and last king of Haiti - Marlene Daut

获得自由不仅仅是摆脱自身的枷锁 而是尊重和增加别人自由的一种生活方式—纳尔逊•曼德拉
The royal couple of Haiti rode into
海地王室夫妇在雷鸣般的掌声中
their coronation to thunderous applause.
乘车来到加冕典礼
After receiving his ornate crown and scepter,
在加冕了华丽的王冠和权杖后
Henry Christophe ascended his throne,
亨利·克里斯多夫坐上了
towering 20 meters in the air.
高耸在20米空中的王座
But little did the cheering onlookers know that
但在场的欢呼者并不知道
the first king of Haiti would also be its last.
这是海地第一任国王却也是最后一任
Enslaved at birth on the island of Grenada,
克里斯多夫出生在格林纳达岛
Christophe spent his childhood
从出生开始就被奴役
being moved between multiple Caribbean islands.
童年辗转于多个加勒比岛屿之间
Just 12 years old in 1779,
1779年 年仅12岁的克里斯多夫
he accompanied his master to aid the American revolutionaries
跟随他的奴隶主前去支援
in the Battle of Savannah.
萨凡纳战役中的美国革命者
This prolonged siege would be
那场旷日持久的围攻
Christophe’s first encounter with violent revolution.
是他经历的第一场暴力革命
There are few surviving written records about
关于克里斯多夫在战后的生活
Christophe’s life immediately after the war.
现存的文字记录很少
Over the next decade we know
我们只知道其后十年中
he worked as a mason and a waiter at a hotel
他在法国殖民地圣多明克
in the French colony of Saint-Domingue,
即现在的海地做过
as Haiti was then known.
泥瓦匠和酒店服务员
In 1791, when the colony’s slaves rose up in rebellion,
1791年 圣多明克爆发奴隶起义
Christophe got another opportunity to fight for freedom.
他获得了第二个为自由而战的机会
Led by Toussaint Louverture,
在杜桑·卢维杜尔的带领下
the rebels fought against plantation owners,
起义军奋起抗击农场主
as well as British and Spanish forces seeking control of the island.
和试图控制圣多明克的英国和西班牙军队
Christophe quickly rose through the ranks,
克里斯多夫很快获得了晋升
proving himself the equal of
证明了自己有能力和
more experienced generals.
经验丰富的将领平起平坐
By 1793,
1793年
Louverture had successfully liberated all of Saint-Domingue’s enslaved people,
路易杜尔成功解放了圣多明克所有的奴隶
and by 1801 he’d established the island as a semi-autonomous colony.
1801年他在该岛建立了半自治殖民地
But during this time, Napoleon Bonaparte had assumed power in France,
但与此同时 拿破仑·波拿巴执掌了法国
and made it his mission to restore
他的目标是在整个帝国内
slavery and French authority throughout the empire.
恢复奴隶制 重振法国权威
French attempts to reinstate slavery met fierce resistance,
法国试图恢复奴隶制 但遭到了激烈抵抗
with General Christophe even burning the capital city
将军克里斯多夫甚至通过烧毁首都
to prevent military occupation.
来阻止法国的军事占领
Finally, the rebellion and an outbreak of yellow fever
最终 叛乱和黄热病的爆发
forced French soldiers to withdraw
迫使法国军队撤离
but the fight was not without casualties.
但这场战争并非没有死亡
Louverture was captured, and left to die in a French prison;
卢维杜尔被俘 死在了法国的监狱里
a fate that Christophe’s nine-year-old son would share
仅几年之后 克里斯多夫9岁的儿子
only a few years later.
也遭遇了同样的命运
Following the revolution,
革命后
Christophe and generals Jean-Jacques Dessalines
克里斯多夫 将领让·雅克·德萨林
and Alexandre Pétion
和亚历山大·佩蒂翁
rose to prominent positions in the new government.
开始在新政府中担任要职
In 1804, Dessalines was proclaimed the emperor of independent Haiti.
1804年 海地独立 萨德林称帝
But his desire to hold exclusive power alienated his supporters.
但他想独享政权 疏离了他的支持者
Eventually, Dessalines’ rule incited a political conspiracy
最终 萨德林的统治引发了政治叛乱
that ended in his assassination in 1806.
1806年 萨德林被暗杀
The subsequent power struggle led to a Civil War,
权力斗争也被挑起 内战爆发
which split the country in two.
海地被一分为二
By 1807,
1807年
Christophe was governing as president of the north in Cap-Haïtien,
克里斯多夫在海地角统治北部
and Pétion was ruling the south from Port-au-Prince.
佩蒂翁在太子港统治海地南部
Pétion tried to stay true to the revolution’s democratic roots
佩蒂翁始终坚持革命最初的民主诉求
by modeling his republic after the United States.
并以美国为参照建立了自己的共和国
He even supported anti-colonial revolutionaries in other nations.
他甚至支持其他国家的反殖民革命
These policies endeared him to his people,
这些政策让他赢得了人民的爱戴
but they slowed trade and economic growth.
但导致了贸易和经济增长的减缓
Christophe, conversely, had more aggressive plans
相反 克里斯多夫对独立后的海地
for an independent Haiti.
采取了更激进的计划
He redistributed land to the people,
他将土地重新分配给人民
while retaining state control of agriculture.
但同时保留了国家对农业的控制
He also established trade with many foreign nations,
他还与许多国家建立了贸易关系
including Great Britain and the United States,
包括英国和美国等国
and pledged non-interference with their foreign policies.
并且保证不干涉他们的外交政策
He even built a massive Citadel
他甚至建造了一座巨大城堡
in case the French tried to invade again.
来抵御法国人的再次入侵
To accomplish all of this,
为了建造城堡
Christophe instituted mandatory labor,
克里斯托夫强迫人民为他劳动
and to strengthen his authority,
为了加强自己的权威
he crowned himself king in 1811.
1811年 克里斯多夫加冕为王
During his reign,
统治期间
he lived in an elegant palace called Sans Souci
克里斯多夫和妻子 幸存下来的三个孩子
along with his wife and their three remaining children.
住在名为无忧宫的豪华宫殿里
Christophe’s kingdom oversaw rapid development of
克里斯多夫王朝见证了海地
trade, industry, culture, and education.
贸易 工业 文化和教育的快速发展
He imported renowned
他为海地文化领域
European artists to Haiti’s cultural scene,
引进了著名的欧洲艺术家
as well as European teachers,
为了建立公共教育
in order to establish public education.
还引进了欧洲的教师
But while the king was initially popular among his subjects,
尽管克里斯多夫国王最初时深受臣民爱戴
his labor mandates were an uncomfortable reminder
但他压榨劳动力 引发了不满
of the slavery Haitians fought to destroy.
提醒着海地人要为了摧毁奴隶制而战斗
Over time, his increasingly authoritarian policies lost support,
渐渐地 他日益独裁的政策失去了支持
and his opponents to the south gained strength.
而他南方的反对者却获得了势力
In October 1820,
1820年10月
his reign finally reached its tragic conclusion.
他的统治最终以悲剧收场
Months after a debilitating stroke
几个月前一次严重的中风
left him unable to govern,
让他失去了执政能力
key members of his military defected to southern forces.
军队中的主要成员也叛逃到了南方军队
Betrayed and despondent,
面对背叛和沮丧
the king committed suicide.
克里斯多夫选择了自杀
today the traces of Christophe’s complicated history
今天 我们仍可以在那座宫殿的废墟中
can still be found in the crumbling remains of his palaces,
在海地的遗迹中找到克里斯多夫
and in Haiti’s legacy
复杂的人生轨迹
as the first nation to permanently abolish slavery.
海地是第一个永久废除奴隶制的国家

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视频概述

克利斯朵夫是海地第一位国王,却也是最后一位。这位传奇的海地王有着怎样传奇的一生呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Claudia

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q7lfSjjMNU8

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