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开始20小时决定你是否能掌握这门新技能 – 译学馆
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开始20小时决定你是否能掌握这门新技能

The first 20 hours -- how to learn anything | Josh Kaufman | TEDxCSU

大家好
Hi everyone.
两年前 我的生活发生天翻地覆的变化
Two year ago, my life changed forever.
我和妻子凯尔西
My wife Kelsey and I
一起迎接女儿莱拉来到这个世上
welcomed our daughter Lela into the world.
做父母是一番不寻常的经历
Now, becoming a parent is an amazing experience.
一夕之间 你的整个世界都变了
Your whole world changes over night.
并且打乱了你所有安排好的计划
And all of your priorities change immediately.
变化太快 有时都反应不过来
So fast that it makes it really difficult to process sometimes.
关于怎样做父母 有太多需要学
Now, you also have to learn a tremendous amount about being a parent
比如 怎么给宝宝穿衣服
like, for example, how to dress your child.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我对此并无经验
This was new to me.
这确实是一身衣服 我觉得挺好
This is an actual outfit, I thought this was a good idea.
但连莱拉都觉得很难看(笑声)
And even Lela knows that it’s not a good idea. (Laughter)
作为父母 突然要学很多东西 还有那么多让人抓狂的事
So there is so much to learn and so much craziness all at once.
说到抓狂的事 补充一句 我和凯尔西都在家工作
And to add to the craziness, Kelsey and I both work from home,
我们自己创业 自己做生意
we’re entrepreneurs, we run our own businesses.
凯尔西为瑜伽老师做网上课件
So, Kelsey develops courses online for yoga teachers.
我是一名作家
I’m an author.
我和凯尔西都在家工作
And so, I’m working from home, Kelsey’s working from home.
我们有个小婴儿 我们要确保
We have an infant and we’re trying to make sure
每件事都能按计划做好
that everything gets done that needs done.
生活真的很忙碌
And life is really, really busy.
经过几周疯狂的体验
And a couple of weeks into this amazing experience,
我们发现睡眠严重不足
when the sleep deprivation really kicked in,
大概在第八周
like around week eight,
我开始考虑一个问题
I had this thought, and it was the same thought
这也是不同年龄不同国籍的父母
that parents across the ages, internationally,
都有的疑惑
everybody has had this thought, which is:
那就是 我再也不会有空闲时间了
I am never going to have free time ever again.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
有人说 是真的
Somebody said it’s true.
准确的说 不是真的
It’s not exactly true,
但在那一刻 就是这么真实的感觉
but it feels really, really true in that moment.
这个问题困扰了我很久
And this was really disconcerning to me,
因为我最喜欢做的事情
because one of the things that I enjoy
就是学习新东西
more than anything else is learning new things.
保持好奇 探索下去
Getting curious about something and diving in
调查研究 不断试错
and fiddling around and learning through trial and error.
最终将新事物变为自己擅长的东西
And eventually becoming pretty good at something.
但如果没有空闲时间
And without this free time,
我不知道以后该怎么学习
I didn’t know how I was ever going to do that ever again.
我是个极客
And so, I’m a big geek,
我想好好学习 天天向上
I want to keep learning things, I want to keep growing.
所以我决定
And so what I’ve decided to do was,
去图书馆 去书店
go to the library, and go to the bookstore,
查查有没有类似的研究
and look at what research says about
教我们如何学习 如何快速学习
how we learn and how we learn quickly.
我看了很多书 查了很多网页
And I read a bunch of books, I read a bunch of websites.
想给自己一个答案
And tried to answer this question,
学习一项新技能到底要多长时间
how long does it take to acquire a new skill?
想知道我查到什么答案吗
You know what I found?
一万小时
10,000 hours!
有谁听过这个说法吗
Anybody ever heard this?
你需要用一万个小时去学习新东西
It takes 10,000 hours. If you want to learn something new,
如果想要掌握一项技能
if you want to be good at it,
需要一万个小时
it’s going to take 10,000 hours to get there.
每本书 每个网页都这么写
And I read this in book after book, in website after website.
看完这些资料 我的反应是
And my mental experience of reading all of this stuff was like:
天啊 不
No!!
我没有时间 我没有一万个小时
I don’t have time! I don’t have 10,000 hours.
我不可能再学新东西了
I am never going to be able to learn anything new.
没可能了(笑声)
Ever again. (Laughter)
但事实并非如此
But that’s not true.
一万个小时只是给你一个粗略的概念
So, 10,000 hours, just to give you a rough order of magnitude,
一万小时是一份五年全职工作的时间
10,000 hours is a full-time job for five years.
时间太长了
That’s a long time.
我们都有过学新东西的经历
And we’ve all had the experience of learning something new,
你根本没花那么长时间 对吧
and it didn’t take us anywhere close to that amount of time, right?
为什么会这样 因为这里有点小误会
So, what’s up? There’s something kinda funky going on here.
研究结论与我们的预期和经历
What the research says and what we expect, and have experiences,
不相符
they don’t match up.
我发现 分歧在这里
And what I found, here’s the wrinkle:
一万小时定律源自于专家级的研究
The 10,000 hour rule came out of studies of expert-level performance.
佛罗里达州立大学的教授
There’s a professor at Florida State University,
K·安德斯·埃里克松
his name is K. Anders Ericsson.
是一万小时定律的创始者
He is the originator of the 10,000 hour rule.
他通过研究专业运动员
And where that came from is, he studied professional athletes,
世界级音乐家 国际象棋大师而得出结论
world class musicians, chess grand masters.
这些人都在非凡的领域取得了非凡的成就
All of this ultra competitive folks in ultra-high performing fields.
他想搞清楚
And he tried to figure out how long does it take
达到这些领域的顶尖需要多长时间
to get to the top of those kinds of fields.
他发现 越多专门的练习
And what he found is, the more deliberate practice,
越长时间的基础训练
the more time that those individuals spend
无论你做什么
practicing the elements of whatever it is that they do,
花费时间越多 做得就越好
the more time you spend, the better you get.
这些各领域的精英
And the folks at the tippy top of their fields
都大约花费了一万小时去练习
put in around 10,000 hours of practice.
我们现在讨论传声筒现象还有点为时过早
Now, we were talking about the game of telephone a little bit earlier.
事情经过是这样的
Here’s what happened:
一位叫马尔科姆·格拉德威尔的作者
an author by the name of Malcolm Gladwell
在2007年写了一本书 《异类:不一样的成功启示录》
wrote a book in 2007 called “Outliers: The Story of Success”,
这本书的核心内容就是一万小时定律
and the central piece of that book was the 10,000 hour rule.
通过勤加有效的练习 你就会做得非常棒
Practice a lot, practice well, and you will do extremely well,
你会脱颖而出
you will reach the top of your field.
所以
So, the message,
埃里克松博士真正想传达的是
what Dr. Ericsson was actually saying is,
你需要一万小时在特定的专业知识或技能领域
it takes 10,000 hours to get at the top of an ultra competitive field
成就非凡 这是他的本意
in a very narrow subject, that’s what that means.
但事实是 《异类》一出版
But here’s what happened: ever since Outliers came out,
立即就成为了畅销书榜单之首
immediately came out, reached the top of best seller lists,
整整三个月稳居榜首
stayed there for three solid months.
顷刻间一万小时定律遍布各地
All of a sudden the 10,000 hour rule was everywhere.
全社会范围的传声筒现象开始上演
And a society-wide game of telephone started to be played.
这条定律从用一万小时在非凡的领域成就非凡
So this message, it takes 10,000 hours to reach the top of an ultra competitive field,
变成了 需要一万小时成为某一领域的专家
became, it takes 10,000 hours to become an expert at something,
接着又变成了
which became,
需要花一万小时精通某件事
it takes 10,000 hours to become good at something,
然后演变成了
which became,
需要一万小时去学会某件事
it takes 10,000 hours to learn something.
但是最后的论述 需要一万小时学会某件事
But that last statement, it takes 10,000 hours to learn something,
是错误的
is not true. It’s not true.
这项研究真正想说明的是
So, what the research actually says —
我花了很多时间在加州州立大学的图书馆
I spent a lot of time here at the CSU library
翻阅认知心理学的书 因为我是极客
in the cognitive psychology stacks ’cause I’m a geek.
当你看到关于技能习得的研究时
And when you actually look at the studies of skill acquisition,
你会反复看到这样的图表
you see over and over a graph like this.
无论是研究动作技能 即你的肢体动作
Now, researchers, whether they’re studying a motor skill,
还是研究心智技能
something you do physically or a mental skill,
研究员们都喜欢用时间来衡量
they like to study things that they can time.
因为你可以量化它
‘Cause you can quantify that, right?
研究员们会给受试者们一个小任务
So, they’ll give research participants a little task,
有些任务要求身体上的准备
something that requires physical arrangement,
有些任务需要学习一点心理技巧
or something that requires learning a little mental trick,
他们会测定一个受试者需要多长时间完成任务
and they’ll time how long a participant takes to complete the skill.
这幅图表所呈现的 当你开始时
And here’s what this graph says, when you start —
研究员们给受试者们的任务 确实花掉他们很长时间
so when researchers gave participants a task, it took them a really long time,
因为任务是全新的 受试者开始难免会担心
’cause it was new and they were horrible.
但是稍加练习 他们就做得越来越好
With a little bit of practice, they get better and better and better.
初期练习是非常有效的
And that early part of practice is really, really efficient.
稍加练习 人们就开始得心应手
People get good at things with just a little bit of practice.
有趣的是
Now, what’s interesting to note is that,
我们学习真正想学习的技能时
for skills that we want to learn for ourselves,
不会特别在乎花多长时间
we don’t care so much about time, right?
我们只会在乎自己多么擅长做某事 无论是否精通
We just care about how good we are, whatever good happens to mean.
所以 如果我们重新定义投入时间与你擅长的程度的关系
So if we relabel performance time to how good you are,
把图像翻转 就得到了著名且众所周知的曲线
the graph flips, and you get his famous and widely known,
即 学习曲线
this is the learning curve.
这里是学习曲线的起点
And the story of the learning curve is when you start,
一无所知的零水平 没错吧
you’re grossly incompetent and you know it, right?
(笑声)
(Laughter)
稍加练习 你就非常棒 进步神速
With a little bit of practice, you get really good, really quick.
早期提升非常迅速
So that early level of improvement is really fast.
在某一点 进入到停滞期
And then at a certain point you reach a plateau,
之后的提升变得困难
and the subsequent games become much harder to get,
需要投入大量时间才能继续进步
they take more time to get.
我的问题是 我想学习这种技能 对不对
Now, my question is, I want that, right?
从开始接触 一窍不通
How long does it take from starting something
到了解它 掌握地还不错
and being grossly incompetent and knowing it
需要多少时间
to being reasonably good?
希望需要的时间越少越好
In hopefully, as short a period of time as possible.
到底需要多少时间
So, how long does that take?
根据我的研究显示 需要20小时
Here’s what my research says: 20 hours.
没错 从一窍不通开始学习算起
That’s it. You can go from knowing nothing
这个理论适用于你能想到的任何技能
about any skill that you can think of.
想学习一门新语言吗 想学习画画吗
Want to learn a language? Want to learn how to draw?
想学习如何杂耍燃烧的链锯吗
Want to learn how to juggle flaming chainsaws?
(笑声)
(Laughter)
如果你在想学的技能上投入20小时的专心练习
If you put 20 hours of focused deliberate practice into that thing,
你肯定会被自己吓到
you will be astounded.
惊讶于自己的进步
Astounded at how good you are.
20小时是可行的
20 hours is doable,
每月每天大约45分钟
that’s about 45 minutes a day for about a month.
即使时不时地跳过几天
Even skipping a couple days, here and there.
累积20小时并不难
20 hours isn’t that hard to accumulate.
但这个方法要有个前提
Now, there’s a method to doing this.
你不能浑浑噩噩度过这20小时
Because it’s not like you can just start fiddling around for about 20 hours
还期望着会有突飞猛进的进步
and expect these massive improvements.
要聪明地练习
There’s a way to practice intelligently.
有效地练习
There’s a way to practice efficiently,
要确保你投入的20小时
that will make sure that you invest those 20 hours
尽可能有效
in the most effective way that you possibly can.
这个方法试用于所有事 步骤如下
And here’s the method, it applies to anything:
首先 解析技能
The first is to deconstruct the skill.
决定好在你学会这项技能后 想要做什么
Decide exactly what you want to be able to do when you’re done,
然后仔细研究这项技能 将它分解为若干小碎片
and then look into the skill and break it down into smaller pieces.
大多数事物 例如技能
Most of the things that we think of as skills
其实是一大堆技能的集合 要求掌握各种不同的小技能
are actually big bundles of skills that require all sorts of different things.
一项技能被你分解地越彻底
The more you can break apart the skill,
你就越容易做决定
the more you’re able to decide,
哪部分技能可以帮我
what are the parts of this skill that would actually help me
达成所愿
get to what I want?
你就应该先练习那部分技能
And then you can practice those first.
首要的技能优先练习
And if you practice the most important things first,
你会在有限的时间里
you’ll be able to improve your performance
得到进步
in the least amount of time possible.
第二 掌握足够多的知识 自我矫正
The second is, learn enough to self correct.
决定好学习的方向 找到三至五种学习资源
So, get three to five resources about what it is you’re trying to learn.
书 DVD 教程等都可以
Could be book, could be DVDs, could be courses, could be anything.
但不要用这些资源来拖延练习
But don’t use those as a way to procrastinate on practice.
我知道我很容易这么做 对吧
I know I do this, right?
找了20本关于一个话题的书 比如
Get like 20 books about the topic, like,
我要开始学习电脑编程
“I’m going to start learning how to program a computer
我读完20本书之后就会了
when I complete these 20 books”.
不对 这就是拖延
No. That’s procrastination.
你要学习的仅仅是
What you want to do is learn just enough
用足够的知识来实际进行编程
that you can actually practice
可以自我矫正 在实践中独立编辑
and self correct or self edit as you practice.
学习其实是在犯错时
So the learning becomes a way of getting better
能更好地发现错误
at noticing when you’re making a mistake
然后进行改正并提高
and then doing something a little different.
第三 清除学习中的障碍
The third is to remove barriers to practice.
清除令你分心的事物 电视 网络等
Distractions, television, internet.
这些事物都在你坐下来工作时
All of these things that get in the way
让你不能集中注意力
of you actually sitting down and doing the work.
你如果能多用些意志力
And the more you’re able to use just a little bit of willpower
移除阻碍你求知道路上的分心事物
to remove the distractions that are keeping you from practicing,
你就能更专心地坐下学习和练习
the more likely you are to actually sit down and practice, right?
第四 至少练习20小时
And the fourth is to practice for at least 20 hours.
大多数技能都有挫折障碍
Now, most skills have what I call a frustration barrier.
存在于从一无所知到了解的过程
You know, the grossly-incompetent- and-knowing-it part?
这让人很有挫败感 我们都不想觉得自己笨
That’s really, really frustrating. We don’t like to feel stupid.
感觉自己笨 就是专心坐下来学习工作的障碍之一
And feeling stupid is a barrier to us actually sitting down and doing the work.
无论你想做什么
So, by pre-committing to practicing whatever it is that you want to do
决定专心投入至少20小时
for at least 20 hours,
你就能跨越起初的挫折障碍
you will be able to overcome that initial frustration barrier
加上长时间的练习 你就终有所获
and stick with the practice long enough to actually reap the rewards.
就是这样 没那么复杂
That’s it! It’s not rocket science.
无论学习任何事物 都可以应用这简单的四个步骤
Four very simple steps that you can use to learn anything.
理论说着简单
Now, this is easy to talk about in theory,
但在实践中再来讨论更有意思
but it’s more fun to talk about in practice.
长期以来 我一直想学习
So one of the things that I’ve wanted to learn how to do for a long time
弹尤克里里
is play the ukulele.
有谁看过杰克·岛袋的TED演讲
Has anybody seen Jake Shimabukuro’s TEDTalk
他在演讲时弹奏尤克里里
where he plays the ukulele and makes it sound like —
听上去像个尤克里里大神
he’s like a ukulele god.
太不可思议了
It’s amazing.
我看了他的演讲 太酷了
I saw it, I was like, “That is so cool!”
很棒的乐器 我想学怎么弹
It’s such a neat instrument. I would really like to learn how to play.
所以我决定测试我的理论
And so I decided that to test this theory
我想用20个小时练习尤克里里
I wanted to put 20 hours into practicing ukulele
想看看结果如何
and see where it got.
弹奏尤克里里这事的第一步
And so the first thing about playing the ukulele is,
你得先有一把琴 对吧
in order to practice, you have to have one, right?
我有把尤克里里琴 我可爱的助理呢
So, I got an ukulele and — My lovely assistant?
(笑声)
(Laughter)
谢谢你 我需要插电
Thank you sir. I think I need the chord here.
这不是一把普通的尤克里里 它是电尤克里里(笑声)
It’s not just an ukulele, it’s an electric ukulele. (Laughter)
好了
Yeah.
与学习任何事物最初的几小时一样
So, the first couple hours are just like the first couple hours of anything.
你要有工具 能用来练习
You have to get the tools that you are using to practice.
你要确认它们能用
You have to make sure they’re available.
我这把尤克里里开始没有弦
My ukulele didn’t come with strings attached.
我要研究怎么把弦上上去
I had to figure out how to put those on.
这很重要 对吧
Like, that’s kind of important, right?
之后学习调音 学习如何确保
And learning how to tune, learning how to make sure
把该做的事情做好
that all of the things that need to be done
才能开始练习
in order to start practicing get done, right?
当我开始准备投入练习
Now, one of the things when I was ready to actually start practicing
我就在网上和书中寻找弹奏的方法
was I looked in online databases and songbooks for how to play songs.
网上和书上都说 你可以同时弹奏多个弦
And they say, okay, ukuleles, you can play more than one string at a time,
就是弹和弦 酷
so you can play chords, that’s cool,
弹奏并不孤单 哇(笑声)
you are accompanying yourself, yay you. (Laughter)
当我开始研究如何弹歌时
And when I started looking at songs,
我有本尤克里里的和弦书 里面有上百个和弦
I had an ukulele chord book that had like hundreds of chords.
看这个 哇 真吓人
Looking at this and “Wow, that’s intimidating”.
但当你看实际的歌曲
But when you look at the actual songs,
同一和弦会一再被重复
you see the same chords over and over, right?
所以 弹奏尤克里里和做其他事一样
As it turns out, playing the ukulele is kind of like doing anything,
抓住那些你一直要用的
There’s a very small set of things that are really important
少数非常重要的事和技能就行了
and techniques that you’ll use all the time.
大多数歌曲使用四个或五个和弦
And in most songs you’ll use four, maybe five chords,
就完成了一首歌
and that’s it, that’s the song.
你不用知道上百个和弦 只需要知道四个或五个就够了
You don’t have to know hundreds, as long as you know the four or the five.
当我做调研时
So, while I was doing my research,
我发现了一首流行歌曲串烧
I found a wonderful little medley of pop songs
由澳洲乐队演唱(口哨声)
by a band called Axis of Awesome. (Whistles)
有人知道
Somebody knows it.
澳洲乐队说你能学习
And what Axis of Awesome says is that you can learn,
或弹奏过去的50年间的任何流行乐
or you can play pretty much any pop song of the past five decades,
只要你会四个和弦
if you know four chords,
G和弦 D和弦 Em和弦和C和弦
and those chords are G, D, Em and C.
这四个和弦在每首流行乐中都出现过
Four chords pump out every pop song ever, right?
我想 太棒了
So I thought, this is cool!
我能弹歌了(笑声)
I would like to play every pop song ever. (Laughter)
这是我决定学习的第一首歌
So, that was the first song I decided to learn,
我想弹给你们听 准备好了吗
and I would like to actually share it with you. Ready?
(掌声)好的
(Applause) Alright.
(音乐)
(Music)
(唱歌)#只是个小镇姑娘#
(Singing) #Just a small town girl,#
#生活在孤独的世界#
#living in a lonely world,#
#她乘坐午夜列车去往各个地方#
#she took the midnight train going anywhere.#
#我听说你已经安顿下来#(笑声)
#I heard that you settled down, #(Laughter)
#你找到了心爱的姑娘#
#that you found a girl,#
#你已结婚#
#that you’re married now.#
#每晚在我的梦中#(笑声)
#Every night in my dreams#(Laughter)
#见到你 感觉到你#
#I see you, I feel you,#
#我知道你没有远离#(笑声)
#that is how I know you go on. #(Laughter)
#我不会迟疑半刻 我不会等待 我是你的#
#I won’t hesitate no more, no more. It cannot wait, I’m yours.#
#你很了不起 我们一起做神奇的事#
#’Cause you were amazing, we did amazing things.#
#如果可以 我将跟随你去天涯海角#
#If I could, then I would, I’d go wherever you will –#
#今夜感受我的爱#(笑声)
#Can you feel the love tonight. #(Laughter)
#有你或没有你 我都活不下去#
#I can’t live with or without you.#
#当我发现#
#When I find myself –#
#当我发现遇到麻烦时 圣母玛利亚就会出现#
#When I find myself in times of trouble, mother Mary comes to me,#
#有时我感觉没有同伴 没有女人就没有伤害#
#Sometimes I feel like I don’t have partner. No woman, no cry.#
#是的妈妈 这肯定是场梦#
#Yeah mama, this surely is a dream.#
#我来自地球的另一面#(笑声)
#I come from a land down under. #(Laughter)
#曾经一个快乐的流浪汉在死水旁边露营#
#Once a jolly swagman camped by a billabong.#
#嘿 我刚认识你 这太疯狂了#(笑声)
#Hey, I just met you, and this is crazy, #(Laughter)
#这是我的电话号码 给我打电话#
#but here’s my number, so call me#
#嘿 性感女士 江南Style#(笑声)
#Hey sexy lady, op, op, op, op, oppan gangnam style. #(Laughter)
#该说再见了#
#It’s time to say goodbye.#
#结束时间 每一个新的开始都源自其它开始的结束#
#Closing time, every new beginning comes from some other beginning’s end.#
(歌声 音乐结束)(掌声)
(Singing and music ends) (Applause)
谢谢 谢谢
Thank you, thank you.
我爱这歌(笑声)
I love that song. (Laughter)
和你们分享个秘密
And I have a secret to share with you.
为你们弹完这首歌
So, by playing that song for you,
刚好完成了我练习尤克里里20小时的目标
I just hit my twentieth hour of practicing the ukulele.
(掌声)谢谢
(Applause) Thank you.
很神奇 20小时定律可以适用到你能想象的任何事
And so it’s amazing, pretty much anything that you can think of,
你想做的任何事
what do you want to do.
学习新事物的障碍不是智力因素
The major barrier to learn something new is not intellectual,
也不是你学习一大堆小技巧的过程
it’s not the process of you learning a bunch of little tips or tricks or things.
主要障碍来自于情感 我们的恐慌
The major barrier’s emotional. We’re scared.
觉得自己笨让人感觉不舒服
Feeling stupid doesn’t feel good,
在学习任何事物的初期
in the beginning of learning anything new
你会觉得自己很笨
you feel really stupid.
所以主要障碍来源于情感 而不是智力
So the major barrier’s not intellectual, it’s emotional.
投入20小时至任何事
But put 20 hours into anything.
任何事 你想学什么
It doesn’t matter. What do you want to learn?
想学一门语言吗 想学烹饪吗
Do you want to learn a language? Want to learn how to cook?
想学画画吗
Want to learn how to draw?
是什么吸引你 又是什么让你兴奋
What turns you on? What lights you up?
开始着手去做吧 只需要20小时
Go out and do that thing. It only takes 20 hours.
祝你玩得开心
Have fun.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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视频概述

学习一项新技能至少需要一万小时吗?没有时间怎么办?看达人如何教你在20小时学会一项新技能

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

kelsey

审核员

嘉言先森

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5MgBikgcWnY

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