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学习一门新语言的最快方法:电子游戏地图理论

The Fastest Way to Learn a New Language: The Video Game Map Theory

Learning a language is kind of like a video game.
学习一门语言有点像玩游戏
I mean kind of, not exactly the same,
我是说有点 不是完全一样
but let me explain.
我来解释一下
[tranquil piano music]
[恬静的钢琴声]
I’m not a big gamer.
我不是一个游戏爱好者
I’ve played my fair share of Super Smash Brothers,
我以前没少玩《任天堂明星大乱斗》
but that was like when I was a teenager.
但那时我年纪小
But lately, I’m getting back into it.
后来 我重新开始玩
We got a Nintendo Switch.
我们买了一台任天堂游戏机
I’ve been playing it with my boys.
我一直和孩子们玩
Zelda, this cool game called Cardo
《塞尔达传说》《Cardo》 很棒的游戏
has to do with maps, good times.
与地图有关 很棒
Another thing I’ve been doing during quarantine
我在隔离期间做的另一件事
is not traveling.
不是旅游
Last fall when I started realizing
去年秋天 我开始意识到
that COVID wasn’t going away,
新冠病毒不会消失了
I would not be traveling anytime soon.
我再也不能随时旅游了
I decided to get my travel buzz
我打算通过学习意大利语
by learning a new language, Italian.
来达到旅行的目的
The language that is spoken in my favorite region on Earth
讲意大利语的地区是我最爱的城市
right up here.
它就在这儿
Four months ago, I didn’t speak a word of Italian
四个月前 我可一句意大利语都不会
and today, (speaking foreign language).
今天 [说外语]
现在我能说意大利语
不是很好
但是我基本上能明白
而且我还能在谈话中
表达自己
我想告诉你我怎么办到的
我们开始吧
So I’ve been driving back from work
因此在开车下班时
and speaking to myself in Italian.
我对着自己讲意大利语
I am feeling my head.
我有一种感觉
There’s like a physical buzzing that happens.
就像身体嗡嗡作响一样
(speaking foreign language)
[说外语]
For the past three months,
过去三个月内
I’ve been studying Italian in the morning
我早上学习意大利语
and playing video games with my kids at night.
晚上和孩子们玩游戏
I recently started to realize how some of the major lessons
最近我发现电子游戏中的一些经验
from video games can be applied to learning a new language
同样适用于学习一门新语言
and to do so in a much more efficient way
这样学习的方式比在学校的
than was taught to us in school.
学习的方式效率更高
By the end of this video, I want to explain this concept
在视频最后 我会解释有关
of video games and language learning
游戏理念与语言学习的关系
and I want to give you my best takeaways
我想把我最大的收获分享给你
on teaching yourself a new language.
教你学会一门语言
So back to video games.
回到电子游戏
My favorite video games are ones with maps.
我最爱的是带地图的游戏
You’d be surprised,
你一定很惊讶吧
“he’s a big map guy. He loves maps”
“他可是一个地图迷哦 他爱地图诶”
I know, I’m like a walking cliche.
行了 我就像一个行走的老古董
I just like maps.
但我就是喜欢地图
So if learning a language is sort of like a video game,
如果学习语言像打游戏一样的话
here’s the map of the video game.
这是游戏当中的地图
This is the learning language journey.
这个是外语学习之旅
You start here knowing nothing about your new language
一开始 你对要学习的新语言一无所知
and your goal is to beat the final boss–
你的目标是打败终极boss–
this elusive idea of fluency.
它是熟练度的模糊概念
In other words, when you start your Link
换句话说 当你点击开始时
and you just woke up from 100 year nap
你刚从100年的小憩中苏醒
and you have three hearts and no weapons and no stamina
你有三颗心 没有武器 没有耐力
and no skills and no powers
没有技巧 没有力量
and you don’t speak the language,
你不会讲这种语言
where you want to be is like this.
学语言就像这种情况
Having lots of skills and tools to navigate a conversation
利用大量技能和道具展开一场
with precision and skill and beat the game.
细致的谈话 掌握技巧 然后通关
In other words, to become fluent.
换句话说 变得更熟练
Wait, wait, wait, wait, wait.
等一下 等一下
This is a moment, this is a thing I need to distinguish,
在这 有一件事我要辨明一下
a distinction we need to make.
我们需要做个区分
What is fluency?
熟练是什么?
What does that even mean?
它是什么意思?
I’ll turn the question on you gamers out there.
把问题放到游戏当中
What does it mean to beat a video game?
游戏通关意味着什么?
One person will tell you that beating a video game
有人告诉你通关
means just beating the main storyline,
就意味着你只需要完成主线剧情
beating the main boss, Ganon, Bowser, whatever.
打败大boss 卡农 库巴 或者其他
I can already feel some of you shaking your heads
我知道部分人不同意这个观点
because there are lots of you out there that say no, no, no,
因为大部分人说不 才不是这样
beating a video game means beating everything.
通关意味着一定要打败一切
All of the challenges, all of the little things
完成所有的挑战 所有的小困难
like beating the shrines and getting all the Korok seeds
例如通过神庙 拿到所有克洛格果实
and all the other things that have nothing to do
还有其他与主线剧情
with the main storyline.
毫不相干的东西
“You have to beat them all or you haven’t beaten the game.”
“你必须打败它们 否则就不能通关”
So here’s where the connection between language learning
因此在语言学习和游戏理念之间
and the video game concept comes together.
有一些共通之处
When you’re learning a language in language school
当你在语言学校学习一门语言
or most formal programs, the map looks like this.
或大部分课程时 地图看起来就像这样
You start here knowing nothing
从一无所知开始
and the journey to beat the game to become fluent
通过有很多门 试炼和守卫兵的风之旅
is a long windy path with lots of gates
通关之旅就会变得
and trials and gatekeepers.
越来越熟练
There are soldiers who are standing guard,
门前站有一些士兵
making sure that you beat them
在你进入下一关前
before you go on to the next step.
确保你打败了他们
You can’t progress along this path
除非你记住了
until you’ve memorized how to conjugate
现在时的变化 包括不规则形式时
the present imperative tense including the irregular forms.
你才能沿此路前进
So you study them, you study, study, study
所以你不断学习 学习 学习
just to make it pass this first gatekeeper.
只为打败第一关的守护者
You don’t even really know what present imperative means
你甚至不知道现在命令时是什么
but you look at the book, you memorize it
但是通过看书 你记住了它
and you do what you need to do to show up
因此你需要去记忆
and pass the test so that you can move on
然后通过测试 这样才能
to the next thing that they’re teaching you
继续学习下一件
in this school formal environment.
学校教给你的东西
So then you move on and you get to the next gatekeeper
然后前进 遇到下一个守护者
in the trial, which is you can’t move on
在这场试炼中 除非你记住了
until you’ve memorized the subjunctive conjugations.
虚拟语气动词的词形变化 否则你不能前进
And you’re like what does subjunctive mean?
你会想虚拟语气啥意思?
And it’s just like I don’t know,
就比如我不知道
but you need to go memorize it.
但我需要记住它
Oh, and memorize this random list
噢 还有要记住被认为
of 20 words that we think are important.
很重要的20个随机单词
It’s the only way to fluency.
这是唯一变熟练的方法
If you want to be fluent, you have to get through this gate.
如果你想变得熟练 那必须通过门
“I’ll memorize the subjunctive.”
“我会记住虚拟语气的”
You keep going on your journey, passing the gatekeepers,
继续开始旅行
memorizing the concepts that are in the book
打败守卫兵
that the teacher is telling you
记住老师教的书本知识
and the idea here is that if you beat
这种观点认为
all of these gatekeepers and you memorize all these rules,
如果你打败所有士兵 记住全部规则
you make it to the final level
成功来到最后一关
and you beat the final boss and then you are fluent.
打败了终极boss 你就会变得很熟练
The problem is this isn’t a fun video game.
问题在于 这并不是有趣的游戏
It’s actually a grueling process
学习语言实际上是一种
of memorizing abstract ideas.
记忆抽象概念的困难过程
So people don’t actually beat the video game very often.
实际上 人们并不总是通过最后一关
They usually give up around here and they say F it
他们通常会放弃 然后说去你的
and they throw in the towel
他们会认输
and they feel like language learning is just not for them.
感觉学语言不适合他们
Meanwhile, some of us beat the game.
同时 一些人通关了
Like I actually beat the game in college.
比如我在大学中通过考试一样
I got a minor in French, like a minor.
我报了法语的辅修课
Like I studied French through all of the levels
比如我学法语通过了所有级别的考试
in college to get a minor.
以获得辅修课学位
I beat this game and I finally beat the final boss
我通关了 终于打败了终极boss
and got here to the end of the map
来到地图的终点
and I had all the conjugations, the direct object pronouns,
我学了所有的词形变化 直接宾语代词
the past conditional and auxiliary verbs and all of it.
过去式 助动词 学了所有知识点
And then I go to Paris and I go to order a baguette
但当我在巴黎想买法棍时
and I realized that I literally don’t know
我意识到 我不知道
how to order a baguette in Paris
怎样用法语在巴黎买法棍
even though I have a minor in French.
即使我上过法语辅修课
There is nothing more disappointing than that, it’s sad.
没有比这更让人难受的事了
Luckily, there’s a happy ending to this video,
不过还好 在视频结束时
this story that I’m telling you,
我会告诉你一个好消息
but right now, it’s just sad to think about getting a minor
但现在 很抱歉告诉你 上法语课
in French and then not actually being able to speak it.
实际上并不会让你讲法语
I need a little bit of a change of pace,
我需要改变一下进度
I’m gonna crack open a bottle of wine.
我打算开瓶葡萄酒
Which begins the next segment
在下部分开始之前
which is thanking today’s sponsor
感谢今天的赞助商
who sent me a giant box full of literal wine.
送我一大箱葡萄酒
Look at this.
看这个
Whoops, check this out.
喔 看这个
This box arrived at my door two days ago.
酒是两天前送到我家的
Inside of the box, there are some really cool things.
箱子里的东西看起来很不错
So Bright Cellars who sponsored today’s video
Bright Cellars赞助我的视频
sent me this box.
送我一箱葡萄酒
They had me take a quiz before on things that I like,
通过填写问卷 选择我喜欢的东西
the type of food and the types of personality traits
比如食物种类和个人喜好
I have like all this whole quiz.
我喜欢整个问卷
And then they used the information from that quiz
他们根据问卷中获取的信息
to send me this box of wine.
送了我一箱葡萄酒
What I like about this is because when I go to buy wine
我喜欢这种方式 因为当我在商店买酒时
at a store, I have no guidance,
我不知道购买的标准
like there’s no guidance for me.
就像没有专门为服务的我导购
I’m not super well-versed in all of the different variables
在不同类型的酒上
that make good wine.
我并不是一个识酒大师
I’d like to be, but it’s big and complicated
我想变成大师 但酒的类型很多很杂
and for someone to automate that and to present it
对某人来讲自动生成推荐 展示结果
in a way that’s fun
是一种很好的方法
and like sort of empowering with information,
然后提供一些信息
that’s actually my favorite part about the whole thing
实际上我最喜欢的是
is they will send me these cards for each bottle of wine
他们会送我每瓶酒的卡片
that has a little infographic on it.
在卡片上有一些信息
I like infographics, that’s like my thing.
我喜欢这些内容 是我的菜
There’s maps and there is origins
有地图 有酒的来源
and there’s a story about like where this came from.
有酒起源于某地的故事
There’s flavor notes if you’re into the flavor notes game.
如果你要找味道的话 这个是味道标签
For me, ritualistic things like cheese and wine
对我来说 如果有个相关的故事
and all of it is way more enjoyable
像奶酪和葡萄酒等带有仪式感的东西
if there’s a story associated with it.
这些都会让我乐在其中
Bright Cellars is giving 50% off,
Bright Cellars在打五折
which is half off for anyone who clicked the link
点此链接可享半价优惠
in my description for your first six bottles.
在简介的链接里 可购买六瓶酒
So you could sign up for this sweet thing,
你可以通过注册购买
get six bottles for 50% off and it’s a really good deal.
五折的价钱买六瓶 真的很划算
And again, the convenience, the information,
再说一次 购买的便利性
the experience of this is really cool.
提供的信息和体验都很棒
I’m excited, I’m excited to explore this
我很高兴能够去探索和
and have some knowledge and story associated with it.
了解相关的知识和故事
So thank you Bright Cellars for sponsoring this video.
谢谢Bright Cellars的赞助
Let’s get back to the story
让我们回到
of learning Italian through a video game map.
通过游戏学习意大利语的话题上
I beat the game.
我通关了
I got here and realized that this version of fluency
我到达了目的地 我认为的熟练
was one where I had a deep understanding of French grammar.
就是我可以深入理解法语语法
I even had an understanding of its history,
我甚至知道它的历史
I could read literature in French,
我可以读法国文学
I could write properly,
我可以正确地写作
I knew where all the accents went,
我知道所有口音来源
I even had a decent pronunciation
我甚至可以标准的发音
but I couldn’t speak the damn language.
但我就是不会说法语
When I traveled to France, wasn’t that the whole point?
我去法国旅行 不就是为了这个吗?
For all you Zelda people out here,
对《塞尔达传说》的玩家来说
let’s just say I had gathered all the Korok seeds
这么说吧 即使在我收集了所有的克洛格果实
and beat all the shrines
通过了所有神殿后
but still hadn’t beat a single divine beast.
但是我却不能打败一只神兽
The thing that actually mattered to me,
真正困扰我的
the thing I wanted to do,
就是我想做的
what if I decided that this
如果我决定
isn’t where I wanted to go at all?
我不想去这个地方呢?
This version of fluency wasn’t important.
这种类型的熟练并不重要
This isn’t the game I want to play.
我要的不是这样的效果
What if we decided to take a different approach,
如果采用不同的方法呢
a different path, a much simpler goal.
不同的路 更简单的目标
And what if that goal were as simple
如果我的目标
as I want to be able to travel to a foreign country?
和我想去外国旅行那样简单呢?
And be able to speak to the locals
能够和当地人交谈
and have them understand me
能够让他们理解我的意思
and be understood when they speak to me.
我也能理解他们说的是什么
Is that revolutionary like no mastery of grammar,
这是一种革新吗?例如不去掌握语法
no perfect pronunciation,
不会标准发音
no ability to read and write with any elegance,
不能阅读 不能写任何美文
no literature or cultural history of the language,
不了解语言的文学史或文化史
just the ability to use words to communicate
只用词汇交流
and then to understand the response.
就能知道他们在说什么
Nothing else, no (squeaky toy sound) Korok seeds.
没有其他的 不用[道具声音]克洛格果实
I can already hear the comments.
我已经听到了你的评价
“But you’re learning a language.
“但你正在学习一门语言
You have to know the grammar or you won’t be fluent.”
你必须了解语法 否则你不会变得熟练”
Or in other words,
换句话说
if you don’t gather all the Korok seeds,
如果不拿到所有的克洛格果实
you didn’t beat the game.”
你就不能通关”
Listen, if my definition isn’t fluency for you,
听着 我对熟练的定义和你的不同
I don’t want your fluency, I don’t need it.
我不用熟练掌握 我用不上
I just want to be able to go on a trip
我只想能去旅行
and speak to the locals and ask for directions
能够和当地人沟通 询问目的地
and have a conversation with a taxi driver and order food.
和出租车司机聊天 订餐
That is all I want.
这就是我想要的效果
I’m being a little snarky here
我可能语气不太好
because the language learning community on the internet
因为线上语言学习团
has some very strong opinions and expectations
对实际语言学习的样子
about what real language learning looks like.
有一套自身牢固的观点和期望
You may see them in the comments telling me
你可能看到他们对我的评价
that my Italian actually isn’t valid
认为我的方法无效
because I don’t understand the past conditional tense.
因为我不知道过去时
Not sure how to respond to that,
虽然我不知道如何回应
but I reject your objection.
但是我反对你的反对
So a few months ago, I set out to test this out
因此几个月前 我做了一个测试
to see what this destination looks like.
想知道终点是什么样子
Not this, but this.
不是这个 而是这个
I learned a lot and ended up
我学到了很多东西
making an entire course about it
成功和我朋友Drew
with my friend Nathaniel Drew,
学完了全部课程
but I want to summarize the major things I learned
但是我想总结一下我主要学到的东西
and share them with you.
然后分享给你
[speaking foreign language]
[说外语]
Before I dive in and give you exactly the things I learned
在深入分享我学到的东西前
in this process, let me do a few disclaimers
让我做一些免责声明
that might be helpful to some of you
这个方法可能对部分
who actually want to take away some value from this video.
真的想从本视频里学到东西的人有用
Number one is that this is my experience.
第一 这是我的经历
It’s my experience,
是我的
it applies to me and my unique situation.
适用于我和特定的情景
It worked well and it may work for you
对我有用 对你也可能有用
and it may not work for you,
也可能没用
but don’t see this as like a plug and chug formula,
但请不要把它当做即插即用式
that is not what this is.
可不是这样
This is my perspective and my experience.
这只是我个人观点和经历
Number two, I want it to be clear
第二 明确的说
that I spoke literally zero Italian
去年十月的时候
in like October of last year.
我还不会说意大利语
I am fluent in Spanish, which is a romance language,
我会西班牙语 它是一种罗马语言
which is like a cousin to Italian and I did study French
很像意大利语 我也提过很多次
in college as I’ve mentioned 57 times.
我在学校学的是法语
So I had some advantage
所以我有一些优势
but the reality is I knew zero Italian.
但实际上我不会意大利语
I could say things like ciao and like that was it.
我可以说些类似于 你好 的话
但是我说的不太好
我可以和某人对话
我可以谈以前和以后
我可以表达自我 自身感受和一些抽象的想法
当然我犯了很多错 但是没事
在我看来 你能明白我的意思就够了
That’s what matters, that’s what I care about.
这才是重点 才是我关心的
I rejected this and I think there’s a better way.
我反对这种 我认为有更好的办法
That doesn’t mean it’s easy,
这也不意味它很容易
it means that it’s just more direct.
只是它更直接
There are still trials,
仍有一些试炼
they’re just the most efficient trials you need
是你最需要的有效的试炼
and here they are.
它们就在这里
Number one, not all words are created equal.
第一 不是所有单词都同等重要
The first thing I did was to assess what are the most common
第一件事 我要判断一门语言中
and useful 1,000 words in a language
最常见而且最有用的1000个单词
and solely focus on those,
只看这些词汇
completely blocking out all others.
不关注其他的
This isn’t a new concept.
这并不是一个新观点
Scholarly research shows that this is very useful
学术研究表明这是很有用的
and history does too.
历史上也有这种情况
I last year was reading a lot
出于一些明显的原因
about American imperialism for obvious reasons
我读了一些有关美国帝国主义的书籍
and I stumbled upon this wild story.
然后偶然发现了这个疯狂的故事
After World War II, the British
二战后
and Americans who had just won the war
英国和美国是战胜国
wanted to spread the English language
英国人和美国人
throughout the whole world.
想在世界各处传播英语
So they adopted a stripped down version
因此他们采用精简版
that they called basic.
他们称它为 基础英语
They were carefully selected words.
他们仔细挑选词汇
There were the most frequently used
挑了英语当中最常用还有
and most useful 850 words in the language.
最有用的500个词汇
By the way, English has like over 150,000 words.
顺便提一下 英语大约15万词汇
And this language created by a linguist of English
由语言学家创立的
was only 850 words
仅有850个词
and they use this to go promulgate English around the world.
利用这些词汇去向世界传播英语
They’re like anyone in the world
世界上每一个人
can learn English very quickly
如果只学这850词
if they just have to learn these 850 words.
他们就可以快速掌握英语
The inventor of the language once said quote
语言发明家曾说过
it takes 400 words of basic to run a battleship.
用400个词就可以驾驶一艘战舰
And with 850 words, you can run the planet.
掌握850个词 你就可以控制整个星球
He literally said that like this is an extreme version
这位专家的话就是我表达的
of what I’m talking about here.
极端例子
Some words are more important than others.
一些词比另外一些更重要
And if you just memorize those words,
如果你只记这些词
those words that you actually are gonna use,
这些你真正用到的
then you can like supercharge
你就可以加速你的
your language learning process.
英语学习进程
Now this is where my friend Nathaniel Drew
现在 我朋友Drew
comes into the story.
该进入这个故事了
Nathaniel is a guy who loves languages like I do
Nathaniel和我一样喜欢语言
and he also believes in this more direct path.
他也相信这条捷径
So he’s challenged himself to learn as much
所以他挑战自己去学习更多语言
of a new language as quickly as he possibly can on his own.
以他最快的学语言的方式
By the way,
顺便提一下
much to the chagrin of language learning internet communities
最让人不爽的是
who love to say that people are learning languages the wrong way,
线上语言社团总说人们学习的方式不正确
because it doesn’t fit their model.
因为那不适合他们
In doing so, Nathaniel realized the same thing
Nathaniel意识到了这个问题
that British and American governments realized in like the 40’s
像40年代英国和美国政府做的事情一样
that if you just prioritize the most vital words,
如果你优先记忆重要的
the ones that you actually use,
在生活中真正使用的词汇
you can rapidly acquire a language
你可以快速掌握一门语言
if you block out all of the words and only focus
如果你不背全部单词
on the most important.
仅仅关注最重要的
Nathaniel had made a list
Nathaniel列了一个清单
of what he deemed to be some of the most important words
是一些他认为在生活中
for his life and for just everyday communication.
在日常交流中重要的词汇
He gave me that list and I added to it.
他给我 然后我补充了一些
I did a bunch of research on the data
我对这些常用词汇
of most frequently used words
调查了使用数据
and I put it together into a list of 1,000 words
我把他们放在一个1000词的清单中
that I think are the startup kit,
我认为这是开始的准备
the most important words you need to memorize.
你需要记住的就是这些重要的词汇
The ingredients, the building blocks of language.
语言的成分 语音的基本构成
This is the first step.
这是第一步
Before you do anything else,
在你开始之前
memorize the most important words of a language.
记下语言中最重要的词汇
How do you memorize all these words?
如何记忆所有的词汇?
I’m not gonna go into it right now.
我现在不走
I have this box that I use that has all my words
这个盒子里放的是我所有的词汇
and in the course that we made,
我们在课程中制作的
I go into exactly how this thing works.
这个方法十分有效
It’s based on all the psychology that forces these words
根据心理学研究 把这些词
into your long-term memory.
编入长期记忆中
The point is memorize the most vital
首先 要记住那些
frequently used words first,
最重要的常用的词汇
and your life will be a lot easier
因此 在学这门语言的时候
in learning this language.
就会变得更容易
I saw this just recently, like I went from knowing
我最近刚看到这个观点 例如我过去
zero words in Italian to within the first week
一个意大利词都不认识
knowing 200 words of Italian.
但在一周内学会了200个意大利语词汇
You can’t speak super well
只学200个词且不学语法
with just 200 words and no grammar,
你并不会说的很好
but you can certainly start to express yourself.
但你可以开始表达自己了
[speaking foreign language]
[说外语]
I kept memorizing and soon I had like 500 words
我一直背单词 很快背了大约500个
and you won’t believe what 500 words
你可能不会相信 仅凭500个词
can do for your ability to communicate.
你就能和别人聊天
This gets to the second trial on our video game adventure,
在游戏冒险的第二场试炼中
which is start talking early.
需要做的事是 早点开始交流
Language isn’t math.
语言并不是数学
In math, there are laws.
数学中有很多定律
If you break those laws, your equation won’t work.
如果违背了定律 方程式就不成立
You literally get the wrong answer.
答案肯定是错误的
There are wrong answers and right answers in math.
数学中是正确与错误
If my four year old son says two plus two equals 22,
如果我四岁大的儿子说2+2=22
I will say no, son, that’s wrong.
我会告诉他 不 不对噢
Two plus two equals four.
2+2=4
But if my son says yesterday, I eated a apple.
但是如果我儿子说 昨天我吃了一个苹果
I wouldn’t say no son, yesterday you ate an apple.
我不会说 不对 昨天你吃了一个苹果
Get it right next time.
下次一定要说对
No, I wouldn’t say that.
不 我才不会这样说
The kid said words, I understood them
我能明白孩子说的意思
and it worked, that’s language, it isn’t math.
这可是语言 并不是数学
It’s an expressive part of our human experience
语言是我们自身经历的表达环节
that is very intuitive and very flexible and messy
语言很灵活而且杂乱无序
like human culture and relationships.
就像人类文明和人际关系
It is not math.
语言才不是数学
When we approach language like this,
当我们使用语言时就
we make language feel like math.
把语言变得像数学一样
Like if we don’t get the conjugations correct,
好像如果我们不正确的组合
it’ll be like we’re saying two plus two equals 22
它就会变成2+2=22一样
and you’ll be totally wrong and no one will understand you.
你就犯错了 大家都不理解你的话
And all that does is make you nervous and averse
这会让你更焦虑
to actually speaking in real time.
更不愿意张嘴说
But watch this.
但是看这个
I’m about to show you me speaking Italian
我让你看看我的意大利语
a month and a half, six weeks after studying it,
一个半月前 学习六周后
going from zero words to a few 100 words
从0词汇量到几百词汇量
and trying to speak it.
并且尝试去说
Speaking with a native in Italy over Skype
用Skype跟意大利本地人交流
and spoiler alert for those Italian speakers,
给那些说意大利语的人剧透一下
my grammar is horrible.
我语法很差
[speaking foreign language]
[说外语]
这是玛格丽塔 我的italki老师
But guess what, she understood me.
但你猜怎么着 她知道我想说什么
I was communicating in a different language with somebody.
我正在用不同的语种和人对话
It’s not pretty,
说的并不好
it’s not linguistically correct, but it’s communication.
语言学上虽然不正确 但是可以沟通
What I’m proposing is that this is the alternative path,
我一直建议的就是更换路径
this is the goal, not getting the mathematical equations
目的不是为了语法和句法
of grammar and syntax correct.
在数理程式上的正确
As you memorize loads of words,
当你开始背单词时
the next most important step is to get yourself speaking
下一步最重要的是尽可能的
as soon as possible.
去说出来
You’ll have to do this eventually
如果你想说一门语言
if you want to speak the language
你最后必须说
and it’s awkward and painful.
这是让人又尴尬痛苦的事
And so you should start early right away on week one
你应该在第一周学语言时
of learning the language and you should get on
就开始练习说话
one of these services
你该试试这些项目
and start communicating with a native speaker.
然后开始和本地人说话
And now I’m about to say something that actually pains me
现在我打算谈谈令我痛苦的事
which is after two months of this,
是在这两个月之后
just memorizing tons of words
我记忆了大量单词
and having weekly Skype conversations with a native Italian,
每周都和本土意大利人在Skype上聊天
I was speaking better Italian
我意大利语说的更好了
more fluently than I was French.
比我学法语时好
I eclipsed my French capabilities from a verbal standpoint,
让我的法语能力相形见绌
not from a grammar standpoint,
并不是语法角度来讲
but from a verbal expressive standpoint
而是在口头表达上
after two months, compared to four years of work.
两个月后和四年的努力相比
I’m not saying it was fluent after two months,
并不是说两个月后的学习让我更熟练
I’m just saying that my experience after two months
而是我两个月后的经历
was stronger than my four years of college French.
要比四年前大学法语更好
That’s like actually sad for me in some ways
某种意义上 更令我难受
because there’s so much time of me learning French
因为我花了很久时间学法语
and there’s a better way.
才发现有更好的办法
In the course that I mentioned,
在这里我提到了
we go into a deep dive on all the types of activities
我们必须认真的对待
that I do in one of these sessions
学期中的所有事情
with a native speaker that helps make it useful,
在母语人士有用的帮助下
but I’m not gonna go into that right now.
但是现在我不打算细讲
Gate number three, you got to make this fun.
三号门 你得让这有趣点
Another major thing missing from this model is fun.
这个模型缺少的另一个重要的东西是乐趣
Positive association is how it’s called
在行为心理学上
in behavioral psychology.
它被称为正关联
The idea that your brain wants to do something
这个理论是大脑想要去
if last time they did it, it was sort of fun.
上次做的有乐趣的事
Language learning is hard,
学语言很难
it requires many months and years.
需要成年累月学习
How do you keep it up?
如何才能坚持?
You make it interesting and fun.
你得把它变得有趣又好玩
Grammar drills and memorization are not fun
但是语法和背诵可不好玩
so you have to find ways to make it a positive experience.
因此需要找到一种方式使学习语言变成很好的体验
For me, that is reading an Italian cookbook
对我来说 就是去读意大利语版的
that has Italian language that I can translate
我可以翻译出来的烹饪书
and think about Italian cuisine, which is something I love.
想一下我喜欢的意大利烹饪是一种好方法
I also started listening to Harry Potter in Italian
我也开始听意大利版哈利波特
which I didn’t understand a single word at first
一开始我一个字也听不懂
but then I got the Kindle version
但后来我买了Kindle版
and I sort of followed along digitally
数据化跟进
and translated some words while I was listening
当我在听的时候 翻译一些词
and now I can like understand probably 80 to 90%
现在我大概能听懂80%到90%了
of Harry Potter cause I love Harry Potter.
因为我爱哈利波特
Don’t love JK Rowling though, love Harry Potter.
尽管不爱JK罗琳 但我爱哈利波特
So make it fun.
所以方法就是让它有趣
The last and final gate in this more direct journey
旅行捷径的最后一道门
to be able to speak a language is the one
最重要的就是会说一种语言
that people who have learned other languages
那些学过其他语言的人
have been waiting for me to say
一直在等我讲一件事
and they’re angrily being like dude,
他们可不满意
you got to mention this
“兄弟 你得说这一点”
and I’m gonna say it, which is yes.
我也正打算说 是的
Eventually, you have to learn the rules.
最后 你必须学规则
You have to learn grammar.
你必须学语法
You have to learn pronunciation and you have to refine it
你得学习发音然后改善
through drills and through a lot of practice.
通过钻研还有大量练习
Intentionally, I’m putting this last
我故意放在最后说
because I think you should too.
是因为我认为你也该这样做
The previous concepts are way more important.
之前的观念是更重要的东西
Get your first 500 or 1,000 words memorized
在长期记忆时
in your long-term memory.
记下500至1000个词
Start speaking every week with a native speaker,
每周开始和本地人交流
make the journey fun, and then start to think about grammar
让学习更有趣 然后才开始考虑语法
and start to think about all of the rules and the irregulars
考虑所有的规则和不规则形式
and the syntax and the direct object pronouns
还有句法和直接宾语代词
and the past participles.
还有过去分词
You can do that after maybe two, three months
你可以在两三个月后
of like being in the trenches.
学习语法
The best part about this is that by that time,
最好的部分是 到那时
you’ll be in a place where you can communicate basic ideas
你会发现你可以进行基础的交流
so that when you do look at the grammar,
因此当那时你学语法时
it actually fits into the context
实际上是符合
that you’ve intuitively developed of expression.
你已经自觉形成的表达方式
It won’t just be like in a vacuum
不是像用吸尘器吸取
of memorizing arbitrary rules,
那些死板的理论
it’ll actually apply to something.
你也能在某件事上应用
And that makes it way more interesting to actually memorize.
而且在记忆的时候也会更有趣
I didn’t start really going into grammar
直到最近
until just recently,
我才开始学习语法
three months into the process of learning Italian.
在我学意大利语三个月后
And it makes a lot more sense.
这样就能更容易理解语法
So that is what I’ve learned
这就是我学到的
about learning another language, it’s like a video game.
有关学其他语言时 就像玩游戏一样
You don’t need to gather all the Korok seeds
你不必为了通关
to beat the game.
去收集所有克洛格果实
You don’t, some people think you do.
大可不必 不过有些人认为用
I’m not gonna listen to those people.
我可不听这些人的
For me, to beat the game,
对我来说
you just need to be able to talk and be understood.
通关只需要你能说 能明白别人的话
This is my experience, this is my version of it.
以上是我的经验和看法
And again, in the course,
再说一次 在这过程中
I go deeper into exactly how this goes down.
我会更深入地了解这到底是怎么样的
The course that me and Nathaniel did
我和Nathaniel上的这门课
is like three and a half hours
大概是三个半小时
of like nitty gritty techniques and all of this stuff,
讲了细节性技巧和全部内容
but the message is what I’ve told you here,
但是我想告诉你的是
which is that there’s a better way to learn languages
这个方法比我们在学校学习的
than the way we learned it in school.
要好很多
I will be studying Italian for years,
我会继续学意大利语
but the beautiful thing is next time I go to Italy,
但是好事是下一次我要去意大利
which who knows when that’s gonna be,
不过谁知道下一次什么时候呢
but at some point I’ll go to Italy, I’ll show up to a cafe
但是某天我到意大利的时候 我要去咖啡馆
and I’ll be able to speak.
我能说意大利语
I’ll be able to talk and be understood
可以与人交流而且被理解
and that’s what matters to me.
这对我很重要
So I hope that’s what matters to you too.
所以我希望这对你来说也很重要
Thanks for watching.
感谢观看
[speaking foreign language]
[说外语]

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视频概述

How to use the way of playing video games to learning a new language.

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3i1lNJPY-4Q

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