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迷人的海獭 – 译学馆
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迷人的海獭

The Fantastic Fur of Sea Otters | Deep Look

用一个字描述北加利福尼亚海岸:冷
Here’s one word to describe the Northern California coast: COLD.
如果你或我现在不穿潜水服待在海浪里 我们10分钟内就会处于低温状态
If you or I were in those waves without a wetsuit right now we’d get hypothermia in ten minutes.
但是海獭知道如何在这里生存 太令人吃惊了
But sea otters have figured out how to survive here, which is amazing.
尤其是你可以设想一下 这种小东西可以维持体内体温约100华摄度
Especially when you consider that this little guy has to maintain an internal body temperature around 100 degrees Fahrenheit,
约是它正在游的这片海域水温的两倍
almost twice as warm as the water he’s swimming in.
当然 鲸鱼和海狮都可以做到这一点 可那些哺乳动物已经经历几千万年
Sure, whales do it. Sea lions do it. But those mammals have had tens of millions of years
才适应了海洋的生活
to adapt to life in the ocean.
从进化角度来看 海獭是海洋的新来客
Evolutionarily speaking, sea otters are newcomers…
它属于陆栖动物 历经几百万年才跋涉到了海洋
land animals that waded into the ocean a mere couple of million years ago.
不像其他海洋哺乳动物 他们没有脂肪
Unlike other ocean mammals, they have no blubber.
而且身材较小 这就意味着会不断的失去热量
And they’re small, meaning they are constantly losing heat.
不过使它们存活的王牌 就是皮毛
Their ace in the hole– is fur.
海獭是世界上毛皮最厚的动物 每平方英寸的毛发多达100万根
Sea otters have the thickest fur on the planet. Up to a million hairs per square inch.
才让他们得以生存
It’s what keeps them alive.
但这致密的毛皮也导致他们被杀 回溯到19世纪 海獭被大肆捕杀
It also almost killed them — back around the 19th century sea otters were hunted nearly
将近至灭绝 其毛皮做成了帽子和大衣
to extinction to make hats and coats.
但事实上真正保持海獭体内温度的并不是皮毛 而是空气
But it’s not really the fur, per se, that keeps the otter warm. It’s air.
毛皮能把空气吸进毛里 形成一个保温防护层 就像一条羽绒被盖在身上
Fur works by trapping air near the skin’s surface, like a down comforter.
由于海獭的毛皮致密 所以基本可以防水 你可以看到临近表皮 它的毛皮是干的
Sea otter fur is so dense it’s basically waterproof. You can see how dry it is close to the skin.
这层空气使海獭的表皮很光滑
That layer of air gives the otter’s fur a glossy look
当它在水里翻滚的时候
as it tumbles through the water.
那小海獭呢 它们的毛皮也可以吸收空气 帮助他们在水面浮潜
Baby sea otters? Their fur traps so much air that they bob at the surface
出生的绒毛可以让它们漂浮在水上 直到它们脱落幼兽的皮毛然后学会潜水
their fluffiness makes them buoyant. That is, until they shed the pup fur and learn to dive.
这种隔绝作用是要付出代价的
This excellent insulation comes at a price.
每次海獭潜水 它们的皮毛就会排出一些空气
Every time a sea otter dives, some of the air in their fur gets forced out.
看见那些气泡了么 当海獭准备再次潜水 就会吸取更多的空气进入
See those bubbles? And so the otter has to groom himself all over again, to pump more air in.
让我们近距离观察下它们的皮毛
Let’s take a closer look at this fur.
正如你所见 海獭的皮毛是由两种毛发组成:
As you can see, sea otter fur is actually made up of two kinds of hair:
下层隔热绒毛 还有那些稍长起保护作用的针毛
under fur, the insulating part, and those longer, protective guard hairs.
显微镜下 你可以看到这些毛发又干燥又粗糙
Under a microscope, you can see how the individual hairs are scaly and rough.
这种粗糙度是非常重要的
That roughness is important.
那些毛发上的毛边可以让皮毛间隔更紧密
Those barbs on the hair shafts let the fur mat together.
以此来捕捉空气
That’s what traps the air in.
相比而言 有一种小狼 当然它们并不住在冰冷的海洋里
For comparison – here’s a coyote. Coyotes, of course, don’t live in the freezing ocean,
它们的毛发没有毛边
and their hairs don’t have the barbs.
毛发让它们可以在陆地上也保持温暖 可在海洋里 他们就不能依旧保持干燥了
Their fur keeps them warm on land, but they wouldn’t stay dry in the ocean.
许多方面 海獭和陆栖动物都有共性
In a lot of ways, otters have more in common with land animals.
几千年以前 海獭通过进化才得以在这些冰水下翻滚跳跃
But many years ago, otters took an evolutionary leap into these icy waters.
今天这种进化依旧使它们生存得很好
And today they’re making it work.

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海獭这种陆栖动物,凭借着自身的进化,可以在水下生活的很好

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