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树懒的“极端”生活 – 译学馆
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树懒的“极端”生活

The Extreme Life Of A Sloth

If there’s one thing you know about sloths,
如果你对树懒有所耳闻
it’s that they’re,
那你肯定知道
well, slow.
他们很慢
But that doesn’t mean they’re boring.
但这并不是说它们无趣
In fact, sloths are one of the most extreme animals on the planet,
事实上 树懒是地球上最“极端”的动物之一
and not just because they poop only once a week.
不仅仅因为它们一周只排便一次
树懒的“极端”生活
First of all, sloths really are extremely slow.
首先 树懒确实非常慢
Their top speeds clock in at just 0.25 kph,
它们的最高时速仅为0.25千米每小时
making them the slowest mammal on the planet.
是地球上最慢的哺乳动物
According to zoologist Becky Cliffe,
动物学家Becky Cliffe表示
that’s because, well, sloths can’t really see.
这是因为树懒的视力不太好
60 millions years ago, they lost the ability to see.
六千万年前 树懒丧失了视力
They went almost completely blind.
它们几近失明
So, in the daytime,
因此 在白天
a sloth actually can’t see anything ’cause it’s too bright.
树懒实际上看不到任何东西 因为太亮了
If you can’t see where you’re going, you can’t run around
因为看不见要去的地方 所以树懒不能跑来跑去
because you’re going to fall out the tree.
否则就会掉到树下
Narrator: Moving slowly may sound like a liability,
行动迟缓听起来似乎是个缺陷
especially if you’re nearly blind,
尤其是在几乎失明的情况下
but being sluggish actually comes with all kinds of benefits.
但是行动迟缓实际上会带来各种好处
For one, they save an enormous amount of energy.
一方面 树懒可以节省大量能量
In fact, sloths use about 90% less energy than the average mammal,
实际上 树懒的能量消耗比普通哺乳动物少90%
which is vital,
这是至关重要的
considering their diet is a low-energy snack
考虑到它们的食物是低能量的小吃
consisting of leaves…with a side of leaves.
除了树叶 还是树叶
And as it turns out, being slow also helps sloths avoid detection.
另一方面 事实证明行动缓慢也有助于树懒躲避侦查
You see, sloths are so slow that predators like jaguars and eagles,
它们慢到让像美洲虎和老鹰这类
which use movement to hunt, can’t even find them.
借助猎物移动进行捕猎的动物无法发现它们
But some sloths take predator avoidance to the next level.
其中 一些树懒在躲避天敌上特别出色
Thanks to rare extra vertebrae in its neck,
由于三趾树懒颈部特有的脊椎
the three-fingered sloth can turn its head 270 degrees,
它们可以将头旋转270度
which allows it to smell incoming predators from almost any direction,
这使得它们几乎可以嗅到从任何方向靠近的捕食者
and that’s especially useful
这一点非常有用
when you spend nearly all of your time motionless in a tree.
尤其是几乎全部时间都待在树上一动不动时
In fact, sloths sleep, mate, and even give birth
实际上 树懒睡觉 交配甚至产仔
all while hanging upside down on a branch.
全部都是倒挂在树上完成的
And, as you might expect,
而且 如你所料
that requires some pretty extreme adaptations.
这需要一些非常极端的适应能力
Cliffe: They’ve got special tendons in their hands,
树懒四肢有特殊的肌腱
which lock into place.
它们用这些肌腱来固定自己
Narrator: And, along with their long, hooklike fingernails, allow them to hang easily.
同时 钩状的指甲可以让它们倒挂得更为轻松
Cliffe: They’re like a giant coat hanger.
它们就像大衣架
Narrator: And to combat a rush of blood to the head,
为了应对倒挂时涌入头部的血液
which might be familiar if you’ve ever hung upside down…
如果你曾倒立过 你肯定熟悉那种感觉
Cliffe: They have special sort of valves in their circulatory system
在树懒的循环系统中存在特殊的阀门
that does actually stop the pooling of blood in the head.
能防止大脑里积过多的血液
Narrator: But if you think that’s extreme, consider this:
但若你认为这就是树懒最“极端”的特点 那就错了
Once a week, sloths risk their lives on a daring journey
树懒每周都会冒着生命危险
from the protective forest canopy to the ground.
从安全的树冠上下到地面一次
Their mission?
原因呢?
To poop.
为了排便
And it really is risky.
这真的非常冒险
Cliffe: We suspect about 60% of predator-based sloth deaths
我们怀疑 因捕食者而死亡的树懒案件
happen while they’re pooping.
约60%发生在它们排便时
They literally risk their lives to come down to the ground.
它们真的是冒着生命危险下到地面
Narrator: So they have to make it count.
因此 树懒必须重视每次排便
And, boy, they really do.
它们的确非常重视
Sloths can lose an astonishing 30% of their body weight each time they go.
令人震惊的是 树懒每次排便重量能达到自身体重的30%
Plus, they might get a mate out of it.
同时 它们有可能因此找到伴侣
Cliffe: How do you find a mate
如果你独居又行动迟缓
if you’re solitary and you can’t move very far?
应该如何找到伴侣呢?
Well, they’re gonna have to use pheromones and scent markers.
树懒将不得不使用信息素和气味标记物
I think that coming down and leaving a little pile
我认为下到地面 在偏爱的树下
at the base of your favorite trees
留几堆粪便
is sort of like a little signpost.
就像是一个指示牌
Narrator: But if there’s one thing that really pushes sloths over the top,
但若真的是某件事让树懒在“极端动物”中跻身前列
it’s their rough fur.
那就是它们“粗糙”的皮毛
Sloth fur has its very own ecosystem.
树懒的皮毛自成一个生态系统
Because they live in the rainforest,
因为它们居住在雨林
it’s often wet,
经常处于潮湿状态
which creates the perfect environment for algae to grow
这为藻类生长创造了完美的环境
and provide sloths with green camouflage.
也为树懒提供了绿色的伪装
But it isn’t just algae that calls a sloth’s fur home.
但不只是藻类将树懒的皮毛当作家
You can also find beetles, cockroaches,
在这里还可以找到甲壳虫 蜚螊
and a species of moth that’s found nowhere else in the world except for on a sloth.
和一种仅存在于树懒皮毛上的蛾类
And the sloths don’t seem to mind one bit.
树懒似乎对于此毫不介意
But that’s not all.
但事情远不只如此
Their fur might actually save lives.
它们的皮毛可以拯救生命
Fungi in their fur have been shown to fight breast cancer cells,
它们皮毛中的菌类可以对抗乳腺癌
and they may also have properties for fighting malaria.
甚至有可能对抗疟疾
So, despite their slow pace,
因此 尽管行动迟缓
sloths are far from boring,
树懒却一点也不无趣
and in some environments, they aren’t even slow.
在某些情况下 它们甚至也不慢
I mean, look at that daredevil go.
瞧瞧这位勇士

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视频概述

树懒看似缓慢的生活背后也藏着很多小知识:一周下树一次,却冒着生命危险;排便能减轻自身重量的30%,却很可能因此丧命;皮毛中生长着各类生物等等。

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翻译译者

Icyyyy

审核员

审核员YQ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DpV4k3Edr-I

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