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人类体内的微生物正在灭绝

The Extinction Happening Inside You

Hi, this is Julián from MinuteEarth.
嗨 我是《分钟地球》的朱利安
In the 1960s, Americans realized
在20世纪60年代 美国人意识到
they’d inadvertently driven the bald eagle,
虽然不是故意为之 但他们的吉祥物白头雕
their own national mascot, to near extinction through
由于栖息地被破坏和意外中毒
a combination of habitat destruction and accidental poisoning.
已经濒临灭绝了
Today, another extinction event is happening
如今 另外一场生物灭绝正在发生
under eerily similar conditions,
情况惊人地相似
but it’s happening on the microscopic level
不过 它发生在微观层面上
… inside our guts.
发生在我们的肠道内
Microbes evolved to live in our intestines
为了在人类肠道中生存 微生物进行了进化
back when our hunter-gatherer diet
进化要追溯到人类以狩猎采集为食的时候
meant our guts were full of grasses, fruits, and nuts.
那时 我们肠道里充满了草 水果和坚果
But today much like we converted eagles’ habitat
不过如今 就像人们把白头雕的栖息地
from prime waterfront hunting grounds
从优质的自然海滨猎场
to prime waterfront properties –
变成了优质的海滨房地产
we’ve traded that “paleo-diet”
我们也把“古老的传统食物”
for a processed diet
变成了经过加工的食物
that lacks the fiber and complex carbs that some microbes evolved to munch.
加工食物缺乏可供某些微生物食用的纤维和复合碳水化合物
And in another gut wrenching turn of events,
另一个让人难过的变化是
much like we overused the pesticide DDT
就像我们过度使用了
which poisoned bald eagles and interfered with their babymaking,
能毒害白头雕和妨碍其繁衍的杀虫剂DDT
we’ve overused antibiotics,
我们也过度使用了抗生素
which indiscriminately attack our microbiome,
抗生素会无差别攻击体内微生物群
poisoning lots of good gut bacteria.
毒杀大量肠道有益菌
when the bold eagles, notorious birds of prey disappeared,
凶名在外的猛禽白头雕消失后
the lack of competition caused the gull population to explode
由于缺乏竞争 会导致海鸥数量激增
and in turn they preyed on smaller endangered bird
继而 海鸥会捕食更小的濒危鸟类
and spread disease like salmonella
还会传播如沙门氏菌之类的疾病
Similarly, gut bacteria, like Prevotella,
同样 像普氏菌之类的肠道细菌
which break our food down into nutrients that can regulate our immune system,
可以把食物分解成能调节免疫系统的营养物质
are disappearing from our guts
而这类有益菌从肠道中消失
and in some cases leaving space
留下的空间会在某些情况下
for explosions of bacteria like C. diff,
让像艰难梭菌之类的细菌激增
which can cause diarrhea and inflammation
这会引发腹泻和炎症
and potentially lead to other metabolic diseases like diabetes.
还可能导致像糖尿病之类的代谢疾病
The good news is
好消息是
that we were able to bring bald eagles back from the brink.
我们能把白头雕从灭绝的边缘拯救回来
The U.S. government stopped people from destroying bald eagle habitats
美国政府禁止人们破坏白头雕的栖息地
and building over them.
禁止在其上建造建筑物
They bred bald eaglets and
政府饲养幼年的白头雕
transported others from parts of the US where their numbers were still strong
将其他白头雕从美国白头雕较多的地区
to reintroduce them to their old soaring grounds.
放归到白头雕之前的那些栖息地中
And when we found out DDT was poisoning bald eagles,
我们了解到DDT会毒害白头雕后
we limited its use to public health emergencies.
就限制了DDT在突发公共卫生事件中的使用
So how can we apply all these strategies
那么 我们如何运用所有这些策略
to saving the micro-eagles of our guts?
来拯救我们肠道内的微生物“白头雕”呢?
Well, for starters we can bring that essential fiber back into our diets,
首先 要让饮食和之前一样 含有必不可少的纤维
which would make our gut habitat
这会让肠道这个“栖息地”
more, well, habitable, for those missing microbes.
更加适合之前消失的微生物生存
And we can take bacteria like Prevotella, which are common
普氏菌在坦桑尼亚的哈扎采猎者体内很常见
in the hunter-gatherer Hadza people of Tanzania,
我们可以服用如普氏菌之类的细菌
and add them to the guts of people
以服用益生菌药片的方式
who need them via probiotic pills.
让这些细菌进入到需要者的肠道里
And we can curb our use of antibiotics,
我们可以限制抗生素的使用
only using them for crucial
使用对象仅限
medical cases where they’re actually useful and
抗生素确实能产生作用的关键医疗病例
not, you know, for the sniffles.
而不用于轻微的感冒
If we take the right measures to protect their habitat,
我们如果采取正确的措施来保护细菌的“栖息地”
we can ensure our gut bacteria
就可以确保我们的肠道细菌
– like bald eagles before them – don’t leave an empty nest.
像之前的白头雕一样 能够繁衍生息
This video was sponsored by the University of Minnesota
这个视频由明尼苏达大学赞助
, where students, faculty and staff across all fields of study are working to s
其所有研究领域的学生和教职员工
olve the Grand Challenges facing society.
都正在努力解决社会面临的巨大挑战
One of these challenges is
其中一个挑战是
enhancing individual and community capacity for a changing world,
增强个人和社会应对世界变化的能力
which includes researching how the modern changes to our diet have affected our health.
包括研究现代饮食变化是如何影响人类健康的
Professor Ran Blekhman at the College of Biological Sciences and
生物科学学院的Ran Blekhman教授
Professor Andres Gomez at the College of Food, Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences
和食品农业和自然资源科学学院的Andres Gomez教授
are studying how these new diets have affected the makeup and evolution of our microbiome
正在研究现代饮食是如何影响体内微生物群的组成和进化的
and how those changes are associated with certain diseases.
以及这些变化是如何与某些疾病联系在一起的
Thanks University of Minnesota!
感谢明尼苏达大学

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视频概述

通过美国人挽救濒临灭绝的白头雕来讲解如何挽救人体肠道内逐渐消失的细菌

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-JHfC3nW9To

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