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白洞的存在可能解决物理学界最大的争论之一

The Existence of White Holes May Settle One of Physics’ Biggest Debates

Longtime viewers of this channel know that we talk about black holes a lot.
本频道的老观众知道我们经常谈论黑洞
We just can’t seem to get enough of them.
我们似乎对它很是痴迷
But we give them so much attention,
但我们给了它们太多关注
today we’re going to talk about their bizarre twins,
今天就来谈谈它们怪异的双生子
white holes
白洞
Basically, a white hole is the hypothetical opposite of a black hole.
基本上讲 白洞是假设与黑洞相反的天体
Now I’d bet that you know what a black hole is,
我打赌你肯定知道什么是黑洞
but hey, they still have to explain seat belts
但是 就像每次你乘坐飞机时
every time you fly on an airplane,
机组人员仍会向你解释如何使用安全带
so buckle up because after the refresher
所以准备好 因为在回顾了黑洞之后
we’re going on a wild ride.
我们会开始一次疯狂的旅程
Black holes are regions of space where so much mass is packed together so densely.
黑洞是空间中巨大质量致密聚集的区域
It forms what’s called a singularity,
它形成了所谓的奇点
and nothing can move fast enough to escape its gravitational pull.
没有任何物体能够以足够快的速度逃脱其引力
Not even the fastest thing in the universe, light,
即使是宇宙中最快的物质 光
can’t escape its clutches.
也无法逃脱它的控制
But you knew that, right?
但你知道这个 对吧?
Everybody knows what a black hole is,
每个人都知道黑洞
except that nobody knows what a black hole is,
只可惜没人知道黑洞是什么
not exactly anyway.
至少是不甚了解
Because of that pesky fact that light can’t escape,
因为恼人的事实是 光线无法从黑洞逃逸
we can’t see what’s going on inside a black hole.
所以我们看不到黑洞内部发生了什么
So we have to rely on theories and equations to deduce
因此我们必须依靠理论和方程式来推断
what’s happening at the center of the event horizon,
黑洞视界的中心发生了什么
and that has been a major sticking point in physics.
而这也是物理学界的主要分歧点
There are two competing explanations to describe black holes.
有两种相互矛盾的解释来描述黑洞
One of them is Einstein’s theory of general relativity,
其一就是爱因斯坦的广义相对论
where the mass of a black hole bends spacetime so much
黑洞的质量使时空很大程度地弯曲
that it becomes one single point of infinite density.
以至于它变成了一个密度无限大的点
On the other hand, according to quantum mechanics there can’t be an infinitely small point.
另一说法 量子力学认为不可能存在无限小的点
It can be very very small, but not infinitely so.
它可以很小很小 但不能无限小
And this irreconcilable difference
而这种不相容的差异
is one of the greatest debates in physics,
是物理学中最大的争论之一
since general relativity is our best description of gravity,
因为广义相对论是我们对引力的最佳描述
while quantum mechanics has been called the most successful theory ever.
而量子力学被称为有史以来最成功的理论
But some physicists believe
但是一些物理学家认为
white holes could square these two predictions
白洞可以协调这两个理论
and reveal what’s happening inside a black hole.
并且揭示黑洞内部发生了什么
The equations of general relativity allow for the possibility of white holes,
广义相对论方程允许了白洞存在的可能
all you have to do is set the mass of the singularity to zero
你所要做的就是将奇点的质量设为零
and everything gets turned on its ear.
一切都将变得不同
Instead of a cosmic vacuum cleaner
你得到的不是可以吸走
that sucks everything up that strays too close,
所有附近物质的“宇宙吸尘器”
you get a…
你得到的是……
whatever the opposite of a vacuum is
反正是“吸尘器”的反义词
I’m not good with metaphors,
我不擅长比喻
but the point is all it can do is spew stuff out.
但关键是它能把东西吐出来
But then the question is,
但是接下来的问题是
how do you get a singularity, a point of infinite density remember,
如何获得奇点 记住是密度无限大的点
with no mass!
且没有质量
And how does a massless singularity spit anything out?
没有质量的奇点如何吐出东西
Because of that head scratcher,
正是由于这种令人挠头的问题
white holes have long been written off as a mathematical quirk
白洞一直被看作是数学中的奇葩
but not something that can happen in reality.
而不是现实中可能存在的东西
However, quantum mechanics allows for
但是 量子力学允许
some “adjustments” to the solutions of the equations of general relativity,
对广义相对论方程的解作一些“调整”
and with those adjustments,
并且通过这些调整
the interior of a black hole could transform into a white hole.
黑洞的内部可能转化为白洞
One physicist describes it as though
一位物理学家将这种现象描述为
the curved spacetime of the black hole itself is bouncing out again,
好比黑洞本身弯曲的时空又发生了反弹
and this rebound opens up some tantalizing possibilities.
这种反弹带来了一些诱人的可能性
Since a black hole might transform into a white hole,
由于黑洞可能会转变成白洞
that means things falling into it may come out again.
这意味着掉入其中的物质可能会再次出现
This would solve another issue quantum physics has with black holes
这将解决量子物理学中关于黑洞的另一个问题
because in quantum physics information cannot be destroyed.
因为在量子物理学中 信息无法被破坏
Granted, whatever came out of a white hole
当然 从白洞中出来的任何东西
would be a very mangled version of its former self,
都将是其过去自我的一个非常残缺的版本
but nonetheless, information about what it was
但尽管如此 关于其过去的信息
would not be deleted from the universe.
也不会从宇宙中删除
It sounds like a wormhole,
听起来像虫洞
but instead of traveling through space, the object would travel through time.
但不是穿越空间 而是会穿越时间
General relativity tells us that
广义相对论告诉我们
time moves more slowly near massive objects,
时间会在大质量物体附近变慢
so to an object falling into the black hole
因此 对于掉入黑洞的物体来说
it would seem like very little time is passing,
似乎只经过很短暂的时间
but to an outside observer,
但对外部观察者来说
it would take ages to pop out again on the rebound.
信息要经过很长时间才能传回来
Just how far into the future it travels depends on the size of the black hole,
它穿越到未来多远取决于黑洞的大小
with big holes taking quadrillions of times
对于大黑洞 信息传送需要
the age of the universe to transition.
宇宙年龄的数千万亿倍时间
But small black holes that formed just after the chaos of the Big Bang
但对于大爆炸之后不久形成的小黑洞
may have already converted.
可能早已传回了
They would be invisible
小黑洞可能不可见
because they’d be smaller than the wavelength of light,
因为它们的尺寸可能会小于光的波长
but have the mass of about a millionth of a gram.
但约有百万分之一克质量
White hole proponents say this could make them
支持白洞的人说 这可能会使白洞成为
an attractive candidate for dark matter.
解释暗物质有力的候选理论
Yeah, the upsides of white holes just keep getting better and better.
是的 白洞理论的有利证据正变得越来越多
I told you it would be a wild ride
我告诉过你 这将是一场疯狂的旅程
but here is where it comes to an end.
但是 这里就是终点了
I have to remind you that white holes are still purely hypothetical.
我必须提醒你 白洞仍然是纯假设
The math checks out
数学可以检验它
and the reasons to hunt for them are numerous,
而且有大量找寻它的推理证明
but at this stage
但在现阶段
they remain a very unexplored corner of physics.
它们仍然是物理学中一个尚未探索的角落
Then again, there was a time
然而 曾经有一段时间
when the same could be said about black holes.
关于黑洞的说法也是如此
We’re just going to need a few physicists dedicated enough to the idea of white holes
我们只需要一些潜心研究白洞的物理学家
to keep searching for them.
持续地寻找它们
That or a few brave volunteers to jump into a black hole, huh?
或者一些勇敢的志愿者跳进黑洞
Who’s going with me, huh?
谁和我一起去
Anyone?…Anyone?
有人吗 ……有人吗
White holes may form faster
当黑洞的质量较小时
when the black holes are less massive,
白洞的形成速度可能会更快
but black holes themselves can merge and get bigger.
但黑洞本身可以合并 变大
There’s a debate whether the very biggest supermassive black holes can come together
关于那些超大质量黑洞能否聚集仍存在争议
and for more on that check out my video here.
想获取更多信息 可以在这里查看我的视频
Alright, so I mean it. Who’s jumping in with me huh?!
好吧 说真的 谁打算和我一起跳进去
Who’s going to the nearest black hole?
谁要去最近的黑洞
Let us know down in the comments below.
写在下面的评论中让我们知道
Be sure to subscribe to Seeker,
请记得订阅《探求新闻台》
and I will see you next time.
下次再见

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视频概述

本视频介绍了白洞,回顾了关于黑洞的知识,并主要围绕白洞的存在展开讨论……让我们开始这段奇异之旅吧!

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翻译译者

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审核员

审核员SR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wWzEUDk-9m0

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