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解释欧洲难民灾和叙利亚

The European Refugee Crisis and Syria Explained

在2015年的夏天,
In the summer of 2015,
欧洲经历了第二次世界大战以来最大的难民的涌入。
Europe experienced the hugest influx of refugees since the Second World War.
为什么?
Why?
主要原因是叙利亚已成为最大的难民来源。
The main reason is that Syria has become the world’s top source of refugees.
叙利亚位于中东地区,
Syria is located in the Middle East,
在一个古老的肥沃的土地了存在了至少10000年。
an ancient fertile land settled for at least 10,000 years.
自1960年代以来,它就是由阿萨德家族统治的,
Since the 1960s, it’s been led by the al-Assad family,
直到阿拉伯之春之前阿萨德都是那个地方的独裁者。
who have ruled it as quasi-dictators until the Arab Spring happened in 2011,
革命的浪潮在阿拉伯世界造成了抗议和冲突。
a revolutionary wave of protests and conflicts in the Arab world
人们想推翻独裁政权。
that toppled many authoritarian regimes.
但阿萨德家族拒绝下台,开始了残酷的内战。
But the Assads refused to step down and started a brutal civil war.
不同种族和宗教团体组成联盟相互斗争。
Different ethnicities and religious groups fought each other in changing coalitions.
ISIS,一个恐怖组织,利用这个机会
ISIS, a militaristic jihadist group, used the opportunity
进入了混战,目标是为了建立一个极权主义伊斯兰哈里发国家。
and entered the chaos with the goal to build a totalitarian Islamic caliphate.
很快,它成为地球上最暴力
Very quickly, it became one of the most
和最成功的恐怖组织之一。
violent and successful extremist organizations on Earth.
各方犯下滔天罪行,使用了化学武器,大屠杀
All sides committed horrible war crimes, using chemical weapons, mass executions,
大规模的酷刑,袭击平民。
torture on a large scale, and repeated deadly attacks on civilians.
叙利亚人口被困在独裁政权,叛乱组织
The Syrian population was trapped
和极端恐怖主义三者之间。
between the regime, rebel groups, and the religious extremists.
三分之一的叙利亚人民流离失所。
A third of the Syrian people have been displaced within Syria,
超过四百万人逃离了这个国家。
while over four million have fled the country.
他们现在绝大多数居住在邻近国家的难民营里,
The vast majority of them reside now in camps in the neighboring countries,
那里照顾着95%的难民,
who are taking care of 95% of the refugees,
然而波斯湾的阿拉伯国家
while the Arab states of the Persian Gulf together
不接收叙利亚难民,
have accepted zero Syrian refugees,
这尤为让国际特赦组织感到羞耻。
which has been called especially shameful by Amnesty International.
联合国和世界粮食计划
The UN and the World Food Program
并没有做好准备好去应对如此规模的难民危机。
were not prepared for a refugee crisis on this scale.
结果,许多难民营都很拥挤并不够供应,
As a result, many refugee camps are crowded and undersupplied,
导致难民经受寒冷、饥饿和疾病。
subjecting people to cold, hunger, and disease.
叙利亚人民不相信他们的处境即将会得到改善,
The Syrians lost hope that their situation will be getting better any time soon,
所以很多难民决定去寻求欧洲的接济。
so many decided to seek asylum in Europe.
在2007年和2014年之间,欧盟已投入20亿欧元
Between 2007 and 2014, the Europian Union had invested about €2 billion
在防御,高端安全科技和边境巡逻上,
in defenses, high-tech security technology, and border patrols,
但并没有做好准备去应对大量难民的涌入。
but not a lot in preparation for an influx of refugees.
因此没有准备好去应对寻求庇荫的难民。
So it was badly prepared for the storm of asylum seekers.
在欧盟,难民必须留在他们第一个抵达的国家,
In the EU, a refugee has to stay in the state they arrived in first,
这给本就陷于困境的边境国家施予了巨大的压力。
which put enormous pressure on the border states that were already in trouble.
希腊,正处于经济大萧条时期,
Greece, in the midst of an economic crisis on the scale of the Great Depression,
不能马上照顾到这么多的人,
was not able to take care of so many people at once,
导致岛上遍布饥荒的可怕场境,
leading to terrible scenes of desperate, hungry people on islands
原本是留给游客的。
usually reserved for tourists.
全世界本是要团结起来,形成统一战线,
The world needed to come together and act as a united front,
但相反,它变得更加分裂了。
but, instead, it has become more divided.
很多国家直接拒绝接受任何难民,
Many states downright refused to take in any refugees,
只留下边境国家在独自奋斗。
leaving the border states alone in their struggle.
2014年,英国游说停止
In 2014, the UK lobbied to stop
一个被称为我们的海的大型搜救行动,
a huge search-and-rescue operation called Mare Nostrum
这是为了防止寻求庇护者在地中海溺亡。
that was designed to stop asylum seekers from drowning in the Mediterranean.
这个想法似乎是海上更高的死亡人数
The idea seems to have been that a higher death toll on the sea
将意味着更少的庇护寻求者去尝试穿越。
would mean fewer asylum seekers trying to make the journey.
但当然,在现实中,这与事实相反。
But, of course, in reality, that’s not what happened.
世界对这个危机的看法突然改变了,
The perception of the crisis around the world suddenly changed
当一个溺死的叙利亚男孩么照片在流传,
when photos circulated of a dead boy from Syria
他被发现趴在了土耳其的沙滩上。
found lying face down on a beach in Turkey.
德国宣布将无例外的接受所有叙利亚难民,
Germany announced that it will, without exception, accept all Syrian refugees,
准备在2015年接收80万难民,
and is now preparing to take in 800,000 people in 2015,
这超过了整个欧盟在2014年接收的人数,
more than the entire EU took in 2014,
几天后,只是实施临时边境管制
only to impose temporary border controls a few days later
和要求一个全欧盟范围内的解决方案。
and demand an EU-wide solution.
在西方,越来越多人开始采取行动,
All over the West, more and more people are beginning to take action,
尽管对寻求庇护者的支持
although support for asylum seekers
大多来自公民,而不是政客。
has mostly come from citizens, not from politicians.
但有人担心西方世界:
But there are fears in the Western world:
伊斯兰教,高出生率,犯罪和社会制度的崩溃。
Islam, high birth rates, crime, and the collapse of the social systems.
让我们一起了解它,看清事实吧。
Let’s acknowledge this and look at the facts.
即使欧盟单独接受所有的四百万叙利亚难民,
Even if the EU alone were to accept all four million Syrian refugees
他们100%是穆斯林,
and 100% of them were Muslims,
穆斯林在欧盟的百分比
the percentage of Muslims in the European Union
只会上升大约4%到5%。
would only rise from about 4% to about 5%.
这不是个很大的改变,当然也不会使欧洲成为一个穆斯林大洲。
This is not a drastic change and will certainly not make it a Muslim continent.
少数穆斯林这既不是新的,也不是令人害怕的理由。
A Muslim minority is neither new nor reason to be afraid.
出生率在许多西方国家都很低,
Birth rates in many parts of the Western world are low,
所以会担心寻求庇护者可能会取代本地人
so some fear asylum seekers might overtake the native population
在几十年内。
in a few decades.
研究表明,尽管
Studies have shown that even though
穆斯林在欧洲的出生率更高,它也会下降和调整,
birth rates are higher among Muslims in Europe, they drop and adjust
随着生活水平和教育水平的上升。
as the standard of living and level of education rises.
大多数叙利亚难民是受过教育的,
Most Syrian refugees already are educated,
在战前,叙利亚的出生率并不是很高,
the birth rate in Syria before the civil war was not very high,
而且实际上,人口在缩减,并非增长。
and the population was actually shrinking, not growing.
担心难民会带来更高的犯罪率也被证明是错的。
The fear that refugees lead to higher crime rates also turns out to be wrong.
成为移民的难民
Refugees who become immigrants are
比当地人更少可能去犯罪。
less likely to commit crimes than the native population.
被允许去工作时,他们倾向于创业,
When allowed to work, they tend to start businesses
并尽可能快地加入劳动力,
and integrate themselves into the workforce as fast as possible,
付出给社会的比他们拿的多。
paying more into the social systems than they extract from them.
来到西方国家的叙利亚人可能是专业工人,
Syrians coming to the West are potential professional workers,
极需要去维持欧洲的老年人口。
desperately needed to sustain Europe’s aging poulation.
同时,难民带着智能手机逃亡会引起误解,
Also, refugees’ traveling with smartphones has led to the misconception
认为他们不是真的需要帮助。
that they’re not really in need of help.
社交媒体和互联网
Social media and the internet
已经成为难民的重要组成部分。
have become a vital part of being a refugee.
使用GPS去导航欧洲很长的路线;
GPS is used to navigate the long routes to Europe;
Facebook实时提供有关障碍的提示和信息。
Facebook groups give tips and information about obstacles in real time.
这只证明了这些人就像我们一样:
This only proves that these people are like us:
如果你有个危险的旅程,你会丢下你的电话吗?
if you had to make a dangerous journey, would you leave your phone behind?
欧盟是世界上最富有的经济体,
The European Union is the wealthiest bunch of economies on Earth,
组织良好的国家具有行使职责的社会系统,
well-organized states with functioning social systems,
基础设施,民主和巨大的产业。
infrastructure, democracy, and huge industries.
如果它想的话,它可以解决难民危机这个挑战,
It can handle the challenge of the refugee crisis if it wants to.
整个西方世界也是如此。
The same can be said for the whole Western world.
不过,小小的约旦已经接纳超过60万叙利亚难民,
But while tiny Jordan has taken in over 600,000 Syrian refugees,
而英国,GDP是约旦的78倍,
the UK, which has 78 times the GDP of Jordan,
只允许2万叙利亚人穿过其边界,
has only said it will allow 20,000 Syrians across its borders
在接下来的五年。
over the next five years.
美国已同意接受10000人,澳大利亚12000人。
The US has agreed to accept 10,000, Australia 12,000 people.
总的来说,事情在慢慢好转,但仍不够快。
Overall, things are slowly getting better, but not fast enough.
现在,我们在书写着历史。
We are writing history right now.
我们想怎样被记住?
How do we want to be remembered?
作为躲在栅栏后的富有懦夫?
As xenophobic rich cowards behind fences?
我们必须意识到这些逃离死亡和毁灭的人
We have to realize that these people fleeing death and destruction
与我们一样。
are no different from us.
接受他们加入我们的国家,把他们融入到我们的社会,
By accepting them into our countries and integrating them into our societies,
我们会得到更多。
we have much to gain.
如果我们无视这个危机,只有一样东西会丢失。
There is only something to be lost if we ignore this crisis.
如果不表现得更人性和理性点,定有更多的溺亡孩子被冲上岸。
More dead children are sure to wash ashore if don’t act with humanity and reason.
让我们一起做好这件事,尽可能努力做到最好。
Let’s do this right and try to be the best we possibly can be.
字幕由Amara社区提供。
Subtitles by the Amara.org community

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