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个人DNA检测时代已经到来 – 译学馆
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个人DNA检测时代已经到来

The era of personal DNA testing is here | Sebastian Kraves

想象一下你是一個养猪人
Imagine that you’re a pig farmer.
你住在菲律賓的一個小农场
You live on a small farm in the Philippines.
你的动物是你家庭的主要收入來源
Your animals are your family’s sole source of income —
只要它們保持健康
as long as they’re healthy.
或许哪一天
You know that any day,
其中一只猪會得流感
one of your pigs can catch the flu,
猪流感
the swine flu.
它們住在狹小的住所裡 一隻豬咳嗽和打喷嚏
Living in tight quarters, one pig coughing and sneezing
迟早会造成下一隻豬咳嗽和打喷嚏
may soon lead to the next pig coughing and sneezing,
直到豬流感爆發 占领农场
until an outbreak of swine flu has taken over your farm.
如果是一种毒性很强的病毒
If it’s a bad enough virus,
你豬群的健康可能就在瞬间便全军覆没
the health of your herd may be gone in the blink of an eye.
如果你联系兽医
If you called in a veterinarian,
他会来到你的农场
he or she would visit your farm and take samples
从猪的鼻子和嘴里取样
from your pigs’ noses and mouths.
但是接下來 他們会回到城市
But then they would have to drive back into the city
在他們的大型实验室中测试样本
to test those samples in their central lab.
两周后 你得到了结果
Two weeks later, you’d hear back the results.
两周时间足以让感染传播
Two weeks may be just enough time for infection to spread
并带走生命
and take away your way of life.
但是事情並不一定會发展成那样
But it doesn’t have to be that way.
現在 农场主們可以自己采集样本
Today, farmers can take those samples themselves.
他们可以直接用带有一小条试纸的试纸笔
They can jump right into the pen and swab their pigs’ noses and mouths
擦拭病猪的鼻子和嘴巴
with a little filter paper,
把试纸放在一個試管內
place that little filter paper in a tiny tube,
与一些化学试剂相混合
and mix it with some chemicals that will extract genetic material
这会把猪鼻子 嘴巴上的遗传物质提取出来
from their pigs’ noses and mouths.
这些你在农场里就可以做到
And without leaving their farms,
取一滴遗传物质
they take a drop of that genetic material
放入一個比鞋盒還小的分析器內
and put it into a little analyzer smaller than a shoebox,
設置並探測是否有豬流感病毒的DNA或RNA
program it to detect DNA or RNA from the swine flu virus,
一小時之內就可取得可視化的結果
and within one hour get back the results, visualize the results.
這一切是可能的
This reality is possible
因為我們活在个人DNA技術的時代
because today we’re living in the era of personal DNA technology.
每一個人都可以检测自己的DNA
Every one of us can actually test DNA ourselves.
DNA是携带遗传信息的基本单位
DNA is the fundamental molecule the carries genetic instructions
有它 才有這個生机勃勃的世界
that help build the living world.
人类有DNA
Humans have DNA.
豬有DNA
Pigs have DNA.
甚至細菌和一些病毒都有DNA
Even bacteria and some viruses have DNA too.
DNA中基因编码序列指导构建我们身体的
The genetic instructions encoded in DNA inform how our bodies develop,
生长 发育 和功能
grow, function.
在众多案例中 同样的信息可诱发疾病
And in many cases, that same information can trigger disease.
你的基因信息
Your genetic information
与那个长而弯曲的分子 DNA双螺旋捆绑在一起
is strung into a long and twisted molecule, the DNA double helix,
从头到尾
that has over three billion letters,
超过三十亿个碱基
beginning to end.
但是携带有意义信息的片段
But the lines that carry meaningful information
却很短
are usually very short —
几十到几千個碱基
a few dozen to several thousand letters long.
所以當我們需要根据DNA來解決問題的時候
So when we’re looking to answer a question based on DNA,
我們並不需要去读
we actually don’t need to read
完整的序列
all those three billion letters, typically.
這就像是你大半夜的饿了
That would be like getting hungry at night
还要翻遍电话本
and having to flip through the whole phone book
從頭到尾
from cover to cover,
查看每一行
pausing at every line,
只為了找到最近的披萨店
just to find the nearest pizza joint.
(笑聲)
(Laughter)
幸運的是 三十年前
Luckily, three decades ago,
人类开始发明
humans started to invent tools
可以查找任意特殊基因信息序列的工具
that can find any specific line of genetic information.
这些DNA机器简直太棒了
These DNA machines are wonderful.
它們可以找到任何DNA的片段
They can find any line in DNA.
一旦找到了片段
But once they find it,
微小的DNA依旧被无数其他的DNA环绕着
that DNA is still tiny, and surrounded by so much other DNA,
及其接下來做的就是复制目標基因片段
that what these machines then do is copy the target gene,
一段複製基因堆在另一段複製基因上
and one copy piles on top of another,
它會复制上百萬份基因
millions and millions and millions of copies,
直到目標基因從中脫穎而出
until that gene stands out against the rest;
直到我們能夠看到它
until we can visualize it,
能夠翻译 读取 理解它
interpret it, read it, understand it,
直到我們能夠回答
until we can answer:
我的豬得流感了嗎
Does my pig have the flu?
或則其他埋藏在我們基因裡的問題
Or other questions buried in our own DNA:
我有患癌風險嗎
Am I at risk of cancer?
我有爱尔兰血統吗
Am I of Irish descent?
那是我的兒子吗
Is that child my son?
(笑聲)
(Laughter)
這種复制基因能力就和它聽起來一樣简单
This ability to make copies of DNA, as simple as it sounds,
這已經改变了我們的世界
has transformed our world.
科學家每天都在使用這個技术 發現並定位疾病
Scientists use it every day to detect and address disease,
开发新药物
to create innovative medicines,
改造食物
to modify foods,
評估我們的食物是否安全
to assess whether our food is safe to eat
或者是否被致命細菌污染
or whether it’s contaminated with deadly bacteria.
甚至法官都會在法庭上使用這些机器的检测结果
Even judges use the output of these machines in court
根据DNA證物 來判断誰是清白或有罪的
to decide whether someone is innocent or guilty based on DNA evidence.
基因複製技術的發明者
The inventor of this DNA-copying technique
1993年获得了诺贝尔化学奖
was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1993.
但是30年裡
But for 30 years,
基因分析的能力一直被关在象牙塔里
the power of genetic analysis has been confined to the ivory tower,
或被科学界大牛使用
or bigwig PhD scientist work.
世界上的一些公司
Well, several companies around the world
正致力于使这项技术
are working on making this same technology accessible
走近像农场主
to everyday people like the pig farmer,
你们这样的百姓身边
like you.
我和別人成立了这样一家公司
I cofounded one of these companies.
三年前
Three years ago,
我和一個生物學家朋友
together with a fellow biologist and friend of mine,
齐克·阿尔瓦雷斯·萨维德拉
Zeke Alvarez Saavedra,
我们决定要造人人都可以用的
we decided to make personal DNA machines
个人基因设备
that anyone could use.
我們的目標是把個人基因技術帶給更多人和地方
Our goal was to bring DNA science to more people in new places.
我們开始在地下室裡
We started working in our basements.
我們有一個很簡單的問題
We had a simple question:
如果每個人都能夠分析基因
What could the world look like
這個世界会变成什麼樣?
if everyone could analyze DNA?
我們很好奇
We were curious,
就跟我在1980給你們展示這張照片一樣
as curious as you would have been if I had shown you this picture in 1980.
(笑聲)
(Laughter)
你會想 哇
You would have thought, “Wow!
我現在可以從車上給格兰达姑姑打電話了
I can now call my Aunt Glenda from the car
並祝她生日快樂
and wish her a happy birthday.
我可以隨時給任何人打電話
I can call anyone, anytime.
這就是未來
This is the future!”
你們不知道的是
Little did you know,
你可以点击手機預定晚餐位置
you would tap on that phone to make dinner reservations
你和格兰达姑姑能夠一起庆祝
for you and Aunt Glenda to celebrate together.
再点击一下 你就能夠給她买礼物
With another tap, you’d be ordering her gift.
再点一下
And yet one more tap,
你就能在她的脸书上点赞
and you’d be “liking” Auntie Glenda on Facebook.
這一切 都可以坐在馬桶上完成
And all of this, while sitting on the toilet.
(笑聲)
(Laughter)
預測未來科技的發展方向是出了名的难
It is notoriously hard to predict where new technology might take us.
現在的個人基因技術也是一樣
And the same is true for personal DNA technology today.
比如說 我從來不會想到
For example, I could never have imagined
一個普普通通的松露养殖者
that a truffle farmer, of all people,
能夠使用個人基因机器
would use personal DNA machines.
保罗 托马斯博士以種植松露为生
Dr. Paul Thomas grows truffles for a living.
我們看他的照片
We see him pictured here,
手上抓著他農場之一種植的第一個英國產的松露
holding the first UK-cultivated truffle in his hands, on one of his farms.
松露是這麼美味
Truffles are this delicacy
因為它是生長在树根上的真菌的
that stems from a fungus growing on the roots of living trees.
而且還是稀有真菌
And it’s a rare fungus.
一些品種能夠卖到每千克3000 7000美金甚至更多
Some species may fetch 3,000, 7,000, or more dollars per kilogram.
我从保罗那裡知道
I learned from Paul
當一個松露養殖者的賭注是很高的
that the stakes for a truffle farmer can be really high.
當他在農場中種植新的松露的時候
When he sources new truffles to grow on his farms,
他有可能會面临山寨货
he’s exposed to the threat of knockoffs —
看起來和摸起來像是松露
truffles that look and feel like the real thing,
但是它們品质很差
but they’re of lower quality.
但是像保羅這樣的火眼金睛
But even to a trained eye like Paul’s,
即使把它放在显微镜下观察
even when looked at under a microscope,
它們也有可能蒙混过关
these truffles can pass for authentic.
所以為了種植最高質量的松露
So in order to grow the highest quality truffles,
那種世界上的廚師會為之爭奪的
the ones that chefs all over the world will fight over,
保羅需要用基因分析技術
Paul has to use DNA analysis.
這不令人興奮嗎
Isn’t that mind-blowing?
我打賭下一次你看著一盤黑松露焗飯的時候
I bet you will never look at that black truffle risotto again
一定會想起它的基因
without thinking of its genes.
(笑聲)
(Laughter)
但是個人基因技術還可以拯救人的生命
But personal DNA machines can also save human lives.
伊恩·古德費洛教授是劍橋大學的病毒學家
Professor Ian Goodfellow is a virologist at the University of Cambridge.
去年 他去了塞拉利昂
Last year he traveled to Sierra Leone.
去年當埃博拉病毒在非洲西部爆發的時候
When the Ebola outbreak broke out in Western Africa,
他很快就意识到那里的医生缺乏
he quickly realized that doctors there lacked the basic tools
可以检测和对抗疾病的基本工具
to detect and combat disease.
探測結果可能要花一周時間才會有结果
Results could take up to a week to come back —
這對於經受痛苦的病人和家人來說太久了
that’s way too long for the patients and the families who are suffering.
伊恩決定把他的實驗室搬到塞拉利昂的馬克尼
Ian decided to move his lab into Makeni, Sierra Leone.
我們可以看到伊恩·古德費洛
Here we see Ian Goodfellow
搬運超過十噸重的設備到一個帳篷裡
moving over 10 tons of equipment into a pop-up tent
他能夠在24小時內組裝並開始探測和診斷病毒
that he would equip to detect and diagnose the virus
及其基因序列
and sequence it within 24 hours.
出乎意料的是
But here’s a surprise:
伊恩在他英國實驗室使用的一樣的設備
the same equipment that Ian could use at his lab in the UK
用來排序和診斷埃博拉基因的機器
to sequence and diagnose Ebola,
在這個條件下卻無法工作
just wouldn’t work under these conditions.
我說的可是35度的高溫和91%的濕度
We’re talking 35 Celsius heat and over 90 percent humidity here.
但是 伊恩可以使用個人基因機器
But instead, Ian could use personal DNA machines
小到能夠放置在空調前面
small enough to be placed in front of the air-conditioning unit
继续测试病毒基因序列
to keep sequencing the virus
继续拯救生命
and keep saving lives.
在这种环境分析基因是闻所未闻的
This may seem like an extreme place for DNA analysis,
但是让我們想想更极端的环境
but let’s move on to an even more extreme environment:
外太空
outer space.
让我們來談談在外太空分析基因
Let’s talk about DNA analysis in space.
當宇航員們住在国际空間站的時候
When astronauts live aboard the International Space Station,
他們在26500千米的高空
they’re orbiting the planet 250 miles high.
以每小时27400千米的速度绕地球运动
They’re traveling at 17,000 miles per hour.
想象一下
Picture that —
每天 你可以看見15次日出和日落
you’re seeing 15 sunsets and sunrises every day.
住在微重力下
You’re also living in microgravity,
漂浮著
floating.
在這些情況下 我們的身體會做一些奇怪的反應
And under these conditions, our bodies can do funky things.
其中的一件就是我們的免疫系統會被抑制
One of these things is that our immune systems get suppressed,
宇航員們更容易被感染
making astronauts more prone to infection.
一個16歲的女孩
A 16-year-old girl,
一個來自紐約的高中生 安娜索菲亞 博古拉
a high school student from New York, Anna-Sophia Boguraev,
想知道宇航員基因的变化
wondered whether changes to the DNA of astronauts
是否和免疫抑制有关
could be related to this immune suppression,
她参加了一個叫“太空基因”的比賽
and through a science competition called “Genes In Space,”
安娜索菲亞的实验是通过一个登上國際空間站的
Anna-Sophia designed an experiment to test this hypothesis
個人基因设备來验证這一個假說
using a personal DNA machine aboard the International Space Station.
这是2016年8月8号 安娜索菲亞在卡纳维拉尔角
Here we see Anna-Sophia on April 8, 2016, in Cape Canaveral,
看著她的实验被送上国际空間站
watching her experiment launch to the International Space Station.
那朵雲是火箭发射产生的烟雾
That cloud of smoke is the rocket
那個火箭帶著安娜索菲亞的实验飞往国际空間站
that brought Anna-Sophia’s experiment to the International Space Station,
三天後
where, three days later,
Tim Peake在微重力环境下
astronaut Tim Peake carried out her experiment —
进行了她的实验
in microgravity.
现在 国际空間站上的個人基因设备
Personal DNA machines are now aboard the International Space Station,
能帮助監控生活環境
where they can help monitor living conditions
並保護宇航員生命
and protect the lives of astronauts.
一個16岁的女孩設計基因实验
A 16-year-old designing a DNA experiment
並能夠保護宇航員生命
to protect the lives of astronauts
孩子如此机智是很少见的
may seem like a rarity, the mark of a child genius.
然而对我來說 這代表著更重要的東西
Well, to me, it signals something bigger:
基因技術終於普及到每個人了
that DNA technology is finally within the reach of every one of you.
几年前
A few years ago,
一個拥有個人电脑的大学生
a college student armed with a personal computer
他编写了一個程序
could code an app,
一個現在拥有超過十億用戶的社交网络
an app that is now a social network with more than one billion users.
我們能夠進入一個
Could we be moving into a world
每家每户都有一台個人基因机器的世界吗
of one personal DNA machine in every home?
我知道有些家庭已经做到了
I know families who are already living in this reality.
比如說 丹尼尔的家庭
The Daniels family, for example,
在他們芝加哥城郊家裡的地下室裡建立了一個基因实验室
set up a DNA lab in the basement of their suburban Chicago home.
這不是一個拥有博士學位科學家的家庭
This is not a family made of PhD scientists.
這是一個普通的家庭
This is a family like any other.
他們只是喜歡花時間一起做一些有趣和有創造力的事情
They just like to spend time together doing fun, creative things.
白天 布萊恩是一個私人企業的总经理
By day, Brian is an executive at a private equity firm.
晚上和周末 他和七歲 九歲的孩子
At night and on weekends, he experiments with DNA
进行基因实验
alongside his kids, ages seven and nine,
作为探索世界的方式
as a way to explore the living world.
上一次我給他們打电话的時候
Last time I called them,
他們正在检验後院种植的植物
they were checking out homegrown produce from the backyard garden.
他們正在检测他們摘来的番茄
They were testing tomatoes that they had picked,
挑出番茄的外表皮和肉 放在测试管里
taking the flesh of their skin, putting it in a test tube,
和试剂混合提取基因
mixing it with chemicals to extract DNA
然後用他們家裡的基因倍增器
and then using their home DNA copier
来检测那些番茄的基因工程特征
to test those tomatoes for genetically engineered traits.
对丹尼尔一家來說
For the Daniels family,
个人基因设备就好比是
the personal DNA machine is like the chemistry set
21世纪的化学模型
for the 21st century.
我们大多数都还没有检测过
Most of us may not yet be diagnosing genetic conditions
家鸡皮肤的基因
in our kitchen sinks
或者在家裡做亲子鉴定
or doing at-home paternity testing.
(笑聲)
(Laughter)
但是我們一定已經到达了历史的转折点
But we’ve definitely reached a point in history
每个人都能够亲身接触
where every one of you could actually get hands-on with DNA
家鸡的DNA
in your kitchen.
你們可以复制 粘贴和分析基因
You could copy, paste and analyze DNA
並從中取出有用的信息
and extract meaningful information from it.
這些重大的改变
And it’s at times like this that profound transformation
就要发生了
is bound to happen;
這個顛覆性 强大的技術
moments when a transformative, powerful technology
之前被禁锢在象牙塔里
that was before limited to a select few in the ivory tower,
而今終於能夠普及到每一個人
finally becomes within the reach of every one of us,
从农民到学生
from farmers to schoolchildren.
想象一下
Think about the moment
当电话充电不再需要充电器
when phones stopped being plugged into the wall by cords,
或者電腦脱离了主机
or when computers left the mainframe
而且已经进驻家或辦公室了
and entered your home or your office.
個人基因革命经历高潮低谷
The ripples of the personal DNA revolution
可能很难预测
may be hard to predict,
但是有一件事情是肯定的:
but one thing is certain:
革命不會倒退
revolutions don’t go backwards,
基因技術的传播已經比我們想象的要快
and DNA technology is already spreading faster than our imagination.
所以如果你好奇
So if you’re curious,
从今天起 就走近并亲身体验DNA
get up close and personal with DNA — today.
好奇 深入到我们的基因
It is in our DNA to be curious.
(笑聲)
(Laughter)
謝謝
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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视频概述

当基因检测不再高高在上,而是平凡的我们也能够触手可及,你是否早已对自己和周围的生命好奇,却又无法用直观的结果得出结果?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DzNN_4rcIjs

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