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经济学基础:均衡价格策略

The Equilibrium Price and Quantity

[音乐]
♪ [music] ♪
经济学原理
均衡价格
我们在前几堂课中已经了解到
– [Narrator] We know from previous lessons
供求曲线是显示
that the demand curve and the supply curve show
买卖双方分别如何回应商品价格变动的曲线
how buyers and sellers respectively respond to changes in the price of a good.
这堂课我们将会介绍买卖双方
In this lesson, we’ll show you how the interactions
是如何互相作用来确定均衡价格的
of buyers and sellers determine the price.
那么我们就从关键词说起吧
Let’s start with the punch line.
均衡价格是指
The equilibrium price is the price
需求量和供给量相等时的价格 就是这
where the quantity demanded is equal to the quantity supplied, right here,
而这一点是均衡数量
and this is the equilibrium quantity.
为什么这里是均衡价格呢?
Why is this the equilibrium price?
因为在其他任何价格水平下
At any other price,
市场中的供求力量
forces are put into play
都会将价格往均衡价格靠拢
that will push the price towards the equilibrium price.
这有点像碗里的一个球
It’s kind of like a ball in a bowl,
这个球总是会回到一个稳定的位置
where the ball always returns to one stable position.
均衡价格就是
The equilibrium price is the only place
价格稳定的唯一点
where the price is stable.
为了解原因 我们首先需要明白
To see why, the first thing to understand is
买方并不与卖方竞争
that buyers don’t compete against sellers.
买方与其他买方竞争
Buyers compete against other buyers.
以高于其他买方的出价购得商品
A buyer obtains goods by bidding higher than other buyers.
而卖方与其他卖方竞争
And sellers compete against other sellers
以低于其他卖方的价格售出商品
by offering to sell at lower prices.
想想看 在拍卖会上
Think about it — at an auction,
出价最高的买方购得商品
the buyer with the highest bid gets the item,
而售价最低的卖方售出商品
and the seller with the lowest price makes the sale.
譬如说 假设石油价格目前是$50/桶
So let’s say the price of oil is currently 50 bucks a barrel —
高于$30/桶的均衡价格
that’s above the equilibrium price of $30 a barrel.
在$50/桶的价格上 供给量大于需求量
At $50, the quantity supplied ismore than the quantity demanded
这样一来 就出现了供给过剩
so we say there is a surplus.
那么会发生什么呢?该打折啦![派对音乐]
So what happens? It’s sale time! [party noisemakers]
出现供给过剩时 卖方就无法以现行价格
When there’s a surplus, sellers can’t sell as much
售出他们所期望数量的商品
as they would like to at the going price
因此卖方就有动机去把售价调低一些
so sellers have an incentive to lower their price a little bit
这样他们就能够从其他卖方中胜出 从而售出更多商品
so they could outcompete other sellers and sell more.
因此价格将会持续下跌
The price will continue to fall
直到需求量等于供给量
until the quantity demanded is equal to the quantity supplied,
从而达到均衡
and equilibrium is reached.
假设目前石油价格低于均衡价格
Now let’s say the price is less than the equilibrium price,
比如 每桶15美元
say 15 bucks a barrel.
在$15/桶的价格上
At 15 bucks a barrel,
需求量大于供给量 产生了供给短缺
the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied, a shortage.
那么现在会发生什么呢?
And what happens now?
出现供给短缺时 买方就无法以现行价格
When there’s a shortage, buyers can’t get as much
购得他们所需数量的商品
of the good as they want at the going price
因此他们抬高价格来争相购买更多商品
so they compete to buy more by bidding up the price.
既然现在很容易找到买家
Now since buyers are easy to find,
那么卖家也就有动机提高价格了
sellers also have an incentive to raise the price.
因此价格将会持续上涨
The price will continue to rise
直到需求量等于供给量
until quantity demanded is equal to the quantity supplied
从而达到均衡
and equilibrium is reached.
在任何非均衡价格水平下
At any price other than the equilibrium price,
买卖双方均有动机把价格推向均衡价格
the incentives of the buyers and sellers push the price towards the equilibrium price.
只有均衡价格是稳定的
Only the equilibrium price is stable.
现在我们来进一步探讨市场均衡及其特点
Now let’s take a deeper look at the market equilibrium and some of its properties.
别忘了 有很多不同的石油使用者
Remember that there are many different users of oil
和很多不同的石油用途
and many different uses for oil,
每种用途下 石油都有替代品 代用品和价值
each with substitutes, alternatives, and values.
在任一石油价格水平下
At any specific price of oil,
都会有一群买家愿意以该价格购买石油
there’s a group of buyers who value oil enough to demand it at that price.
而随着价格变动 买家和石油用途也会随之变化
And as the price changes, so do the buyers and their uses.
而在供给侧 在供给曲线的每一价格水平下
On the supply side, at each price on the supply curve,
也会有一群石油供应者的开采成本
we’re looking at a group of suppliers whose cost of extraction
低到足以使他们在该价格上有利可图
is low enough to be profitable at that price.
在均衡价格点
At the equilibrium price,
这些出价更高的群体即买方
these higher value groups are the buyers,
而这些出价更低的群体为非买方
and these lower value groups are the non-buyers.
[鸟叫声]
[toy squeak]
同时要注意 每个卖方的成本
Also notice that every seller has lower cost
也都比非卖方的成本低
than any of the non-sellers.
因为出价最高的买方购得商品
Since the buyers with the highest values buy,
而售价最低的卖方售出商品
and the sellers with the lowest cost sell,
所以交易所得
the gain from trade
即商品创造的价值与其成本之间的差异
— the difference between the value a good creates and its cost —
实现了最大化
is maximized.
此外 在均衡数量下
In addition, at the equilibrium quantity,
能创造价值的每笔交易都确能创造价值
every trade that can generate value does generate value
直至达成最后一笔交易
up until the very last trade
在那时 买方出价将正好与卖方成本相等
where the value to buyers is just equal to the cost to sellers.
[低音]没错儿!
– [low voice] Yeah!
在自由市场中
– [Narrator] In a free market,
没有无法实现最大化的交易利润
there are no unexploited gains from trade,
也没有亏本的买卖
and there are no wasteful trades.
举例来说 当交易数量大于均衡数量
If the quantity exchanged were greater than the equilibrium quantity, for example,
而我们钻探深层昂贵油井
we would be drilling deep and expensive oil wells
只不过是为了生产更多橡皮鸭时 才会造成浪费
just to produce more rubber duckies, and that would be wasteful.
[嘀咕声] 哦 别这样!
– [whiny voice] Oh no!
在自由市场中 买卖双方
– [Narrator] In a free market, buyers and sellers
均按照自己的利益行事
acting in their own self interest
最终达到均衡价格和均衡数量
end up at a price and quantity
这使得出价最高的买方所购的石油
that allocates oil to the highest value buyers
由成本最低的卖方生产
produced by the lowest cost sellers
这在某种程度上使交易利得最大化了
in a way that maximizes the gains from trade —
也即 使买卖双方的总利益最大化了
the sum of the benefits to buyers and sellers.
[人群尖叫声]
[crowd cheering]
这就是亚当·斯密说
This is one of the reasons Adam Smith said
“市场就像一只看不见的手一样运作
that the market process works like an invisible hand
从而促进社会利益”的原因之一
to promote the social good.
如果你想测试一下自己 请点击“练习题”
– [Narrator] If you want to test yourself, click”Practice Questions.”
如果你已经准备好继续学下去 点击“下一个视频”即可
Or, if you’re ready to move on, just click”Next Video.”
[音乐]
♪ [music] ♪

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视频概述

本课将探讨均衡价格是如何形成的以及市场如何像一只看不见的手一样调节经济活动。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Estherrr

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7eZcPs9z9OA

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