November 20th, 1914
三个月前 欧洲诸国自信满满地开战 认为它们都
Three months ago, the nations of Europe went to war confident that theirs would be the
站在了胜利的一方 而战争将在数周内结束 现在 陷入战争泥潭的现实
winning side and the war would be over in weeks. Now that the reality of a long war
已经显现 我们发现 曾经一度保持基本一致的军队指挥结构
has sunk in, we see something new- division, confusion, and hatred in the command structures
开始出现新的裂痕 混乱以及怨恨 这些裂痕
of the armies themselves, where once they had been basically unified. This division
and confusion would lead inevitably to the needless deaths of tens of thousands of men.
I’m Indy Neidell; welcome to the Great War.
上周我们看到 冬季雨雪天气的到来和影响下 西部边境
Last week we saw the fighting peter out on the western front as the rains and snows of
的战事趋于平静 在东部边境 俄军将奥地利军队包围在
winter came on in force. On the Eastern Front, the Russians had surrounded the Austrians
普热梅希尔要塞 但在更北部 俄军在罗兹重整队伍
at the fortress of Przemysl, but further north had re-grouped at Lodz to meet the advancing
面对迫近的德军浪潮 然而在另一个俄军前线——土耳其 俄军的进攻
German tide. On yet another Russian front, in Turkey, the Russian offensive had been
crushed by the Ottoman forces,
and in the Middle East, the British were marching on Basra.
不过事实上 这里有一些奥地利军队正在移动 足足有500000人
There were some Austrians who were actually on the move, though, 500,000 of them, and
we’ll see what they were up to right now.
在过去的一周里 这支奥军入侵了塞尔维亚 塞尔维亚军队的人数只及奥军的一半
For the past week, they had been invading Serbia, facing half their number of Serbs,
它们进行了有效的抵抗 但总体而言却在撤退 塞军曾在九月
who offered effective resistance but were generally retreating. The Serbs had driven
the Austrians out of their land in September, but this time it wasn’t going to be so easy.
Serbian morale crumbled as the Austrians managed to bring their heavy artillery through the
Serbian mud. Much of the Serbian forces lacked ammunition or cold weather clothing, and
deeper and deeper the Austrians penetrated their territory. Serbian Field Marshall Radomir
在战争爆发之初 即在布达佩斯被俘虏 但却被皇帝弗兰茨·约瑟夫一世
Putnik, who had actually been caught in Budapest when the war broke out but was allowed to
return to Serbia by Emperor Franz Josef, had ordered a retreat to the Kolubara River, where
defensive preparations had been prepared long in advance.
11月16日 奥匈帝国军队发起进攻 但塞军在接下来的数日
On November 16th, the Austro-Hungarian forces attacked, but the Serbs pushed them back over
将他们击退 然而 从19日起 奥军设法攻占了一个据点
the next few days. However, from the 19th, the Austrians managed to gain a foothold,
seized higher ground to the south, and now forced the Serbs to retreat. Casualties on
双方都伤亡惨重 但冻伤和低体温更加重了这种情况 在这一点上
both sides were high, but they were exacerbated by frostbite and hypothermia. At this point,
both armies were woefully unequipped for the onset of winter.
不过 东部和东北部边界的更北面 冬天已经到来
Further north on the Eastern and Northeastern Fronts, though, winter was already here, and
men were freezing to death every night in the trenches.
There was a bit of chaos in the Russian high command as General Rennenkampf and his Siberian
army in the north was probing toward East Prussia and hadn’t bothered protecting their
保护侧翼 所以当上周德军发起一场突然进攻时 俄军崩溃了
flank, and when the Germans had began a surprise offensive last week, it had collapsed. General
Nikolai Ruzsky, in charge of the whole Northeastern Front, had pulled his troops back to Lodz
but he didn’t seem to understand the size of the German attack, and on November 18th
the Germans reached and nearly surrounded Lodz, 250,000 strong against 150,000 fortified
龟缩在防御工事内的俄国守军 但是当俄军撤退的命令下达时 该命令
Russian defenders, but when a Russian retreat was ordered, it was countermanded by the Grand
Duke Nicholas himself, the Tsar’s uncle, commander-in-chief of all of the Russian forces.
Now, German General Ludendorff had attacked in order to preempt the Russian invasion of
Germany, and this pre-emption was successful, as the Russians now had to divert tens of
thousands of troops from the invasion forces to save Lodz and Warsaw. They did more than
that and in just a few days had almost miraculously assembled around half a million men to fight
the Germans, and Ludendorff was now overstretched.
This was warfare on a gigantic scale, and though the Germans hoped for a victory as
取得一场大胜 但在一周的作战中 德国军队
great as Tannenberg, during the week of fighting that followed the German war machine ran out
渐渐失去了战斗力 到24日时 一支德意志帝国兵团甚至濒临崩溃
of steam. By the 24th an entire German army corps was even threatened with destruction,
德军被俄军 天气和疲惫拖得被迫止步 鲁登道夫
and the Germans were stopped by the Russians, the weather, and exhaustion. Ludendorff had
failed to take Lodz or reach Warsaw, though a Russian invasion of Germany was now plainly
not going to happen in the foreseeable future. The Russians had suffered nearly 100,000 casualties,
the Germans less than half of that, but once again the Russian advantage in men had overcome
the German advantage in technology.
A side result of the battle of Lodz was that Ludendorff’s superior von Hindenburg was
promoted to Field Marshall.
This sounds great for Hindenburg, but I think we really need to look at what was going on
in the German High Command now that it was obvious to all there would be no quick glorious
victory. So here are the machinations in progress:
11月18日 德军武装力量的总指挥官 总参谋长法金汉
On November 18th the German Chief of Staff Falkenhayn, the commander in chief of the
告诉总理贝特曼·霍尔韦格 战争不会获胜 因为
German forces, told Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg that the war could not be won because the
allies have too many resources. He presented his plan for closing down the Eastern Front
so that they could win in the west against the British, who Falkenhayn believed were
Germany’s archenemy, and who he believed
were fighting the war only for mercantile profits.
Bethmann-Hollweg was shocked- for he could conceive no end to the war that did not cripple
Russia, since he believed Russia’s interests were directly the opposite of German ones.
He was also really worried about Austrian Chief of Staff Conrad von Hotzendorf, who
赫岑多夫曾直言 要是没有德国生力军的支援 奥军可能会崩溃
said flat out that without fresh German troops, Austria might collapse, leaving Germany to
fight the whole Eastern Front alone.
所以 霍尔韦格前去会见身处东部的鲁登道夫 而鲁登道夫认为
So he travels to see Ludendorff in the East, and Ludendorff thinks that, far from closing
还远没到关闭东部边境的时候 事实上 只要派遣更多部队 俄军就会被击败
down the Eastern Front, it’s actually Russia who can be beaten with more troops. It’s
also no secret that Ludendorff hates Falkenhayn.
So Bethmann-Hollweg goes back to Berlin and starts talking up the idea of firing Falkenhayn
as Chief of Staff and replacing him with Ludendorff.
现在 几乎就在这一次 德皇威廉二世对没有人曾向他征询有关战争的意见
Now, at around this time Kaiser Wilhelm was pissed off that nobody ever consulted him
而感到十分生气 他甚至在某一时刻说 “在大家的印象中
about the war and even said at one point “if they are under the impression in Germany that
我正统帅着德军 那么大家真的是大错特错了” 但威廉二世确实
I am leading the army, then they are very much mistaken”, but Wilhelm did have one
very important power- to appoint or dismiss the Chief of Staff.
But the Kaiser says no to the idea of Ludendorff as Chief of Staff because he doesn’t trust
鲁登道夫 甚至还称其为“可疑的人物” 所以作为回应
him, and even goes so far as calling him a “dubious character”. So in response, Admiral
Tirpitz and former chancellor Prince Bulow start talking about maybe having the Kaiser
declared insane so that Hindenburg would be the de facto administrator and Ludendorff
and he could have their way and get more troops in the east.
Really, this was what was going on.
五个月前 德军最高统帅部满腔热情地开战 现在
Five months earlier, the German High Command went to war enthusiastically, now they were
他们都在选边站队 相互指责 试图结束这场战争
all taking sides against each other trying to wrap it up.
But they weren’t unique. We’ve seen British commanders who wouldn’t work with the French,
French ones who wouldn’t support the Belgians and all sorts of chaos and infighting in both
the Russian and Austrian commands. It would only get worse as the winter wore on.
西线确实已迎来冬天 此时此刻 从瑞士到海边的
The winter was indeed wearing on in the Western Front, which at this point was pretty much
totally congealed in lines of trenches stretching from Switzerland all the way up to the sea.
你知道 当你看着战线 你会很容易注意到 在战争中地理环境
You know, when you look at that line it’s really easy to see how the geography kind
of dictated the war plans throughout the war. The general idea both sides had for any major
实施时 先用火炮进行炮击 随后是步兵冲锋
operation was an artillery bombardment followed up by infantry assaults, and then the cavalry
following that up and breaking into open country.
然而 西线的大多数地区并不适用于这样一种程序来作战 举个例子
However, most of the Western Front was totally unsuitable for such a procedure. South of
Verdun, for example, the front was totally inactive for four whole years, from September
整整四年都波澜不惊 因为守太易而攻太难 更往北面
1914 to September 1918. Too easy to defend and too hard to attack. Further north, it’s
no coincidence that the trench lines followed the local railways. The Germans had taken
梅斯—里尔一线 而法军则占据了南希—巴黎—阿拉斯一线 这条战线
and held the Metz-Lille line while the French held the Nancy-Paris-Arras line. This line
离前线更近 而且至少在历史学家约翰·基根看来 这解释了
was closer to the front, and according to historian John Keegan at least, explains why
the French were better able to deliver reserves in the nick of time and win battle after battle.
So here we are at the end of the week. The Russians and Germans fighting a battle on
规模巨大的战役 奥军将塞军击退回克鲁巴拉 而另一部分奥军
a titanic scale, the Austrians pushing the Serbs back at Kolubara, and other Austrians
还被围困在普热梅希尔 西线无战事 虽然平静也意味着
still under siege in Przemysl. The Western Front was quiet, although quiet meant men
being killed every day, as the First Battle of Ypres
would not officially end for another couple of days.
想象一下统领这几支军队中的一支 数百万人在你的麾下 当然
Imagine being in charge of one of these armies. Millions of men under your command. Sure,
you went to military school years ago and maybe commanded forces in your nation’s
的武装力量 但是想想看 当面对一场二十世纪战争的现实
imperial possessions, but think what it must have been like to suddenly be confronted with
什么一定会突然出现 战争肆虐数周仍不停歇 水下的鱼雷
the reality of 20th century war. Battles that raged non-stop for weeks, torpedoes beneath
the sea and machines that could sail the skies, and the horrors of advanced weaponry that
它们将杀死数十万敌军 而敌军在短短数周内 也将夺走数十万
could kill hundreds of thousands of the enemy as they killed hundreds of thousands of your
men in mere weeks for the gain of a few dozen meters of foreign soil.
This was the reality that the high commands of the warring nations now all had to face,
and it was a reality that could break the spirit of any man. Some tried to find ways
战争的方法 有人转移矛盾 还有人只是派遣更多的士兵
to end the war, some to shift the blame, and some merely sent ever more troops to their
needless deaths, but all of them now counted men within their own command structures as
their enemies. This was modern war.
In our August 21 episode we already talked about the difficulties and
transitioning to modern warfare and what horrible consequences the soldiers had to suffer because
做好准备 所以士兵们将要承受的可怕结果 你都可以在这里
their superiors were not prepared for this new kind of war. You can check it out right
here. Don’t forget to subscribe to our channel
and tell your friends all about us.
See you next week.
第17周：范围内的敌人 - 德国军队的力量