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第17周:范围内的敌人 – 德国军队的力量 – 译学馆
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第17周:范围内的敌人 - 德国军队的力量

The Enemy Within - The German Army's Power Play I THE GREAT WAR Week 17

1914年11月20日
November 20th, 1914
三个月前 欧洲诸国自信满满地开战 认为它们都
Three months ago, the nations of Europe went to war confident that theirs would be the
站在了胜利的一方 而战争将在数周内结束 现在 陷入战争泥潭的现实
winning side and the war would be over in weeks. Now that the reality of a long war
已经显现 我们发现 曾经一度保持基本一致的军队指挥结构
has sunk in, we see something new- division, confusion, and hatred in the command structures
开始出现新的裂痕 混乱以及怨恨 这些裂痕
of the armies themselves, where once they had been basically unified. This division
和混乱将不可避免地造成数十万人无用的牺牲
and confusion would lead inevitably to the needless deaths of tens of thousands of men.
我是印地·奈德尔 欢迎来到《伟大战争》节目
I’m Indy Neidell; welcome to the Great War.
上周我们看到 冬季雨雪天气的到来和影响下 西部边境
Last week we saw the fighting peter out on the western front as the rains and snows of
的战事趋于平静 在东部边境 俄军将奥地利军队包围在
winter came on in force. On the Eastern Front, the Russians had surrounded the Austrians
普热梅希尔要塞 但在更北部 俄军在罗兹重整队伍
at the fortress of Przemysl, but further north had re-grouped at Lodz to meet the advancing
面对迫近的德军浪潮 然而在另一个俄军前线——土耳其 俄军的进攻
German tide. On yet another Russian front, in Turkey, the Russian offensive had been
被奥斯曼土耳其军队粉碎
crushed by the Ottoman forces,
在中东 英军正向巴士拉方向行进
and in the Middle East, the British were marching on Basra.
不过事实上 这里有一些奥地利军队正在移动 足足有500000人
There were some Austrians who were actually on the move, though, 500,000 of them, and
我们将看到现在它们的行动
we’ll see what they were up to right now.
在过去的一周里 这支奥军入侵了塞尔维亚 塞尔维亚军队的人数只及奥军的一半
For the past week, they had been invading Serbia, facing half their number of Serbs,
它们进行了有效的抵抗 但总体而言却在撤退 塞军曾在九月
who offered effective resistance but were generally retreating. The Serbs had driven
将奥军逐出境外 但这一次就没有那么轻松了
the Austrians out of their land in September, but this time it wasn’t going to be so easy.
当奥军设法将它们的重炮运过塞尔维亚的沼泽的时候 塞军的士气崩溃了
Serbian morale crumbled as the Austrians managed to bring their heavy artillery through the
大多数塞军缺乏弹药补给或是冬衣
Serbian mud. Much of the Serbian forces lacked ammunition or cold weather clothing, and
而奥军则不断深入腹地 塞军陆军元帅拉多米尔·普特米克
deeper and deeper the Austrians penetrated their territory. Serbian Field Marshall Radomir
在战争爆发之初 即在布达佩斯被俘虏 但却被皇帝弗兰茨·约瑟夫一世
Putnik, who had actually been caught in Budapest when the war broke out but was allowed to
准许返回塞尔维亚 他下令将军队撤退到科卢巴拉河
return to Serbia by Emperor Franz Josef, had ordered a retreat to the Kolubara River, where
在这里 防守的准备工作已提前准备良久了
defensive preparations had been prepared long in advance.
11月16日 奥匈帝国军队发起进攻 但塞军在接下来的数日
On November 16th, the Austro-Hungarian forces attacked, but the Serbs pushed them back over
将他们击退 然而 从19日起 奥军设法攻占了一个据点
the next few days. However, from the 19th, the Austrians managed to gain a foothold,
夺取了朝南的高地 并迫使塞军现在开始撤退
seized higher ground to the south, and now forced the Serbs to retreat. Casualties on
双方都伤亡惨重 但冻伤和低体温更加重了这种情况 在这一点上
both sides were high, but they were exacerbated by frostbite and hypothermia. At this point,
双方军队对冬日的侵袭都不幸地毫无防备
both armies were woefully unequipped for the onset of winter.
不过 东部和东北部边界的更北面 冬天已经到来
Further north on the Eastern and Northeastern Fronts, though, winter was already here, and
每晚都有士兵在战壕中冻死
men were freezing to death every night in the trenches.
俄军最高指挥部此时出现了小小的混乱 伦宁坎普将军和他在北部的
There was a bit of chaos in the Russian high command as General Rennenkampf and his Siberian
西伯利亚军队正对东普鲁士进行侦察 而且没能顾得上
army in the north was probing toward East Prussia and hadn’t bothered protecting their
保护侧翼 所以当上周德军发起一场突然进攻时 俄军崩溃了
flank, and when the Germans had began a surprise offensive last week, it had collapsed. General
负责整个东北方战事尼古拉·鲁斯基将军将他的部队撤回罗兹
Nikolai Ruzsky, in charge of the whole Northeastern Front, had pulled his troops back to Lodz
但是他似乎对德军进攻的规模并没有清晰的认识 11月18日
but he didn’t seem to understand the size of the German attack, and on November 18th
德军推进到并几乎包围了罗兹 250000名兵强马壮的德军对阵150000名
the Germans reached and nearly surrounded Lodz, 250,000 strong against 150,000 fortified
龟缩在防御工事内的俄国守军 但是当俄军撤退的命令下达时 该命令
Russian defenders, but when a Russian retreat was ordered, it was countermanded by the Grand
却被沙皇的叔叔俄军总司令尼古拉斯大公本人下令撤回
Duke Nicholas himself, the Tsar’s uncle, commander-in-chief of all of the Russian forces.
现在 德军统帅鲁登道夫为了在俄军入侵前抢占先机而发动进攻
Now, German General Ludendorff had attacked in order to preempt the Russian invasion of
而且此次抢占战机获得了成功 因为俄军现在被迫将
Germany, and this pre-emption was successful, as the Russians now had to divert tens of
数万先遣军撤回以保卫罗兹和华沙 他们不止部署了这些
thousands of troops from the invasion forces to save Lodz and Warsaw. They did more than
而且在短短数日内 俄军奇迹般地集结了约五十万人来同
that and in just a few days had almost miraculously assembled around half a million men to fight
德军作战 现在鲁登道夫有些托大了
the Germans, and Ludendorff was now overstretched.
这是一场空前规模的大战 虽然德军希望像在坦嫩贝格一样
This was warfare on a gigantic scale, and though the Germans hoped for a victory as
取得一场大胜 但在一周的作战中 德国军队
great as Tannenberg, during the week of fighting that followed the German war machine ran out
渐渐失去了战斗力 到24日时 一支德意志帝国兵团甚至濒临崩溃
of steam. By the 24th an entire German army corps was even threatened with destruction,
德军被俄军 天气和疲惫拖得被迫止步 鲁登道夫
and the Germans were stopped by the Russians, the weather, and exhaustion. Ludendorff had
没能占领罗兹或抵达或是推进到华沙 尽管现在俄国入侵德国的计划
failed to take Lodz or reach Warsaw, though a Russian invasion of Germany was now plainly
在可预见的未来已不能实现 俄军伤亡近100000人
not going to happen in the foreseeable future. The Russians had suffered nearly 100,000 casualties,
德军伤亡人数不及俄军的一半 但是俄军人数上的优势
the Germans less than half of that, but once again the Russian advantage in men had overcome
又一次压倒了德军技术上的优势
the German advantage in technology.
罗兹战役德军一方的结果是 鲁登道夫的上级冯·兴登堡
A side result of the battle of Lodz was that Ludendorff’s superior von Hindenburg was
被晋升为陆军元帅
promoted to Field Marshall.
这对兴登堡而言意义非凡 但是我认为我们真的需要关注
This sounds great for Hindenburg, but I think we really need to look at what was going on
德军最高统帅部的动向 现在很显然不再会取得迅速的大胜
in the German High Command now that it was obvious to all there would be no quick glorious
所以阴谋诡计在这里愈演愈烈
victory. So here are the machinations in progress:
11月18日 德军武装力量的总指挥官 总参谋长法金汉
On November 18th the German Chief of Staff Falkenhayn, the commander in chief of the
告诉总理贝特曼·霍尔韦格 战争不会获胜 因为
German forces, told Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg that the war could not be won because the
协约国拥有太多的的资源 他提出关闭东部边境的计划
allies have too many resources. He presented his plan for closing down the Eastern Front
这样的话他们就可以在西线战胜英军 英军被法金汉认为
so that they could win in the west against the British, who Falkenhayn believed were
是德国的主要敌人
Germany’s archenemy, and who he believed
只是为了商业利益而参战
were fighting the war only for mercantile profits.
贝特曼·霍尔韦格震惊了 因为他能设想得到在不把俄国打垮的前提下
Bethmann-Hollweg was shocked- for he could conceive no end to the war that did not cripple
是无法结束战争的 因为他认为俄国与德国的利益之间存在直接的冲突
Russia, since he believed Russia’s interests were directly the opposite of German ones.
他同样担心奥军总参谋长康拉德·冯·赫岑多夫
He was also really worried about Austrian Chief of Staff Conrad von Hotzendorf, who
赫岑多夫曾直言 要是没有德国生力军的支援 奥军可能会崩溃
said flat out that without fresh German troops, Austria might collapse, leaving Germany to
使得德军独自在整个东线作战
fight the whole Eastern Front alone.
所以 霍尔韦格前去会见身处东部的鲁登道夫 而鲁登道夫认为
So he travels to see Ludendorff in the East, and Ludendorff thinks that, far from closing
还远没到关闭东部边境的时候 事实上 只要派遣更多部队 俄军就会被击败
down the Eastern Front, it’s actually Russia who can be beaten with more troops. It’s
鲁登道夫讨厌法金汉 这也不是什么秘密了
also no secret that Ludendorff hates Falkenhayn.
所以贝特曼·霍尔韦格返回柏林 并开始大谈解除法金汉总参谋长的职务
So Bethmann-Hollweg goes back to Berlin and starts talking up the idea of firing Falkenhayn
而以鲁登道夫取而代之的想法
as Chief of Staff and replacing him with Ludendorff.
现在 几乎就在这一次 德皇威廉二世对没有人曾向他征询有关战争的意见
Now, at around this time Kaiser Wilhelm was pissed off that nobody ever consulted him
而感到十分生气 他甚至在某一时刻说 “在大家的印象中
about the war and even said at one point “if they are under the impression in Germany that
我正统帅着德军 那么大家真的是大错特错了” 但威廉二世确实
I am leading the army, then they are very much mistaken”, but Wilhelm did have one
具有一项非常重要的权力——任命或解除总参谋长的职务
very important power- to appoint or dismiss the Chief of Staff.
但德皇拒绝了任命鲁登道夫为总参谋长的提议 因为他并不信任
But the Kaiser says no to the idea of Ludendorff as Chief of Staff because he doesn’t trust
鲁登道夫 甚至还称其为“可疑的人物” 所以作为回应
him, and even goes so far as calling him a “dubious character”. So in response, Admiral
提尔皮茨海军上将和前总理比洛亲王开始讨论是否可能通过宣布德皇
Tirpitz and former chancellor Prince Bulow start talking about maybe having the Kaiser
得了精神病 以使得兴登堡成为事实上的执政者而鲁登道夫
declared insane so that Hindenburg would be the de facto administrator and Ludendorff
可以如愿以偿并在东部得到更多的军队
and he could have their way and get more troops in the east.
真的 这就是事情将要发生的过程
Really, this was what was going on.
五个月前 德军最高统帅部满腔热情地开战 现在
Five months earlier, the German High Command went to war enthusiastically, now they were
他们都在选边站队 相互指责 试图结束这场战争
all taking sides against each other trying to wrap it up.
但是他们并非唯一一个 我们看到英军的指挥官们无法和法军并肩作战
But they weren’t unique. We’ve seen British commanders who wouldn’t work with the French,
而法军指挥官们不支持比利时军队 各种各样的混乱和内斗
French ones who wouldn’t support the Belgians and all sorts of chaos and infighting in both
在俄军和奥军的指挥部层出不穷 而冬天的到来只会使这一切变得更糟
the Russian and Austrian commands. It would only get worse as the winter wore on.
西线确实已迎来冬天 此时此刻 从瑞士到海边的
The winter was indeed wearing on in the Western Front, which at this point was pretty much
所有战线上的壕堑都已完全冻成冰块
totally congealed in lines of trenches stretching from Switzerland all the way up to the sea.
你知道 当你看着战线 你会很容易注意到 在战争中地理环境
You know, when you look at that line it’s really easy to see how the geography kind
是如何部分影响作战计划的实施 双方的主体作战思想都是任何重要行动
of dictated the war plans throughout the war. The general idea both sides had for any major
实施时 先用火炮进行炮击 随后是步兵冲锋
operation was an artillery bombardment followed up by infantry assaults, and then the cavalry
再是骑兵紧随其后并突入开阔的野外
following that up and breaking into open country.
然而 西线的大多数地区并不适用于这样一种程序来作战 举个例子
However, most of the Western Front was totally unsuitable for such a procedure. South of
凡尔登的南部前线从1914年9月到1918年9月
Verdun, for example, the front was totally inactive for four whole years, from September
整整四年都波澜不惊 因为守太易而攻太难 更往北面
1914 to September 1918. Too easy to defend and too hard to attack. Further north, it’s
壕堑组成的战线恰巧与当地的铁路线相吻合 德军占据了
no coincidence that the trench lines followed the local railways. The Germans had taken
梅斯—里尔一线 而法军则占据了南希—巴黎—阿拉斯一线 这条战线
and held the Metz-Lille line while the French held the Nancy-Paris-Arras line. This line
离前线更近 而且至少在历史学家约翰·基根看来 这解释了
was closer to the front, and according to historian John Keegan at least, explains why
为什么法军能更出色地将物资及时运达 以及获取一次又一次的胜利
the French were better able to deliver reserves in the nick of time and win battle after battle.
所以现在我们已经到了这一周的周末 俄军和德军正进行一场
So here we are at the end of the week. The Russians and Germans fighting a battle on
规模巨大的战役 奥军将塞军击退回克鲁巴拉 而另一部分奥军
a titanic scale, the Austrians pushing the Serbs back at Kolubara, and other Austrians
还被围困在普热梅希尔 西线无战事 虽然平静也意味着
still under siege in Przemysl. The Western Front was quiet, although quiet meant men
每天都有士兵死亡 因为第一次伊普尔战役
being killed every day, as the First Battle of Ypres
在未来的几天内并没有正式结束
would not officially end for another couple of days.
想象一下统领这几支军队中的一支 数百万人在你的麾下 当然
Imagine being in charge of one of these armies. Millions of men under your command. Sure,
你曾在数年前进过军校 而且可能率领着你的帝国领地上
you went to military school years ago and maybe commanded forces in your nation’s
的武装力量 但是想想看 当面对一场二十世纪战争的现实
imperial possessions, but think what it must have been like to suddenly be confronted with
什么一定会突然出现 战争肆虐数周仍不停歇 水下的鱼雷
the reality of 20th century war. Battles that raged non-stop for weeks, torpedoes beneath
和翱翔在天际的机器 以及其他先进武器的恐怖
the sea and machines that could sail the skies, and the horrors of advanced weaponry that
它们将杀死数十万敌军 而敌军在短短数周内 也将夺走数十万
could kill hundreds of thousands of the enemy as they killed hundreds of thousands of your
你的士兵的性命 这一切只为得到那几十米外国的土地
men in mere weeks for the gain of a few dozen meters of foreign soil.
这就是交战国的最高指挥部所要共同面对的现实
This was the reality that the high commands of the warring nations now all had to face,
而且这是一个能击溃任何人的现实 有人试图找到结束
and it was a reality that could break the spirit of any man. Some tried to find ways
战争的方法 有人转移矛盾 还有人只是派遣更多的士兵
to end the war, some to shift the blame, and some merely sent ever more troops to their
去增加无谓的损失 但是现在他们都把他们自己指挥结构中的人
needless deaths, but all of them now counted men within their own command structures as
视为他们的敌人 这就是现代战争
their enemies. This was modern war.
在我们8月21日那一期中 我们已经讲到进入现代战争
In our August 21 episode we already talked about the difficulties and
所面临的困难和转变 还有由于高层还没有对这种全新形式的战争
transitioning to modern warfare and what horrible consequences the soldiers had to suffer because
做好准备 所以士兵们将要承受的可怕结果 你都可以在这里
their superiors were not prepared for this new kind of war. You can check it out right
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here. Don’t forget to subscribe to our channel
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下周见
See you next week.

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视频概述

介绍战争爆发之后第十七周的战场态势,所有的国家都陷入了战争泥潭

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视频来源

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