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全球危机:抗生素失效 – 译学馆
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全球危机:抗生素失效

The drugs don't work: a global antibiotics crisis | FT Investigation

Matt Hancock: We’ve got used to the fact
马修·汉考克:我们已经习惯了
that if you have a small infection,
当有点轻微感染
if you have a cut, if you need an operation,
有一个伤口 或需要做手术的时候
then you can use antibiotics and the infection won’t be serious.
都能使用抗生素 这样感染就不会很严重
Unless we get a grip on resistance to the antibiotics,
但除非我们能控制住抗生素的耐药性
people will die from these things.
否则人们还是会因这些感染而死
Jim O’Neill: The issue of anti-microbial resistance
吉姆·奥尼尔:抗生素耐药性问题
is up there with climate change.
与气候变化问题同样严峻
The World Health Organisation says drug-resistant diseases
世界卫生组织表示耐药疾病
already kill at least 700,000 people each year.
已经导致每年至少70万人死亡
But there could be 10m deaths each year by 2050
除非能发现新的抗生素 否则到2050年
unless new antibiotics are found.
每年的死亡人数可达1000万
There’s a serious lack of new antibiotics under development.
目前开发中的新抗生素仍严重不足
And the number of drug resistant bloodstream infections
同时因耐药性而导致的血液感染
increased by a third from 2013 to 2017.
从2013年到2017年增加了1/3
Nicola Ooi: So NDM-1 is a resistance protein
尼古拉·奥尔:NDM-1是一种耐药蛋白
that’s able to break down antibiotics and leaves them inactive.
它能分解抗生素并使其失活
Now, originally, it came from hospitals in India, New Delhi specifically.
最初它仅被发现于印度新德里的医院
And now we’re seeing the spread of that
现在我们看到它已经蔓延到
through to countries such as Italy,
其他国家 比如意大利在过去6个月内
where 350 cases have been reported within the last six months.
已通报了350起相关案例
And that’s particularly concerning,
这一现象尤其令人担忧
because we’re seeing the spread largely due to travel.
因为我们看到它主要通过旅游来传播
And that’s a real problem, because it means that
这是真正的问题所在
we’re all potentially affected by this issue.
因为这意味着我们全都可能受此事件影响
The UK is leading the hunt for new antibiotics.
英国政府正带头寻找新的抗生素
Much of the research is taking place
大部分研究都在英格兰西北部 由政府资助的
at the government backed AMR Centre in northwest England.
抗生素耐药性研究中心(AMR中心)进行
Derek Lindsay: The antibiotic market is broken.
德里克·林赛:抗生素市场已经崩溃了
There’s been no new drugs for 30 years, because
因为对抗生素产品的投资并不能得到回报
the reward to invest in those products just isn’t there.
已经连续30年没有新药问世了
Antibiotics are really cheap.
抗生素非常便宜
They’re a dollar a strip.
一条只要一美元
The value is not there
现在其价值不足以
for somebody to bring a new one to market at the moment.
让人把新产品带入市场
That’s part of what the AMR Centre is trying to do,
目前AMR中心正试着解决的是
is bridge that gap between discovery and proving the things in clinic.
在抗生素的发现与临床证明间架起一座桥梁
The AMRC partly owes its existence
AMR中心的成立在一定程度上
to economist Jim O’Neill.
要归功于经济学家吉姆·奥尼尔
His 2016 report for the UK government
他2016年为英国政府撰写的报告中
found the widescale use of antibiotics in industrial farming
提出在工业化养殖中大规模使用抗生素
helped bacteria adapt and thrive.
有助于细菌适应抗菌环境并茁壮成长
O’Neill called for a big reduction in the amount fed to animals.
他呼吁大幅减少饲养动物的抗生素使用量
And he criticised the pharmaceutical industry for cutting back on antibiotics research.
同时他还批评了制药行业对抗生素研究的削减
Even small biotechs were starting to give up.
就连小型生物技术公司都开始放弃研究了
Jim O’Neill: A lot of people think it’s just an issue about incentivising,
吉姆·奥尼尔:很多人认为这只是激励大型制药企业
and therefore, paying the big pharma.
给他们更多资金就能解决的问题
Why should governments do that?
但政府为何要这么做呢?
But what they ignore is the link
但他们忽略的是追溯到
between the chain all the way down to the earliest stage.
最上游的各个链条之间的关系
Because the genuine risk-takers that
因为真正的风险承担者
are coming through the so-called biotech world,
来自所谓的生物技术界
that are backing these very visionary,
而他们正在背后支持这些非常有远见
and creative, and highly risky start-ups,
有创造力 敢于冒险的初创企业
unless there is a takeout for them
如果他们不能从中受益
they’re going to stop too.
他们也会停止投资
Dr Sheuli Porkess: To develop a new medicine takes 10 to 12 years
舍利·波克内斯博士:一种新药的开发需要10至12年的时间
and considerable investment.
以及相当大的投资
But importantly, it also takes expertise.
但重要的是 这也需要专业知识
You need experts continuously working on this.
需要有专家不停的研究这个问题
And that needs to be sustainable for companies.
并且这对公司来说必须是可持续发展的
And we know there’s market failure
我们知道有些研究抗生素的公司已经
for companies researching in antibiotics.
被市场证明了他们的失败
And we’ve seen companies not being
同时我们也看到一些公司没有能力
able to carry on research into antibiotics.
继续对抗生素的研究
The UK, at least, is making progress.
至少英国正在取得进展
Since 2014, it has cut the amount
自2014年起 英国已经
of antibiotics it uses by more than 7 per cent.
将其抗生素用量削减了7%以上
And sales for use in food producing animals
而用于喂食食品动物的抗生素
have dropped by 40 per cent.
销量下降了40%
The UK has unveiled a plan to control AMR by 2040.
英国展开了一项在2040年前控制住AMR的计划
But O’Neill says policymakers could do more.
但奥尼尔表示 政策制定者可以做得更多
They need to fix the broken antibiotics market
他们需要开发被称为市场进入奖励的计划
by developing what he calls a market entry reward.
来修复崩溃的抗生素市场
Jim O’Neill: Provide something in the vicinity of a billion dollars
吉姆·奥尼尔:可以给能制作急需新药的
for the right producer of a new urgently needed drug.
合适的生产商提供10亿美元左右的资金
A second alternative is you just take it completely away
第二种选择是 收回所有投入到制药企业的资金
from pharmaceutical companies and have a utility type entity
建立一个公用事业公司
or government backed entities that just do it themselves,
或者政府支持的公司 让他们自己运作
and just say, OK,
然后对那些制药企业说 好吧
if you guys just want to live in the profit world,
如果你们想活在只谈利润的世界里
its none of your responsibility anymore.
那么这一切都与你无关了
After penicillin was discovered in 1928,
在1928年发现青霉素后
deaths from infections plummeted and operations became routine.
因感染死亡的人数直线下降 手术也成为了家常便饭
But Sir Alexander Fleming himself warned about
但亚历山大•弗莱明爵士本人也曾对
the risk of microorganisms developing resistance.
微生物产生耐药性的风险提出过警告
Ninety years on,
90年过去了
the world is on the brink of falling back
世界正处于退回到
into the medical dark ages.
医药黑暗时代的边缘
Andy Bounds: A future where you die from a cut finger
安迪·邦兹:未来你会死于手指割伤
sounds like something you might see in a science fiction film.
听起来就像科幻电影里的情节
But the scientists here know
但这里的科学家们都知道
they’re in a race against time.
他们只是在与时间赛跑
And unless we wake up, that dystopian future
如果我们不能从现状中清醒过来
will become a reality all too soon.
这种反乌托邦式的未来将很快成为现实

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视频概述

世界卫生组织表示,每年至少有70万人死于耐药疾病。除非发现新的抗生素,否则到2050年,每年将有1000万人因此死亡。英国《金融时报》记者安迪•邦兹(Andy Bounds)的采访将告诉你为什么世界会面临重回医药黑暗时代的危机。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Bijou

审核员

审核员B

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GL8VGFfQCWs

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