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关于联合王国,大不列颠和英格兰间区别解释

The Difference between the United Kingdom, Great Britain and England Explained

欢迎收看这期英联邦(和其它更多内容)
Welcome to the United Kingdom (and a Whole Lot More)
本期由我 C.G.P.格雷 解说
explained by me, C. G. P. Grey.
联合王国? 英格兰? 大不列颠?
United Kingdom? England? Great Britain?
这些是同一个地方吗? 还是不同的地方呢?
Are these three the same place? Are they different places?
英国人会偷偷嘲笑用错这些词的人吗?
Do British people secretly laugh thosewho use the terms incorrectly?
那么有谁知道这些问题的答案呢?
Who knows the answers to these questions?
我知道 并且马上就会告诉你
I do, and I’m going to tell you right now.
我想对弄不明白的人说 这是全世界
For the lost — this is the world,
这是欧洲大陆
this is the European continent,
而这就是我们要分析的地方
and this is the place we have to untangle.
紫色区域的为联合王国
The area shown in purple is the United Kingdom.
让人困惑的一部分原因是
Part of the confusion is that the United
联合王国不是一个国家
that the United Kingdom is not a single country,
而是一个由国家组成的国家
but is instead is a country of countries.
它包括其中四个平等 独立的国家
It contains, inside of it —four, co-equal, and sovereign nations.
用红色显示的这里是英格兰
The first of these is England, shown here in red.
英格兰经常和联合王国混为一谈
England is often confused with the United Kingdom as a whole,
因为它是最大 人口最多的国家
because it’s the largest and most populous of the nations
并且包括实际上的首都 伦敦
and contains the de facto capital city, London.
北方的是苏格兰 蓝色那块
To the north is Scotland, shown in blue,
它西边是威尔士 白色那块
and to the west is Wales, shown in white,
以及 即使是生活在联合王国的人也会忘记的
and often forgotten even by those who live in the United Kingdom
是北爱尔兰 橙色的那块
is Northern Ireland,shown in orange.
每个国家都有对当地人民的专称
Each country has a local term for the population.
虽然你可以都叫他们英国人
While you can call them all’British,’
但我不建议这样做
it’s not recommended,
因为这四个国家一般都相互嫌弃
as the four countries generally don’t like each other.
北爱尔兰 苏格兰和威尔士
The Northern Irish, Scottish, and Welsh
认为英格兰人是奴隶主 殖民者
regard the English as slave-driving, colonial masters
(尽管这三个国家都有各自独立的国会
(no matter that all three have their own, devolved, Parliaments;
都可以对英国法律投票
are allowed to vote on English laws
而英格兰却没有这些权利)
despite the reverse not being true),
而英格兰人一般认为其他地方的人只知道放羊
and the English generally regard the rest as rural yokels
都是乡下土包子
who spend too much time with their sheep.
然而 由于这四个成员国没有各自的护照
However, as the four constituent countriesdon’t have their own passports,
他们都是大不列颠的公民 不管你喜不喜欢
they’re all British citizens, like it or not.
他们是联合王国的不列颠公民
They are British citizens of the United Kingdom,
联合王国的全称 顺便说一句
whose full name, by the way,
是 大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国
is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
那么大不列颠藏在哪呢?
So where’s Great Britain hiding?
就在这 这块黑色区域就是大不列颠
Right here, the area covered in black is Great Britain.
不像英格兰 苏格兰 威尔士和北爱尔兰
Unlike England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland,
大不列颠是地理上的 而非政治上的 术语
Great Britain is a geographical — rather than a political — term.
大不列颠是不列颠群岛中最大的岛屿
Great Britain is the largest islandamong the British Isles.
在联合王国中 “大不列颠”这个词经常指的是
Within the United Kingdom, the term’Great Britain’ is often used to refer to
英格兰 苏格兰和威尔士而已
England, Scotland, and Wales alone
故意没有加上北爱尔兰
with the intentional exclusion of Northern Ireland.
一般是这样 但也不全对
This is mostly, but not completely, true,
因为这三个国家都有
as all three constituent countries have islands
不属于大不列颠的岛屿
tha tare not part of Great Britain:
比如怀特岛(属英格兰) 威尔士的安格尔西岛
such as the Isle of Wight (part of England),the Welsh Isle of Anglesey,
苏格兰的赫布里底群岛 设得兰群岛 奥克尼群岛
the Scottish Hebrides, the Shetland Islands, the Orkney Islands,
和克莱德群岛
and the Islands of the Clyde.
不列颠群岛的第二大岛是爱尔兰
The second biggest island in the British Isles is Ireland.
这毫无意义 在这里
It’s worth noting, at this point,
爱尔兰不是一个国家
that Ireland is not a country;
就像大不列颠一样 是个地理上 而非政治上的 说法
like Great Britain,it’s a geographical — not political — term.
爱尔兰岛上有两个国家
The Island of Ireland contains, on it, two countries:
北爱尔兰 这个我们已经讨论过 和爱尔兰共和国
Northern Ireland, which we have already discussed, and the Republic of Ireland.
当人们说他们是爱尔兰人时
When people say they are’Irish,
他们指的是爱尔兰共和国
‘ they’re referring to the Republic of Ireland
(爱尔兰共和国是一个从联合王国中分离出来的国家)
(which is a separate country from the United Kingdom).
然而爱尔兰共和国和联合王国
However, both the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom
都是欧盟的成员
are members of the European Union
虽然英格兰特别
even though England, in particular,
喜欢假装自己是大西洋中部岛屿
likes to pretend that it’s an island in the mid-Atlantic,
而不是在远离法国海岸线50千米之外的地方
rather than 50 kilometers off the coast of France
但这个故事我们留到下次再讲
but that’s a story for another time.
我们来回顾一下:
To review:
不列颠群岛上的两个最大的岛是:爱尔兰岛和大不列颠岛
the two largest islands in the British Isles are Ireland and Great Britain.
爱尔兰岛上有两个国家——
Ireland has, on it, two countries —
爱尔兰共和国和北爱尔兰
the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland;
但大不列颠主要包括三个国家:英格兰 苏格兰 和威尔士
while Great Britain, mostly, contains three:England, Scotland and Wales.
后面这三个国家加上北爱尔兰就是联合王国
These last three, when combined with Northern Ireland, form the United Kingdom.
现在还有许多问题没有解答:
There are still many unanswered questions:
比如 为什么当你到加拿大旅游时
such as, why, when you travel to Canada,
纸币上印有英国皇室的图案
is there British royalty on the money?
要回答这个问题 我们需要讲一讲帝国的一些事情
To answer this, we need to talk about empire.
你在说英语的国家上学的时候
You can’t have gone to school in the English-speaking world,
一定会了解到不列颠帝国
without having learned that the British Empire
不列颠帝国曾经占领了全世界1/4的土地
once spanned 1/4th the world’s land and
统治着全世界1/4的人口
governed nearly 1/4th the world’s people.
虽然大家不难记住
While it’s easy to remember the parts
不列颠帝国版图中通过武力分离出来的部分
of the British Empire that broke away violently,
但我们经常忘了有多少个国家是通过外交获得独立 而非流血斗争
we often forget how many nations gained independence through diplomacy, not bloodshed.
这些想和平独立的国家与不列颠帝国达成了一个协议:
These want-to-be nations struck a deal with the Empire:
他们仍然认可不列颠君主为国家首脑
where they continued to recognize the Monarchy as the Head of State,
以换取地方的自治议会
in exchange for a local, autonomous parliament.
要了解它们之间有何联系 我们需要谈谈皇冠
To understand how they are connected, we need to talk about the Crown.
不是从游客身上赚取了几百万
Not the physical crown — that sits behind glass in the Tower of London,
放在伦敦塔橱窗后面的那个真实的皇冠
and earns millions of tourist pounds for the UK
而是具有法律意义的皇冠
but the Crown as a complicated, legal entity,
最好把它看作是一个一人政权
best thought of as a one-man corporation.
那又是谁创建了这个政权呢?
Who created this corporation?
上帝创的
God did.
按不列颠的传统
According to British tradition,
所有权力都归于上帝
all power is vested in God
君主在基督教仪式上加冕
and the Monarch is crowned in a Christian ceremony.
然而 上帝不想被凡间琐事打扰
God, however, not wanting to be bothered with micromanagement,
干脆就将权力委托给皇冠这个实体了
conveniently delegates his power his power to an entity called the Crown.
虽然这曾经指的是实际在伦敦塔里的真实的皇冠
While this used to be the physical crown in the Tower of London,
但皇冠慢慢演变成一个具有法律意义的政权
it evolved, over time, into a legal corporation;
它只能由执政的君主控制
sole able to be controlled only by the ruling monarch.
它有效地提醒了人们英国实际上仍然是神权制:
It’s a useful reminder that the United Kingdom is still, technically, a theocracy:
执政君主扮演国家元首
with the reigning monarch acting as both the Head of State
和官方宗教(英国国教)最高首脑的角色
and the Supreme Governor of the official state religion: Anglicanism.
这就是在了解一个拥有千年历史的君主制国家的时候会说到的怪事
Such are the oddities that arise when dealing with a thousand year-old Monarchy.
说回加拿大和其他地方
Back to Canada and the rest.
这些前殖民地通过外交途径获得独立
The former colonies that gained their independence through diplomacy,
同时仍然认可英国君主的权威
and continue to recognize the authority of the Crown,
他们被称为英联邦国家
are known as the Commonwealth Realm.
它们是 按照人口降序:加拿大
They are, in decreasing order of population: Canada,
澳大利亚 巴布亚新几内亚 新西兰 牙买加
Australia, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, Jamaica,
所罗门群岛 伯利兹
the Solomon Islands, Belize,
巴哈马群岛 巴巴多斯岛 圣卢西亚岛
the Bahamas, Barbados, Saint Lucia,
圣文森特群岛和格林纳丁斯群岛 格林纳达
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Grenada,
安提瓜和巴布达岛 圣基茨和尼维斯还有图瓦卢
Antigua and Barbuda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, and Tuvalu.
这些都是独立国家
All are independent nations,
仍然认可英皇是国家首脑
but still recognize the Monarchy as the Head of State
(尽管英皇在这些国家几乎没有实权)
(even though it has littlereal power within their borders).
还有三个在英皇统治下更远的地方
There are three further entities that belong to the Crown,
这些地方是皇家属地
and these are the Crown Dependencies:
曼岛 泽西和根西岛
the Isle of Man, Jersey, and Guernsey.
与英联邦国家不同
Unlike the Commonwealth Realm,
他们不被英皇视为独立的国家
they are not considered independent nations,
而是被英皇室授权地方自治的地区
but are granted local autonomy by the Crown,
以及联邦王国的一个不列颠公民区
and a British Citizenship by the United Kingdom
(虽然 联邦王国的确保留了
( though, the UK does reserve the right
凌驾于这些地区地方议会法律的统治权)
to over-rule the laws of their local assemblies ).
我们现在都说完了嘛????几乎 但不是完全
Are we all done now????Almost, but not quite;
还有一些没有说到的话题
there are still a couple of loose threads,
比如这些地方:
such as this place:
在西班牙南海岸的直布罗陀小城市
the tiny city of Gibraltar on the southern coast of Spain.
它以石头 猴子闻名
Famous for its rock, its monkeys,
也因其是联合王国和西班牙外交冲突的导火索而闻名
and for causing diplomatic tension between the United Kingdom and Spain.
那么福克兰群岛是怎样的呢:
But what about the Falkland Islands:
它引发了联合王国和阿根廷的诸多矛盾
which caused so much tension between the United Kingdom and Argentina,
以至于这两个国家曾为之发起战争
that they went to war over them.
这些地方属于皇室属地的最外围
These places belong in the last group of Crown properties
被称为:不列颠海外领地
known as: British Overseas Territories,
但是这些领土以前的名字“皇室殖民地”失去了它的本意
but their former name,’Crown Colonies,’ gives away their origin.
这些地区是不列颠帝国最后一抹印迹
They are the last vestiges of the British Empire.
不同于英联邦国家
Unlike the Commonwealth Realm,
这些地区没有成为独立的国家
they have not become independent nations
它们在军队和 有时候 经济支持上
and continue to rely on the United Kingdom
继续依附于联合王国
for military and, sometimes, economic assistance.
像英皇属国一样 每个在它们的疆界出生的人都是不列颠公民
Like the Crown Dependencies, everyone born within their borders is a British citizen.
这些皇室殖民地有 按照人口降序:百慕大
The Crown Colonies are, in decreasing order of population: Bermuda,
开曼群岛 特克斯群岛
the Cayman Islands, the Turks and
凯科斯群岛 直布罗陀市 英属维尔京群岛
Caicos Islands, Gibraltar, the British Virgin Islands,
亚克罗提利与德凯利亚 安圭拉
Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Anguilla
圣赫勒拿岛 阿森松群岛 特里斯坦–达库尼亚群岛
Saint Helena, the Ascension Islands, Tristan da Cunha,
蒙塞拉特岛 英属印第安海上领土
Montserrat, the British Indian Ocean Territory,
南乔治亚和南沙土群岛
the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands,
福克兰群岛 英属南极领土 皮特肯群岛
the Falkland Islands, the British Antarctic Territory,and the Pitcairn Islands.
最后我们来看这个维恩图:
For our final Venn diagram:
联合王国是坐落在不列颠群岛的一个国家
the United Kingdom is a country situated on the British Isles
是英皇属地的一部分
and is part of the Crown,
由君主统治
which is controlled by the Monarchy.
同属英皇属地和不列颠群岛的是英皇属国
Also part of the Crown and the British Isles are the Crown Dependencies.
昔日帝国所属拥有独立权的国家
The independent nations of the former Empire
但仍然认可英皇室统治权的是英联邦国家
that still recognize the Crown are the Commonwealth Realm,
昔日帝国所属没有独立权的少数地区
and the non-independent remnants of the former Empire
是不列颠海外领土
are the British Overseas Territories.
感谢你的观看!
Thank you very much for watching!

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英联邦?大不列颠?英国?英格兰?苏格兰?威尔士?北爱尔兰?英国到底有多大?5分钟了解英国

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