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经济学基础概念:需求曲线 – 译学馆
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经济学基础概念:需求曲线

The Demand Curve

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经济学原理
供求曲线
供应和需求是经济学的基本概念
Supply and demand are fundamental concepts in economics
它们一般用这样的曲线图来表示
Usually, they’re representedby a graph like this.
那这个曲线图表达了什么意思呢?
So what is this mean?
让我们先来看需求曲线图
let’s start with the demand curve.
简而言之 需求曲线表示了
In short a demand curve shows
商品价格不同的时候 人们需求量的变化
how much of a good people will want at different prices.
低价促销会发生什么
What happens when there’s a big sale?
价格低的时候
Well at a lower price
人们会买更多衬衫 裤子和游戏机 就像这样
people buy more shirts, more pants,more video games and they do stuff like this.
这是黑色星期五发生的事情
This is what happens on Black Friday
零售商们降低价格 让大家为圣诞节买更多的东西
when retailers lower their pricesto get people to buy stuff for Christmas.
需求曲线直观的反映了
The demand curve illustratesthe intuition for
为什么黑色星期五人们会如此疯狂
why people go nuts on Black Friday
价格用纵轴表示
Price is shown on the vertical axis,
需求量用横轴表示
and quantity is shown on the horizontal.
这是平常的价格
Here’s the normal price
这是黑色星期五大幅下降的价格
and here’s the Black Friday reduced price
简单来说 价格越低需求量越大
Simply put, the quantity demandedincreases as the price gets lower.
让我们探究的更深入些
But let’s delve a little deeper.
对于不同商品(或服务) 需求曲线不一样
There’s a different demand curve for every good or service out there,
但都遵循了同一个原理
but the ideas are the same.
那么 让我们来看这条需求曲线
So let’s look at the demand curve
对于世界上最重要的产品之一:原油
for one of the most important products in the world oil.
原油被广泛的用于各种各样的产品中
Oil is used in a wide variety of products,
从燃油车 飞机 到家庭供暖和制作橡胶鸭子的塑料
from fueling cars and planes,to heating homes and making plastic for rubber duckies.
看原油的需求曲线
Looking at the demand curve for oil,
我们看到价格和需求量的关系与前面相似
we see a familiar relationship between price and the quantity demanded.
价格高时 每桶55美元
At a high price, $ 55 per barrel,
它的需求数量相对较少
there’s a relative low demand,
我们假定这是500万桶
let’s say five million barrels.
在20美元每桶时 对应的需求是2500万桶
At $20 per barrel,25 million barrels are demanded.
当价格下降的时候 需求量在增长
As the price goes down,the demand for oil increases.
在5美元每桶时需求量达到了5000万桶
And at $5 per barrel,50 million barrels of oil are demanded.
但是还需要更多解释来说明 为什么需求曲线是这样
But there’s more to why the demand curve looks like this.
正如我们前面所说原油的用途很多
As we mentioned before,oil has many uses.
有些是高价值的用途
Some of those are high-value uses.
使用原油是因为替代品很少
Uses for which oilhas few substitutes.
例如 喷气式飞机的燃料
An example would be jet fuel.
你不可能用玉米或者天然气让飞机飞起来
Right now, you can’t fly jetson corn or natural gas.
如果你想飞机飞机起来 只能使用原油
If you want planes that fly,you’re stuck with using oil.
其他的用途价值较低比如提炼汽油或制玩具的塑料
Other uses are low-value useslike making gasoline or plastic for these guys.
当原油的价格相对较低时
When oil prices are relatively low,
需要的原油会同时用于不同价值的物品中
the oil that is being demanded is used for highand low-value goods alike.
当原油涨价时生产塑料和汽油的价格也会提高
As the price of oil goes up,so does the price of making plastic and gasoline.
并且在有些时候
And at some point
使用珍贵原料的产品 价格将会高到一定程度
the costof these value used products will get high enough
足以让大家不会再去买一只塑料鸭子
that some people might skip buying a rubber ducky altogether
而选择买一个木制沐浴玩具
or buy a substitute like a wooden bath toy.
对汽油也一样 当价格上涨的时候
Same goes for gasoline,as the price rises,
人们将会节省开支
people will economize.
大家会买更省油的车或不开车
they’ll buy more fuel efficient cars or forego that road trip completely.
对消费者来说
For these consumers,
买高价产品的收益太低 不能表示商品原本价值
the benefit of buying these products is too little to justify the cost.
在高价格的时候
At these high prices,
只剩下那些使用石油高价值的商家
the demanders that left are the ones who value oil the highest.
对他们来说
For them,
让飞机飞起来的好处大于增加的成本
the benefit of, say,having planes that fly outweighs the increased cost.
所以他们仍然需要原油
They still demand oil.
所一条简单的需求曲线 概括了
So with a simple line, the demand curve summarizes
人们对价格的变化做出的各种不同的反应
all the many and diverse waysthat people respond to a change in price.
我们的节目并不止这些
But it doesn’t stop here.
如果你想进行自我检测 点击 练习题
If you want to test yourself,click”Practice Questions.”
或者你已经懂了 可以点击下一集
Or if you’re ready to move on,just click”Next Video.”
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需求曲线表示了什么?需求量和价格变化的关系

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kUPm2tMCbGE

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