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第16周:西部前线防御战

The Defensive War on the Western Front I THE GREAT WAR Week 16

数十万人已经死去
Hundreds of thousands of men have
战争现已蔓延到了整个世界 当十一月的风雪
died and the conflict has now spread all over the globe, and as the snows and winds of November
开始肆虐 西线完全陷入了僵局之中 所有参战的军队
grow harsher and the western front freezes into total stalemate, all of the warring armies
认识到了一个清晰的战争事实:防御比进攻更有力
realize one great reality of this war: defense is more powerful than offense. This would
直到这场战争以惨烈收场 这一点依然正确
remain true until the bitter end.
我是印地·奈德尔 欢迎来到《第一次世界大战》节目
I’m Indy Neidell; welcome to the Great War
上一期节目我们讲到这里 奥斯曼帝国刚刚参战
Here’s where we left off last week. The Ottoman Empire had just joined the war and
而俄国则派遣军队进入了东土耳其 奥匈帝国又一次
Russia had sent troops into Eastern Turkey. The Austro-Hungarian Empire was once again
试图镇压塞尔维亚人 与此同时 奥军在更北面同俄军的交战中撤退
trying to crush the Serbs, while simultaneously further north retreating from the Russians.
俄军实际上已经将奥军和德军击退 但是由于供给线拖得过长
The Russians had actually pushed back both the Austrians AND the Germans but their advance
他们向德国的推进已经停止 在西线
into Germany had stalled when supply lines grew too long, and on the Western Front the
德皇本人已来到佛兰德斯为他的部队鼓舞士气 因为他的部队
Kaiser himself had come to Flanders to give his troops moral support as they hurled themselves
在伊普尔战役中一次又一次地猛攻协约国军队
again and again and again at the Allies at the Battle of Ypres,
试图突破防线 到达海边
trying to break through to the sea.
协约国军队阻止德军进抵英吉利海峡或北海 到目前为止已有
The Allies had kept the Germans from reaching the Channel or the North Sea for nearly two
近两个月的时间了 尽管实际上这条从海边到瑞士的战线
months now, and though virtually the entire line from the Sea down to Switzerland had
早已陷入僵局中 进行中的伊普尔战役的佛兰德斯战场上
solidified into stalemate, up in Flanders at the ongoing battle of Ypres, the fighting was heavier than ever.
普鲁士军队被命令在11日拿下伊普尔 在他们在进攻之前
The Prussian guard was ordered to take Ypres on the 11th, and their attack was preceded
先发动了战役中最猛烈的一场炮击 这也许是开战以来
by the heaviest artillery bombardment of the war, probably the heaviest of all time up
最猛烈的一场炮击 这次炮击得以实施源于一周以来大量储备
till then. This bombardment had been made possible by a week of stockpiling artillery
的炮弹 不久之后 德军在实际上突破了英军的防线之后
shells, and for a little while the Germans actually broke through the British front lines
却又一次被英军击退
but were beaten back once again.
这一次进攻是如此的集中和破坏力巨大 以至于据传闻英军一度认为
This attack was so concentrated and so devastating that at one point the British reportedly thought
一波德军在烟雾中冲锋 但当硝烟散去
they saw a wave of Germans advancing in the smoke and fog, but as the smoke cleared they
他们发现这不是一阵冲锋 是一整条堆积起来的德军士兵的尸体
saw that it wasn’t a wave, it was an entire bank of dead German soldiers.
德军的突破再度失败 伊普尔的战斗由于月中数日
The German breakthrough had failed once again. The fighting at Ypres faded to a stop mid
大风 雨雪的到来而逐渐平息 在糟糕的天气下
month as high winds, rain, and snow came on for days, and movement became nearly impossible
移动变得近乎不可能 这里仍然有零星的交火 德军于17日
in the abysmal weather. There were still sporadic attacks, and though the Germans dug in on
开始挖掘战壕 在接下来的数日内 战事的结果并不十分明朗
the 17th, the end of the battle wasn’t really apparent for another few days.
双方都开始修建战壕 而且战线从海边一直延伸到了
Both sides set to work building trenches, and the lines stretched from the sea to the
阿尔卑斯山 由于火炮数量日渐增加 在此支援下 炮弹的短缺成了
Alps, supported by growing amounts of artillery, and their bombardments were limited only by
限制炮击的唯一因素
shortages of shells.
佛兰德斯的战场上各方都伤亡巨大——数十万来自法国 比利时 德国 英国
The casualties were enormous in Flanders- hundreds of thousands of men, French, Belgian,
以及帝国每一个角落的人都在此付出生命的代价 现在英军失去了
German, British, and from all corners of the imperial world. The British had now lost their
他们专业的部队 他们是欧洲最好的士兵 而且英军今后只能依靠
professional army, the best soldiers in Europe, and in future would rely on new recruits who
那些仅仅指望固守待援的新兵们 这一切是为了什么?为何在伊普尔发生?
could only hope to hold the line and wait for reinforcements and all for what? Why Ypres?
那么 看这里 这一地区向北地势平坦 而且它通过河流和运河
Well, look at it. The land to the north is flat and is linked to the coast by rivers
连接着海岸 但是向南它高出约500米 这对任何控制这一小镇
and canals, but to the south rises about 500 meters, which gives an excellent height advantage
的人来说都提供了明显的高度优势 而且 这一地区的所有主要道路都在伊普尔汇聚
to whoever controls the town. Also, all of the major roads in the area converged on Ypres.
它是一个战略要点并且将会在接下来的战争中反复争夺
It was a great strategic position and would be fought over for the rest of the war.
朗格马克 博力根森林 阿尔芒蒂耶尔同所有出现在第一次伊普尔战役
And the names: Langemarck, Polygon Wood, Armentieres and all the others from the First Battle of
和向海边行进中的地名一道 现在都成为双方传奇故事的素材 虽然协约国
Ypres and the race to the sea are now the stuff of legend on both sides, but even though
部队在数量上 装备上以及火力上都占据优势 但是他们的取胜源于
the Allies were outnumbered, out equipped, and outgunned, they won because modern warfare
现代战争已显现出巨大的防守优势 这是大家都未曾预料的 现在人人都看到
had turned out to have a heavy defensive advantage, which was unexpected. Everyone now saw that
即便是密集的火力攻击和人数占优发起的浩大攻势 都能被
even heavy artillery barrages and huge offensives with superior numbers could be held back by
战壕内装备步枪和机关枪的步兵和骑兵击退
infantry and cavalry armed with rifles and machine guns dug in to trenches.
这里是马丁·吉尔伯特的《第一次世界大战》一书中所讲述的 第一次伊普尔战役里的一则趣闻
Here’s a little anecdote from Ypres I read in Martin Gilbert’s “The First World War”
我觉得我应该提一嘴:在迪克斯迈德 一个多数由学生组成的德国营
that I thought I’d throw in: at Dixmude, a German battalion of mostly students managed
在这周作战中试图占领一个法军机关枪阵地 这其中
to overrun a French machine gun post during the fighting this week. One of those students
有一个19岁的学生名叫理查德·佐尔格 他随后转而反对德国并成为
attacking was 19-year-old Richard Sorge, who later turned against Germany and became one
斯大林最信任的间谍之一 是他向斯大林警告了希特勒于
of Stalin’s most trusted spies. It was he that warned Stalin of Hitler’s plans to
1941年6月进攻苏联的计划 而日本无意于进攻西伯利亚 这使得
attack Russia in June 1941 and that Japan had no intentions to attack Siberia, which
斯大林得以将部队部署在西部来赢得莫斯科保卫战的胜利
allowed Stalin to deploy his troops in the west to win the battle of Moscow. Sorge was
佐尔格随后被捕并被日本人处死
later caught and executed by the Japanese.
防御在东部也发挥了巨大的作用
Defense was also playing a huge role in the East.
在同俄军交战中撤退超过一周后 一支超过100000人的奥军
After retreating from the Russians for over a week an Austrian army- well over 100,000
选择了一种完全防御的战略 并构筑了防御工事 龟缩在
strong- opted for an entirely defensive strategy and barricaded themselves into the fortress
普热梅希尔的碉堡内 俄军就在城外 对普热梅希尔的第二次围攻始于
of Przemysl, the Russians at the gates. This second siege of Przemysl began November 9th,
11月9日 这也将成为本次战争中持续时间最长的一次围攻
and would be the longest siege of the war.
但是即使战争在西部已经进入胶着状态 对东线中心
But though the war had settled down to stalemate in the west and siege in the Carpathians,
喀尔巴阡的围攻仍然处在不断变化中
the center of the Eastern Front was still in flux.
德军发现 俄国正加紧准备先前临时中止的入侵德国计划
The Germans had discovered that Russia was gearing up to continue her temporarily paused
所以德国的鲁登道夫将军决定先发制人 在一次出色的
invasion of Germany, so German General Ludendorff decided to make a preemptive strike. In a
后勤运作中 他设法调动他的全部部队打击俄军的右侧翼
great feat of logistics, he managed to turn and re-locate his whole army to strike against
11月11日 德军发起进攻 狠狠地打击战线过分拉长的
the Russian right flank. On November 11th, the Germans attacked, hitting the overextended
西伯利亚军团 将俄军前线撕开一道30英里长的缺口
Siberian Corps hard and opening up a 30-mile gap in the Russian lines, cutting off the
切割包围了西伯利亚军团
Siberians.
德军确实在人数上占据优势 但他们的攻击是如此地精心策划
The Germans were actually outnumbered, but their attack was so well managed that it took
以至于俄军的指挥官花费了三到四天方才意识到危险而德军已经迫近
three or four days before the Russian command realized the danger as the Germans pressed
俄军随后撤出战斗并回到罗兹市 这里是
forward. The Russians then disengaged and force-marched back to the city of Lodz, a
一座有着良好后勤保障的铁路枢纽 在这里俄军准备同前进的
railway center that was very well supplied. And here they prepared to meet the advancing
德军接触 俄军有一支庞大的军队 伴随着俄军入侵土耳其
Germans. The Russians had a gigantic army, but the
这一新战场的开辟 他们前线的战斗
fronts they were fighting on became larger and more numerous, with a new one opening
变得规模更大更复杂
up as Russian troops invaded Turkey.
现在奥斯曼帝国在战争中加入了德国和奥匈帝国这一方 这是第一次
Now that the Ottoman Empire had joined Germany and Austria-Hungary in the war, this was the
高加索地区的交战在冬天依然延续 此次进攻
first engagement of the Caucasus campaign that would continue through the winter. This
在俄国乔治·伯格曼将军及其部队于11月2日进入土耳其
attack was named the Bergmann Offensive after Russian General Georgy Bergmann, and his troops
并突破三条当地的防线之后 而被命名为“伯格曼进攻”
had crossed into Turkey on November 2nd in three localized fronts.
土军这周的反击不仅声势浩大 而且甚至有
The Turkish counter offensive this week was not only large, it also even threatened to
将俄军包围的危险 俄军的增援部队设法阻止这一局面的发生
surround the Russians. Russian reinforcements managed to prevent this from happening, but
但是这真的摧毁了俄军的士气 因为他们的损失高达40%
this was a real crusher for Russian morale, as their losses are estimated as high as 40%.
这也使得土耳其战争部长恩韦·帕夏的声望大大提高
This was also a big boost for Envar Pasha, the Turkish Minister of War, who’d brought
是他在第一时间使奥斯曼帝国加入战争
the Ottomans into the war in the first place.
当奥斯曼帝国苏丹穆罕默德五世于11月11日宣布对协约国发起讨伐异教徒的战争
Something else that was designed as a moral boost for the Turks also happened this week
一些其他的被谋划为鼓舞土军精神的事件也于本周发生
when Ottoman Sultan Mehmet V declared a jihad on the allies November 11th.
德国和奥斯曼帝国希望所有伊斯兰教徒可以在圣战的号召下
Germany and the Ottomans had hoped that all Islam would rise against the allies with the
起而参与反对协约国的战斗 但是其结果是谁都没有受此影响 更别说
declaration of a holy war, but nobody really bothered as it turned out, certainly not the
印度穆斯林和俄国鞑靼人响应号召 事实是 如果圣战意为将一部分
Indian Muslims or Russian Tatars. Thing is, if Holy war meant taking one set of Christian
基督徒作为同盟而另一部分作为敌人 那么这对多数人而言
as allies to fight other Christians as enemies, then it didn’t really make sense to most
根本没意义
people.
随着法奥战役于11月8日爆发 战火已经蔓延到了中东地区
The war had come to the Middle East, though, with the Battle of Fao on November 8th.
当奥斯曼帝国参战 英国担忧他们在波斯湾上石油供给
When the Ottomans had entered the war the British had feared for their oil supplies
并决定夺取法奥要塞周围奥斯曼帝国控制的部分海岸
on the Persian Gulf and decided to seize the Ottoman controlled part of the coast around
他们于6日登陆 但由于要塞的火力强大而无法前进
Fao fortress. They had landed the 6th but failed to advance because of heavy fire from
但当两天后英军的重炮部队抵达 他们得以
the fortress, but two days later the British heavy artillery arrived and they were able
占据要塞和城镇 这是美索不达米亚战役的第一场战斗
to take both the fortress and the town. This was the first battle of the Mesopotamian campaign.
所以当本周结束时 英军进入美索不达米亚 土军获胜 而俄军
And so the week ends, with the British marching into Mesopotamia, the Turks triumphant, the
撤回罗兹 在西线雨雪天气时而能使战火稍稍平息
Russians falling back to Lodz, and the rain and snow temporarily quieting the guns in
至于奥地利军队 在北部地区 他们可能龟缩在要塞中
the west. And as for the Austrians, in the north they may be in their fortress, but in
但在巴尔干地区 五十万奥军正不断深入塞尔维亚
the Balkans a half a million of them were pushing deeper and deeper into Serbia.
这里有一点小伏笔 再次感谢马丁·吉尔伯特:弗拉基米尔·列宁 此时
Here’s a little foreshadowing, thanks again to Martin Gilbert: Vladimir Lenin, at this
正流亡于瑞士 写下了我们正处于对外进攻的时代
time exiled in Switzerland, wrote that we were now in the epoch of the bayonet, and
而从此处将引发阶级之间的内战 这将会是革命
from this would spread a civil war between classes which was the prelude to a revolution
和工人阶级胜利的前奏
and the triumph of the working classes.
的确我们现在正处于一个全新的时代 但不仅仅是进攻 还有
And indeed we were in a new epoch, but perhaps not just of the bayonet, but the epoch of
防御战争 不管是运用还是破环铁路 正如法军和
defensive war. Whether it was the use of or destruction of railways, as the French and
比利时军队在战争爆发初期所为或是德军上周在波兰所做 或是用步枪
Belgians did early in the war or the Germans did in Poland last week, or with rifles along
守住佛兰德斯的战线 我们一再看到防御战在几乎每一方面
the lines in Flanders, we see again and again that in this war defense has the advantage,
都占据着优势
in pretty much every way.
成千上万的士兵在重炮的支援下向敌军的战壕
Thousands upon thousands of men backed by heavy artillery would charge enemy trench
冲去 成千上万的人将会死去 在步枪或机关枪
positions and thousands upon thousands of men would die, falling to the rifle or the
仅仅占据几米的优势所交织的火网下死去 这就是 现代战争
machine gun in no-mans land for at best an advantage of a few meters. This was modern war.
现在 有人会说现代战争是所有荣耀的终结 是一个残忍的均衡器
Now, one could argue that this modern war was the end of all glory, a great brutal equalizer
它并不关心谁活着和谁死去 但是即便从壕堑的泥潭中也有
that did not care who died or lived. But even from the mud of the trenches some remarkable
一些非凡的历史人物出现 我们没有时间在日常节目中来叙说他们的故事
historical figures emerged. We don’t always have time to tell their story in our regular
所以 我们开启了全新的传记系列来讲述他们的故事 你可以在这里
episodes, so, we started a new biography format in which we tell their stories. You can check
观看我们的第一期有关“红色男爵”曼弗雷德·冯·里希特霍芬的故事
out our first episode about Manfred von Richthofen aka the Red Baron right here. Let us know
请在评论区中让我们知道你的感受 并说出你想要了解的重要人物
in the comments what you think about it and who else you want to see featured.
下周见
See you next week.

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视频概述

一战进入第十六周 防御战的优势得到巨大的显现

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xC1WIgLLF3k

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