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毁掉中东地区的决定

The Decision That Ruined the Middle East

由Dollar Shave Club赞助播出
[音乐]
[Music playing]
学习历史很重要
Studying history is important,
因为历史带给我们一些
because it brings in something
几乎从未接触到的东西
we often never get
[音乐]
[Music playing]
背景
context
特定历史事件发生的背景
Context for how a particular event played out.
事物如何变化的背景
Context for how something changed.
以及过去如何影响我们的生活的背景
And context for how the past always plays a rule and affecting our lives.
现在 我们把中东地区简单地
In the present, we kind of just write off the Middle East
描述为一个充斥着
as a place that has always been a region of
原教旨主义 独裁专政和内战的地方
fundamentalism, dictators and civil wars.
但它本可以不这样
But it didn’t have to be.
历史充满了很多的分岔
History is chocked full of divergent points,
关键的决策会引起某些改变
crucial decisions that lead to certain changes
变好或是变坏
for better or worse.
我们常调侃说我们正生活在最黑暗的时期
There is always the joke that we live in the darkest timeline.
而在经过大量的调查研究后
And after doing lots of research,
我认为确实如此 特别是在阿拉伯世界
I think that’s actually true and regards to the Arab world.
一个没落国家聚集和恐怖主义盛行的地方
A place of failed states and terrorism,
这一地区的命运本不会一成不变
was not at all the destiny for the region set in stone.
但在它有机会改变命运之前
One single decision ruined the entire region
一个简单的决定便摧毁了这里的一切
before it had a chance.
不 我说的不是美国入侵伊拉克
No, I’m not talking about the United States invading Iraq
也不是俄罗斯干涉叙利亚
or Russia being involved in Syria.
而是伊拉克 叙利亚 约旦和黎巴嫩
I’m saying that Iraq, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon
这些本不该存在于中东地区的国家
never were supposed to exist in the first place.
那么 这个决定是何时做出的
So when did this decision take place?
这不是一千年甚至几世纪前的决定
It wasn’t from the decision Millennial or even centuries ago.
这是第一次世界大战末的决定
It happened at the end of World War I.
奥斯曼帝国曾一度统治着整个中东地区
The Ottoman Empire once ruled the entire Middle East.
他们压迫欧洲人和阿拉伯人长达几个世纪
For centuries, they had oppressed people from Europe and Arabia alike.
到了20世纪
By the time of the 20th century,
他们的领土和统治力量都大为削减
their land and power had diminished considerably.
然而加入一战同盟国给了他们致命一击
The final nail in the coffin for them was betting on the Central Powers.
战争愈演愈烈
As the war raged on,
和欧洲战线相比 各方认为土耳其战线
the Ottoman front was not really considered important.
并不那么重要
Compared to the European fronts,
他们被叫做欧洲病夫
they were the sick man of Europe.
德国人和奥地利人被认为是更大的威胁
And the Germans and Austrians were seen as bigger threats.
对英国和法国来说 这只是小事一桩
It was a sideshow to Britain and France.
但这并不意味着土耳其已经一无是处
That didn’t mean the Ottomans were entirely useless.
土耳其正在走向衰落
They were losing power,
英国人意识到他们可以
and the British knew that they could exploit this weakness
借痛恨土耳其统治的阿拉伯人之手
by gaining the help of people
来攻击土耳其的软肋
who were also sick of Turkish rule – the Arabs.
你可能知道这次战乱 因为阿拉伯的劳伦斯参与其中
You might know this rebellion because it involved Lawrence of Arabia
劳伦斯曾帮助阿拉伯叛军反抗土耳其
who helped the Arab rebels fight against the Ottomans.
尽管在今天的人们眼中阿拉伯的劳伦斯是神话般的人物
Now although Lawrence of Arabia is kind of a modern mythical figure today,
但在当时 在遥远的沙漠
at the time near rebellion against the unimportant Turks
反抗不重要的土耳其人
in a dessert far away,
他并没有受到重视
was not seen as very important.
这只是一个插曲中的另一个插曲
It was deemed the sideshow to a sideshow.
为了在战争中得到英国人的支持
For their support in the war,
阿拉伯与英国达成一致
the Arabs agreed with the British on one condition.
如果阿拉伯人与奥斯曼帝国作战
If the Arabs fought against the Ottomans,
那么战争结束后
then after the war, they would be able to
他们就可以建立他们自己的统一的阿拉伯国家
organise their own unified Arab State.
这就是共识
That was the understanding,
这个共识一直维到战争最终结束
until, well, the war actually ended.
战争结束 奥斯曼帝国最终投降
When the Great War was over and the Ottomans surrendered,
奥斯曼帝国的土地即将被瓜分
their land was now up for grabs at the negotiating table.
让阿拉伯很不爽的是
And that’s when the Arabs got the bad news
之前达成的共识并没有继续维持下去
that previous agreement was not actually going to happen.
原来在两年之前
It turned out that two year earlier,
英法两国就已经秘密地决定
France and Britain, in secret,
瓜分这片土地
had decided that they wanted the land for themselves.
这被称为赛克斯-皮科协议
This was called the Sykes-Picot Agreement.
这是由英法两国所达成的
It was a secret pack by both countries
一个共同瓜分奥斯曼帝国领土的秘密协议
to split the Ottoman territories among themselves,
即这片土地只属于英国和法国
nicely devided into Zone A and Zone B.
就这样 叙利亚和伊拉克诞生了
the humble origins of what would become Syria and Iraq.
法国已经花费了数十年来探查叙利亚的资源
You see, France had invested resources into the Syria region for decades,
比如电力和学校
stuff like electricity and schools.
所以法国自然而然地
So to them it was only natural
把叙利亚当作他们将在地中海拥有的领土
that they would take Syria as a French dominion in the Mediterranean.
英国已经占领了埃及和得天独厚的运河
The British already own Egypt and the nice canal included.
所以英国想要一个可以
So they want a territory that could protect
保护其在埃及战略利益的领土
their strategic interest in Egypt if they had to.
总之 在很长时间的争论后
Long story short, there’s a lot debating between the two
才定下来法属叙利亚和英属阿拉伯的领土界限
to finalize just where French Syria would end and British Arabia began.
别傻了 阿拉伯人没有参与界限的划分
The Arabs weren’t involved, don’t be silly.
战争结束后 美国已经成为
By the end of the war, the United States was now
一颗冉冉升起的新星 他能告诉老一辈欧洲人一两件事
the bright eye new power that could tell the older Europeans a thing or two.
伍德罗·威尔逊是一个坚定的反殖民主义者
Woodrow Willison was a staunch anti- colonialist
他对全球霸主的否定态度正是美国当时的态度
and his negative attitudes towards global empire was what America brought to the table.
被统治者同意是美国经常鼓吹的一个概念
‘Consent of the Governed’ was an idea that America preached frequently
尽管其他人都对此怨声载道
at the grumbling of everyone else.
然而 欧洲最终采纳了这一建议
However, Europe did listen to one Wilson idea
原联合国国际联盟就此建立
the establishment of a league of nations of proto UN
这个联盟的目的是维护和平 阻止战争
That would be for peace and prevent wars,
它确实做到了
which it certainly did.
这个新的联盟所做的事情之一
One of the things this new league of nations did
就是建立授权这个概念
was establish the idea of mandates.
授权就是指同盟国掌控
A mandate is when an allied power takes control of
之前德国和奥斯曼帝国的土地
former German and Ottoman land and governs it
并统治当地民众 使其与现代社会隔绝
to protect the natives from the modern world,
至少在他们有能力保护自己之前是这样
at least until they’re able to protect themselves.
别傻了 这不是战争的战利
No you silly. It’s not spoils of wars.
这是国际外交 你在说什么?
It’s international diplomacy, what are you talking about?
我们接下来就会讲到这个
We’ll just take this for now.
为了世界和平
For global peace.
就创建了
This established the new te-,
对中东授权这一方式
I mean mandates of the Middle East.
法国授权叙利亚 英国授权巴勒斯坦
The French mandate of Syria, the British mandates of Palestine,
外约旦和伊拉克
and Transjordan and Iraq,
直到最后本地人可以保护他们自己
were set up at least until the natives could take care of themselves.
这只是一个巧合 这些授权者在联盟成立之前
It was just a coincidence these mandate boarders lined up perfectly
就完全遵守了协议
with the agreement before the League even existed.
但是 算了 别去想了
But that… don’t think about it.
在那时 英国和法国就扩张帝国领土
At the time, British and French were competing with one another
相互竞争
over their ever expanding empires
除非这两个帝国崩溃 否则竞争永远不会结束
that would certainly never collapse until they did.
在决定瓜分阿拉伯二十年后
Two decades after the decision to split up the Arabs was made,
第二次世界大战有效地摧毁了法国和英国的本土
World War II effectively destroyed the homelands of France and Britain.
如此以来 美国成为了世界霸主
Now America was the global superpower
这也宣布了殖民主义和两个帝国的终结
and this spelled the death of colonialism and the two empires.
还记得前面提到的 在他们能够管理自己之前
Remember the idea that mandates should be ruled
应该以授权方式被统治的协议吗?
until they’re able to take care of themselves?
所以 自然而然的
Well, conveniently, after the war,
授权管理的土地在战后获得独立
the mandates were granted independence.
所以这些在过去不考虑当地人意见
Now the mandates that were made artificially
被人为授权管理的土地
without the consent of the natives
变为合法的现代国家
were legal modern nation states.
幸运的是 这些国家的边界划分并没有改变
Good luck everyone, no changing the borders now.
这些边界就是如今库尔德人生活的地区
That means you Kurds.
这就是现代中东的根本缺陷
This is the fundamental flaw of the modern Middle East.
这些边界存在仅仅是因为
These borders only exist
它们对于曾经的帝国
because they were strategically important
具有战略重要性
to long gone empires.
这就是我们今天所看到的结果
And we’re seeing today the effects of this.
并不是欧洲使中东变成了暴力之地
It isn’t that Europe made the Middle East a violent place,
而是中东一直是暴力之地
it’s always been that.
就是这些边界把想要在一起的人分开了
It’s that these borders split people up who wanted to be together
把不想和彼此有任何关系的人组成了国家
and made countries out of people who didn’t want anything to do with one another.
如果一个国家的人不能够和平相处
If people in your county can’t get along,
那么社会就会变得动荡不安
then you’ll have an unstable society.
正如我们一次又一次见到的那样
Strong man dictators usually take hold of unstable societies
铁腕独裁者通常掌控着不稳定的社会
as we’ve seen time and time again.
但这并不是制作这期视频的原因
However that isn’t the actual reason why I made this video,
简单地将人们划分为不同的国家并不是直接的原因
simply segmenting people into nations isn’t directly the cause
虽然有很大一部分原因是基于此
even if it’s a massive contribution.
所以这些问题的最终成因是什么
What was the ultimate genesis for all of these issues
是背叛了协议
was the betrayal of that agreement.
那这种背叛是怎样意外地导致了伊斯兰恐怖主义的兴起?
And how that betrayal accidentally lead to the rise of Islam terrorism?
在最初的协议中 英国允许阿拉伯控制自己的国家
In the original agreement, the British were going to allow the Arabs to control their own state,
一个控制这个地区的国家
one that controlled this region.
它由麦加的行政长官侯赛因·本·阿里统治
It was to be ruled by the Sharif of Mecca, Hussein Bin Ali.
他将是阿拉伯之王
He was to be the king of the Arabs.
由于英国决定开发这片土地 而不是授权
Because of the British decision to make the land and instead of mandates,
这损害了行政长官与英国的关系
this hurt the relationship with the Sharif.
这时阿拉伯半岛并没有统一
At the time the Arabian Peninsula was not united,
相反 它处于两个派系之间的斗争中
instead, it was being fought between mainly two different factions.
侯赛因·本·阿里是哈桑王族的成员
Hussein Bin Ali was a member of the Hashemites,
哈桑王族是先知穆罕默德的部落
the tribe of the prophet Muhammed.
到20世纪20年代 一个被称为沙特王室的强大家族
By the 1920s, a powerful family called the House of Saud
已经征服了整个地区的领土
had been conquering territory throughout the rigion.
沙特王室信仰一个被称为瓦哈那主义或者萨拉菲主义的
The Sauds believed in an ultraconservative sect of Islam
极端保守的伊斯兰教派
called Wahhabism or Salafism.
这就是原教旨主义
It was fundamentalist.
比过去任何时候都要强烈
Far more than any of the time.
由于哈桑王族和英国在外交关系破裂
Because of this diplomatic breakdown between the Hashemites and the British,
基于赛克斯-皮科协议
due to the sykes-picot agreement in the first place,
侯赛因没有统治更大的土地
instead of ruling a significant larger portion of land,
而是统治着沿海的一个小王国
Hussein ruled a small kingdom on the coast.
到20世纪20年代 没有了英国的支持
By the 1920s, without British support,
它被沙特征服
it was conquered by the Sauds.
如果你觉得似曾相识
If that name sounds familiar,
这是因为沙特将这片区域重新命名为
it’s because Sauds renamed the region
沙特阿拉伯王国
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
所以现在 一个极端保守的王国 而不是一个温和的王国
So an ultraconservative kingdom now ruled over a fair bit of land,
占据着一大块土地
instead of a more moderate one.
这并没有太多问题 直到上世纪50年代
This wasn’t much of an issue, at least until 1950s
沙特阿拉伯发现他们拥有无比丰富的石油资源
when Saudi Arabia discovered their vast vast oil supplies.
萨拉菲主义是一场宗教运动
Salafism is a religious movement with the main goal
其主要目的是将伊斯兰教带回极端保守的状态
to bring Islam back to an ultraconservative mindset.
当沙特发现石油时
When the Sauds discovered oil,
这种极端意识形态便可以
that extreme ideology now was funded
由石油所产生的亿万美元来支持
by billions and billions of dollars in oil money.
所以沙特阿拉伯做了什么?
So what did Saudi Arabia do?
他们修建了清真寺 学校
They built mosques, schools,
在整个伊斯兰世界 提供奖学金 资助新闻记者
funded scholarships, funded journalists, universities,
为大学 教授 以及激进分子提供资金
professors and militants, all over the Islamic world,
来让人们遵守极端保守主义 不违背伊斯兰教
to abide by their version of conservative, and inviolate Islam.
坦率地说 石油资金资助了全球宗教文化的转变
Frankly put ‘Oil money funded a religious in cultural shift around the globe’.
新的组织 如基地组织 塔利班 伊斯兰国等等
New groups like Al-Qaeda , the Taliban, ISIS…
受伊斯兰教这一特殊教义的启发
All were born,
都诞生了
inspired by this one particular teaching of Islam.
所以 赛克斯-皮科协议最终导致了两件事
So, the Sykes-Picot Agreement did two things.
它为原教旨主义政权取代温和政权的崛起奠定了基础
It set the stage for a fundamentalist regime to rise instead of a moderate one,
这造成之后伊斯兰世界充斥着暴力文化
which then founded a violent cultural shift in the Islam world
并且并将这一地区分裂为伊拉克和叙利亚等国家
and split the region into mandates like Iraq and Syria
这些国家从未打算真正自治
who are never meant to actually govern themselves
但却令人震惊地垮台了
and shockingly collapsed.
毫无无疑 这是阿拉伯世界最黑暗的时期
Yes, this is truly the darkest timeline for the Arab world.
这是否为阿拉伯
Now does this excuse the decisions
和西方领导人最近的决定提供了借口?不
of both Arab and western leaders in recent times? No.
这是否意味着中东在之前就是
Does this mean that the Middle East was a perfect place
阳光明媚 充满欢乐的宝地?不
of sunshine and happiness place before? No.
这是一个例子 说明我们可能从未听说过的历史
It’s the example of how history that we might not have heard of
是如何最终塑造我们的日常生活的
can culminate to shape our everyday lives.
反恐战争 叙利亚 难民危机
The war on terror, Syria, the refugee crisis
从很多方面来看 这都是来自于早已不复存在的帝国的
all in many ways stand from the single decision
单一决定
from empires long gone.
我不知道答案是什么
I don’t have the answer.
我只能试着想象出一个它从未发生过的世界
I can only attempt to imagine a world where it didn’t occur,
这就是这段视频要讲的
which was actually what this video was supposed to be about,
但这却讲成了80%的历史
but instead became 80% history
因为没有人知道我到底在说什么
since nobody would actually know what I was talking about.
所以把这个当作前传吧
So take this as a prequel of sorts,
我要想象一个这种事从未发生过的世界
I want to imagine a world where this decision never happened.
最好的办法就是再做一个视频
And the best solution was to just make a separate video for it.
历史总是会影响我们的生活
History always influences our lives,
尽管那些人和事我们从之前未听说过
even if it’s people and events we never thought of before.
这也就是为什么联系相关背景可以塑造我们
And that’s why bringing in context can also shape our ideas
对当今世界的看法
of how our world today truly came to be.
我是历史演变中心的科迪
This is Cody of Alternate History Hub.

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视频概述

到底是什么样的决定才能毁掉中东地区呢,还美国入侵伊拉克,还是俄罗斯干涉叙利亚,还是别的什么?

听录译者

Cecilia

翻译译者

Ice Planet

审核员

审核员_DY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BaPWlKv7n0Y

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