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蜜蜂之死

The Death Of Bees Explained – Parasites, Poison and Humans

人类社会十分地复杂和脆弱
Human society is extremely complex and fragile,
建立在许多不同的支柱上
built upon various pillars.
蜜蜂也是支柱之一
One of them is the honey bee.
人类的一日三餐都与蜜蜂有或多或少的联系
One out of three meals eaten by humans is made possible by honey bees.
它们极其重要 如果蜜蜂死光了
They are so important that if all the honey bees were to die out,
植物也会紧跟其后
thousands of plants would follow,
这会导致上百万人口在随后的数年里忍饥挨饿
which could lead to millions of people starving in the following years.
不仅如此,蜜蜂对经济也有极大影响
On top of that, honey bees have a huge economic impact.
它们每年授粉所创造的经济价值
The dollar value of plants pollinated by them each year
将近达2650亿美元
is around $265 billion.
我们认为理所当然享用的食物 没有它们 也将不复存在
Food we take for granted would just stop existing without them,
至少 在产量上也将大大减少
or there would be a massive decrease in productivity.
诸如 苹果 洋葱 南瓜 以及一些用来喂养家畜的植物
Food including apples, onions, pumpkins, and also plants used for feeding livestock
这些动物是我们肉,奶的来源
and thus extremely important for our milk and meat.
爱因斯坦总是这样说
Einstein is often quoted as having said,
“如果蜜蜂死了,人类也没几年活头了”
“If honey bees die out, humans will follow a few years later.”
(好吧)实际上,他也可能没说
Actually, he probably didn’t say that,
但这句话中的确隐含着某些事实
but there might be some truth in the statement.
这让人焦躁 但 蜜蜂已经开始在消失了
It’s unsettling, but honey bees have started to disappear.
过去的几年里 数百万蜂房已不复存在
Millions of hives have died in the last few years.
全世界的养蜂人每年要损失30-90%的蜂群
Beekeepers all over the world have seen an annual loss of 30–90% of their colonies.
仅在美国 蜜蜂都在稳步减少
In the US alone, bees are steadily declining.
从1988年5百万个蜂房数到如今的2.5百万个
>From 5 million hives in 1988 to 2.5 million today.
从2006年起,一种叫做“蜂群衰竭失调”
Since 2006, a phenomenon called “colony collapse disorder”
它已经影响许多国家的蜜蜂
has affected honey bees in many countries.
我们也不完全清楚原因
And we’re not entirely sure what’s causing it.
我们只知道这非常严重
All we know is that it’s pretty serious.
在过去的十几年里 蜂群被可见的危险敌人所入侵
Over the last few decades bees have seen an invasion of very dangerous foes.
就如把恐怖电影里的寄生虫搬出屏幕 如武氏蜂盾螨,
Parasites straight out of a horror movie, like Acarapis woodi,
感染蜜蜂气管的螨虫(就是呼吸管道)
microscopic mites that infect the tracheae (that’s the breathing tubes) of bees.
在这里,他们(螨虫)产蛋 并以来自牺牲者的液体为食
Here, they lay their eggs and feed from the fluids of their victims,
使蜜蜂们极其的虚弱 它们在蜜蜂体内度过一生
weakening them considerably and spending their whole life inside the bees.
或者是 瓦螨 与它们的名字很相称 因为它们只能在蜂巢里
Or Varroa destructor, a fitting name because they can only reproduce
繁殖 它们是蜜蜂最大的敌人之一
in honey bee hives and are one of the bees’ greatest enemies.
雌性小虫进入蜜蜂的抚幼室在幼蜂身上下蛋
The female mite enters a honey bee brood cell and lays eggs on the bee larva
赶在它们化蛹之前 以及
before it’s about to pupate and
在蜜蜂给蜂房加上蜡盖之前
before the hive bees cover the cell with a wax capping.
虫卵的孵化以及 母虫用发育中的蜂喂养幼虫
The eggs hatch and the young mites and their mother feed on the developing bee
这些蜂在封盖巢房里十分安全
in the safety of the capped cell.
因此 在这一阶段一般不会被杀死 但会变弱
The bee is not normally killed at this stage, just weakened,
因此 它还有咬破蜡盖的力气
so it still has enough strength to chew its way through the wax capping
以及从蜂房里解放出来
and release itself from the cell.
蜜蜂这样做时 它也将(螨虫)母螨以及它的子孙后代从蜂房里释放出来了
As it does, it releases the mother mite and her new offspring from the cell,
这些席卷蜂房的活动不受约束
and these are free to spread across the hive,
整个活动从头至尾只要大约十天
starting the process over again in a cycle of about 10 days.
它们(螨)的成长以指数倍增长 几个月后
Their numbers grow exponentially, and after a few months,
这就会掏空整个蜂巢
this can lead to the collapse of the entire bee hive.
一旦到蜂巢之外 成年螨连蜜蜂身体的汁液也开始吸食
Once outside of the cell, adult mites also suck the bodily fludis of bees
使这些蜜蜂身体极度虚弱
and weaken them considerably.
为了进一步破坏 这些螨虫还把对蜜蜂有害的细菌携带进来 更差劲的是
To make things worse, they also transmit viruses that harm the bees even more
还会导致蜜蜂的生理缺陷 如 无用的翅膀
and can lead to birth defects like useless wings.
但 还有其它的威胁 如 细菌和真菌
But there are other threats too, such as viruses and fungi.
正常情况下 这些现象是可控的
Under normal circumstances, these phenomena should be manageable
但 解释
and are not enough to explain
如此大量的蜜蜂死亡还是不够说服力
the horrendous amount of dying going on in bees.
过去的一些年里 新农药被引进
Over recent years new insecticides have been introduced
这些农业对蜜蜂致命
that are deadly to bees.
新烟碱 一种家用化学药品 与尼古丁相似
Neonicotinoids, a chemical family similar to nicotine,
在1990年代初期就被批准作为 诸如DDT的替代化学药物使用
was approved in the early 1990s as an alternative to chemicals like DDT.
它们通过伤害害虫的神经系统来进行灭虫
They attack insects by harming their nervous systems.
如今 它们是世界上使用最广泛的杀虫剂
Today, they are the most widely used insecticides in the world.
世界范围内 它们的销量在2008年达到了15亿
Globally, they saw sales of €1.5 billion in 2008,
占全球杀虫剂市场量的24%
representing 24% of the global market for insecticides.
2013年 新烟碱在美国玉米和油菜作物的使用量达到了95%
In 2013, neonicotinoids were used in the US on about 95% of corn and canola crops,
水果和蔬菜也大量的使用到它
and also on the vast majority of fruit and vegetables,
如 苹果 殷桃 梨子 橘子 莓类 叶类植物 番茄 土豆
like apples, cherries, peaches, oranges, berries, leafy greens, tomatoes, potatoes,
谷类作物 稻类 坚果类 葡萄 以及更多
cereal grains, rice, nuts, grapes, and many more.
蜜蜂和毒素打交道
Bees come into contact with the toxin
在他们采集花粉或通过污水时
while collecting pollen or via contaminated water,
经常携带大量的(新烟碱毒素)进入到蜂房内
often bringing material into the hive,
在这里 它们会累积 直至慢慢杀死整个蜂群
where it can accumulate and slowly kill the whole colony.
毒素有许多伤害蜜蜂的可怕途径
The toxins harm bees in a variety of horrible ways.
有足够的量 它迅速的导致(蜜蜂)痉挛 麻痹 以及死亡
In high enough doses, it quickly leads to convulsions, paralysis, and death.
就算计量很少 也很致命
But even in small doses, it can be fatal.
它可能导致蜜蜂忘记如何面对这个世界
It may lead to bees forgetting how to navigate the world,
因而 蜜蜂飞到野外,迷路 以及孤独的死去 脱离它们的蜂巢
so bees fly into the wild, get lost, and die alone, separated from their hives.
如果这事发生的太频繁 蜂房也不足以维持自身
If this happens often enough, a hive can lose its ability to sustain itself.
我们知道新烟碱对蜜蜂有害
We know that neonicotinoids are harmful to bees
以及 我们急需替代品
and that we urgently need an alternative to it,
但因需花费数十亿美元 而一拖再拖
but there are billions of dollars to be made in delaying this.
受到化工业的赞助(的研究) 似乎神奇的表明
Studies sponsored by the chemical industry magically appear to prove
与那些自主科学家所(报告的) (化工厂报告)蜜蜂毒性更低
a much lower toxicity to bees, compared to those produced by independent scientists.
还有更多导致蜜蜂死亡的因素
There are even more factors contributing to the demise of bees,
像是 遗传单一性 作物种植单一性
like too much genetic uniformity, crop monocultures,
过度开垦导致的营养过低 人类活动带来的鸭梨
poor nutrition due to overcrowding, stress because of human activities,
还有其它杀虫剂的使用
and other pesticides.
每个因素于蜜蜂而言产生一个主要问题
Each of those factors on its own is a major problem for bees,
但组合到一起 它们就会促成 “蜂群衰竭失调”的产生
but together, they probably account for colony collapse disorder.
随着杀虫剂近几年来的参与竞争
With parasites upping their game in recent decades,
蜜蜂们也在为自己的生存做斗争
the honey bees are now fighting for survival.
如果蜜蜂打了败仗 将会是一场大灾难
It would be a catastrophe if they lost this fight.
这是我们为继续生存而需解决的一个难题
This is a conundrum we have to solve if we want to continue living
这和食物的总量以及多样性关系密切
with a relative abundance and diversity of food.
人类与地球以及其他生命形态关系互通
Humanity is deeply interconnected with Earth and the other lifeforms on it,
即便我们不承认
even if we pretend that we’re not.
我们必须照顾好我们的环境
We have to take better care of our surroundings,
如果不保护我们美丽的大自然 我们生存下去也会是一个问题
if not to preserve the beauty of nature, then at least to ensure our own survival.
该视频被澳大利亚科学院所支持
This video is supported by the Australian Academy of Science,
旨在推广和促进科学发展
which promotes and supports excellence in science.
关注更多
See more at .
和他们合作很带劲 所以 浏览他们的网站
It was a blast to work with them, so go check out their site.
我们的视频也受到你们的支持
Our videos are also made possible by your support on .
最近 我们通过了一个重要的里程碑
Recently, we passed an important milestone,
所以 在七月我们会有一个附加的视频
which is why there will be an additional video in July.
如果你想支持我们 或者成为 Kurzgesagt Bird Army的一分子
If you want to support us and become part of the Kurzgesagt Bird Army,
请浏览我们Patreon 网页
check out our Patreon page!
最近 YouTube channel Field Day 给我们一个机会
Recently, the YouTube channel Field Day gave us the oppotunity
有所改变:关于Game of Thrones(权利的游戏)的短视频
to make something different: a short video about Game of Thrones.
去观看他们的频道吧
Go check it out on their channel!
字幕来自于Amara. org community
Subtitles by the Amara.org community

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