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集束炸弹的致命遗患 – 译学馆
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集束炸弹的致命遗患

The deadly legacy of cluster bombs | Laura Boushnak

我曾经做过一个恶梦
I once had this nightmare:
梦到我站在一个埋满地雷的荒地中央
I’m standing in the middle of a deserted field full of land mines.
在现实生活中 我爱好徒步旅行
In real life, I love to hike,
但是每次要去徒步旅行时 我都会非常焦虑
but every time I want to go on a hike, it makes me nervous.
我的心底有着这样的想法
I have this thought in the back of my mind
我会不会突然就失去一部分肢体
that I might lose a limb.
这种潜在的恐惧产生于十年前
This underlying fear started 10 years ago,
也就是在我遇到穆罕默德之后他是2006年黎以冲突期间
after I met Mohammed, a cluster bomb survivor
在黎巴嫩集束炸弹袭击中的一个幸存者
of the summer 2006 Israel-Hezbollah War in Lebanon.
穆罕默德 和世界上许多的幸存者一样
Mohammed, like so many other survivors all around the world,
每一天都不得不承受着集束炸弹
had to live through the horrifying repercussions of cluster munitions
带来的残忍后果
on a daily basis.
当黎巴嫩长达一个月的战争开始时
When the one-month conflict started in Lebanon,
我还在巴黎的法新社工作
I was still working at Agence France-Presse in Paris.
我记得当时我寸步不离电视
I remember how I was glued to the screens,
焦急地跟进新闻报导
anxiously following the news.
我试着安慰自己
I wanted to reassure myself
炸弹没有落到我父母家
that the falling bombs missed my parents’ home.
之后我回到贝鲁特报道战争
When I arrived in Beirut on assignment to cover that war,
直到和家人团聚我才释怀
I was relieved to be united with my family,
那时他们已经逃离了黎巴嫩南部
after they had finally managed to escape southern Lebanon.
战争结束的那一天
The day the war was over,
我看到了这样的景象
I remember seeing this image —
被封锁的道路之一
one of blocked roads,
满是无家可归人们着急南下 想回到家乡
of displaced people eagerly rushing south, back to their homes,
不管那里还剩下什么
regardless of what they would find.
约有四百万吨的弹药
An estimated four million cluster submunitions
在34天的冲突中散落在黎巴嫩
were spread in Lebanon during the 34-day conflict.
穆罕默德就是在冲突的最后一个星期失去了双腿
Mohammed lost both legs during the last week of the conflict.
他就住在离我父母家只有五分钟车程的地方
The fact that he lives a five-minute drive from my parents’ home
所以那几年我很方便采访到他
made it easier to follow him through the years.
距离我第一次见到他 已经过去十年了
It was now almost 10 years since we first met.
我目睹这个小男孩
I saw the young boy
承受着生理上和心理上的创伤
who had to endure physical and emotional trauma.
我看到过这个少年通过给朋友画纹身
I saw the teenager who tried to offer his friends tattoos,
赚取五美元的酬劳
in return for a set fee of five dollars.
我还知道这个失业的男青年在网上花了几个小时的时间
And I know the young, jobless man who spends hours surfing the Internet
想约一个可能会当他女朋友的女孩
trying to meet a girl who might become his girlfriend.
他的命运以及失去双腿带来的影响
His fate and the effects of losing his legs
已经成为了他生活的一部分
are now his daily reality.
像穆罕默德这样的炸弹幸存者
Survivors of bomb trauma like Mohammed
每天都要处理我们不会碰到的许许多多的琐碎小事
have to deal with so many details that never occur to us.
谁能想到
Who would have imagined
这些我们早已习以为常的小事
that so many daily tasks we do or take for granted,
比如去趟海滩或者从地上捡起一件东西
such as going to the beach or even picking up something from the floor,
也会成为压力和焦虑的来源
would become sources of stress and anxiety?
穆罕穆德的现状
Well, that’s what eventually became of Mohammed,
都是不灵活的假肢造成的结果
due to his inflexible prosthetic legs.
十年前 我还不知道什么是集束炸弹
Ten years ago, I had no clue what a cluster bomb was,
更不清楚它可怕的威力
nor its horrifying implications.
我了解到这种对目标不加鉴别的武器
I learned that this indiscriminate weapon was used
曾被世界上许多国家所使用
in so many parts of the world
至今还在伤及无辜
and continues to kill on a regular basis,
不区分军事目标
without distinguishing between a military target
或者是小孩
or a child.
我天真地问自己
I naively asked myself,
“说真的 是谁制造了这些武器?
“But seriously, who made those weapons?
其用途又是什么?”
And what for?”
我来说明一下什么是集束炸弹
Let me explain to you what a cluster bomb is.
正如这个装满小型炸弹的大罐子
It’s a large canister filled with bomblets.
当它在高空被投放下来
When it’s dropped from the air,
到达半空时它会自动打开 释放上百颗小型炸弹
it opens up in midair to release hundreds of bomblets.
它们散落在各处
They scatter around wide areas
然后爆炸
and on impact,
其中也有许多没有成功爆炸的
many fail to explode.
那些没有爆炸的炸弹和地雷无异
Those unexploded ones end up just like landmines —
潜伏于地面
sitting on the ground,
等待着它们下一个目标
waiting for their next target.
如果有人不小心踩了上去
If someone steps on them by accident
或是捡起它们
or picks them up,
它们可能就会爆炸
they can explode.
这些武器是完全不可预测的
These weapons are extremely unpredictable,
这使得它们的威胁进一步增大
which makes the threat even bigger.
今天 一个健康的农民去干农活
One day, a farmer can work his land without a problem.
第二天他焚烧了些树枝生火
The next day, he can make fire and burn some branches,
高温就可能引爆旁边隐藏的炸弹
and the submunitions close by could be set off because of the heat.
问题还在于有些小孩会误把那些炸弹当玩具
The problem is children mistake those bomblets for toys,
因为它们看起来就像弹球或者汽水罐
because they can look like bouncy balls or soda cans.
作为一名纪实摄影师
Being a documentary photographer,
我决定在冲突结束后回黎巴嫩待上几个月
I decided to go back to Lebanon a few months after the conflict ended
去探访集束炸弹幸存者
to meet cluster bomb survivors.
我确实见到了一些幸存者
And I met a few —
侯赛因和拉莎
Hussein and Rasha,
他们都被集束炸弹炸掉了一条腿
who both lost a leg to submunitions.
他们的故事和世界上千千万万孩子的故事相似
Their stories are similar to so many other kids’ stories across the world
都成为了不断使用这些武器
and are a testimony to the horrifying implications
给人们带来可怕灾难的证据
of the continuous use of such weapons.
我2007年以一月见到穆罕默德的时候
That’s when I met Mohammed, in January 2007.
他才11岁
He was 11 years old,
我在那场意外过去四个月后见到了他
and I met him exactly four months after his accident.
第一次见到他那会儿
When I first saw him,
他正在接受痛苦的理疗
he was going through painful physiotherapy
以治愈新伤口
to recover from his fresh wounds.
年幼的他依旧惊魂未定
Still in shock at such a young age,
穆罕默德在努力地适应残缺的新身体
Mohammed was struggling to get used to his new body.
有时候他半夜醒来 还想要挠一挠失去的脚
He would even wake up sometimes at night wanting to scratch his lost feet.
我渴望进一步了解他的故事是因为我突然意识到
What drew me closer to his story was my instant realization
穆罕穆德在未来可能面对的困难
of the difficulties Mohammed was likely to face in the future —
可能会比他在11岁时适应残疾
that what he has been suffering while adjusting to his injury
所经历的困难
at the age of 11,
还要艰巨得多
would increase manyfold.
即使是在遭遇不幸之前
Even before his disability,
他的生活也并不好
Mohammed’s life wasn’t easy.
他出生在巴勒斯坦难民集聚的拉希迪赫难民营中
He was born in the Rashidieh Camp for Palestinian refugees,
至今也都住在那里
and this is where he still lives.
黎巴嫩有约40万的巴勒斯坦难民
Lebanon holds some 400,000 Palestinian refugees,
他们受到当地法律的不公平对待
and they suffer from discriminatory laws.
他们不能进入公共部门工作
They’re not allowed to work in the public sector
或者从事一些特定的职业
or practice certain professions
就连财产所有权都得不到保护
and are denied the right to own property.
这就是为什么
This is one of the reasons
穆罕默德没有因为伤后退学
why Mohammed doesn’t really regret dropping out of school
而感到后悔
right after his injury.
他说:“如果我毕业后依然找不到工作
He said, “What’s the point of a university degree
那么上大学又有什么意义?”
when I can’t find a job to start with?”
集束炸弹的使用在我们的社会上造成了一个恶性循环
Cluster bomb use creates a vicious circle of impact on communities,
它们危害的不仅仅是受害者的生命
and not only the lives of their victims.
许多因这种武器导致伤残的人因此辍学
Many who get injured by this weapon drop out of school,
或是无法找工作甚至失去工作
can’t find jobs or even lose their jobs,
从此失去了养家的能力
therefore losing the ability to provide for their families.
更不用说持续的生理上的痛苦
This is not to mention the continuous physical pain
和心理上的孤独感
and the experience of feeling isolated.
受打击最严重的是穷人
These weapons affect the poorest of the poor.
昂贵的医药费对一个家庭来说是巨大的负担
The high medical cost is a burden to the families.
他们只能依靠资源有限
They end up relying on humanitarian agencies,
又无法提供持续帮助的人道主义组织
which is insufficient and unsustainable,
对于那些需要终身接受治疗的伤者来说更是无法承受
especially when injuries require lifelong support to the injured.
穆罕穆德受伤后十年
Ten years after Mohammed’s injury,
他依然买不起一条合适的假肢
he is still unable to afford proper prosthetic legs.
他走路非常小心
He’s very cautious with his steps,
因为这几年的几次跌倒
as a couple of falls over the years
已经让他在朋友中颜面失尽
brought him embarrassment among his friends.
他开玩笑说因为他没有腿
He joked that since he doesn’t have legs,
有一天他会尝试用手走路
some days he tries to walk on his hands.
这种滥伤武器造成的最糟糕的潜在影响之一
One of the worst yet invisible impacts of the weapon
就是心理上的创伤
is the psychological scars it leaves.
一份关于穆罕默德早期治疗的报告中
In one of Mohammed’s early medical reports,
他被诊断出患有创伤后精神紧张性精神障碍
he was diagnosed with signs of PTSD.
他饱受焦虑、食欲不振、睡眠障碍的困扰
He suffered from anxiety, poor appetite, sleep disturbance
还有易怒的倾向
and showed signs of anger.
现实是穆罕默德从来没有接受过合适且完善的康复治疗
The reality is Mohammed never received proper help to fully recover.
他当前的愿望就是不惜一切代价离开黎巴嫩
His current obsession is to leave Lebanon at any cost —
即使要和其他跨越地中海
even if it meant embarking on a hazardous journey
逃往欧洲的难民那样踏上危险的旅途
along with refugees drifting towards Europe today through the Mediterranean.
他清楚这样的旅行风险很高
Knowing how risky such a journey would be,
但是他说:“如果我死在半路
he said, “If I were to die on the way,
也没有什么关系”
it doesn’t matter.”
真正的穆罕默德早就死在这里了
To Mohammed, he is dead here, anyway.
集束炸弹是个全球性的问题
Cluster bombs are a world problem,
因为这些武器不断伤害和破坏我们整个社会
as this munition keeps destroying and hurting whole communities
影响着一代又一代的人
for generations to come.
在一个对地雷咨询团体负责人杰米· 富兰克林的
In an online interview with the director of the Mines Advisory Group,
在线访谈中
Jamie Franklin,
他说:
he said,
“美国空军在老挝投下了超过两百万吨的弹药
“The US forces dropped over two million tons of munitions over Laos.
如果飞机在越南搜查不到目标
If they couldn’t find their targets in Vietnam,
他们会先把弹药投放到老挝的自由投放区
there were free-drop areas in Laos where planes would drop their loads
然后才返回基地
before going back to base,
因为带着弹药着陆是危险的”
because it’s dangerous to land with loaded planes.”
红十字国际委员会的数据显示
According to the International Committee of the Red Cross,
仅仅老挝——世界上最贫困的国家之一
in Laos alone — one of the poorest countries in the world —
就有九百万到两千七百万吨的未引爆炸弹遗留
nine to 27 million unexploded submunitions remain.
1973年起约有11000的人因炸弹意外伤亡
Some 11,000 people have been killed or injured since 1973.
这种致命武器被20个国家在军事冲突期间
This lethal weapon has been used by over 20 states during armed conflicts
用在超过35个国家上
in over 35 countries,
比如乌克兰、伊拉克和苏丹
such as Ukraine, Iraq and Sudan.
到目前为止有119个国家签订了一项关于禁用
So far, 119 states have joined an international treaty
集束炸弹的国际协议
banning cluster bombs,
也就是《国际禁用集束炸弹公约》
which is officially called the Convention on Cluster Munitions.
但是一些集束炸弹制造大国
But some of the biggest producers of cluster munitions —
比如美国、俄罗斯和中国
namely, the United States, Russia and China —
不受挽救生命公约的制约
remain outside of this lifesaving treaty
坚持生产这些武器
and continue to produce them,
并且保留未来可能再次生产的权利
reserve the right to produce them in the future,
同时保有这些杀伤性武器的库存
keep those harmful weapons in their stockpiles
甚至将来极有可能会使用
and even possibly use them in the future.
报道称集束炸弹最近在也门和叙利亚
Cluster bombs have reportedly been used most recently
持续不断的冲突中被广泛应用
in the ongoing conflicts in Yemen and Syria.
根据荷兰的非政府组织Pax的
According to research on the worldwide investments
一项关于集束炸弹制造商
in cluster munitions producers
全球投资来源的调查显示
by Pax, a Dutch-based NGO,
商业机构已经为集束炸弹制造商
financial institutions invested billions of US dollars
投资了几十亿美元
into companies that make cluster munitions.
这些机构大多属于那些没有签订
The majority of these institutions are based in countries
《国际禁用集束炸弹公约》的国家
that have not yet signed the Convention on Cluster Munitions.
说回穆罕默德
Getting back to Mohammed,
少数几种他能找到的工作之一就是采摘柠檬
one of the few jobs he was able to find was picking lemons.
我问他在地里干活安不安全 他说:
When I ask him if it’s safe to work in the field he said,
“我也不确定”
“I’m not sure.”
有调查显示集束炸弹经常污染
Research shows that cluster munitions often contaminate areas
那些以农业为主要收入来源地区的土地
where agriculture is the main source of income.
国际助残组织的调查显示
According to Handicap International’s research,
被集束炸弹导致伤残的98%的人都是平民
98 percent of those killed or injured by cluster munitions are civilians.
而其中的84%为男性
Eighty-four percent of casualties are males.
那些国家的人们没有其它选择
In countries where these people have no choice
只能在那样的土地上劳作
but to work in those fields,
他们不过是干农活而已
they simply do it
却要冒着生命危
and risk it.
穆罕默德是家里四个孩子中唯一的男孩
Mohammed is the only male to three sisters.
习俗上说 应当由他来养家
Culturally, he’s expected to provide for his family,
但他做不到
but he simply can’t.
他尝试过各种各样的工作
He tried to have so many different jobs,
却因为身体的残疾一个都做不下去
but he couldn’t keep any due to his physical disability
即使不是这样 当地社会对残疾人也缺乏
and the less-than-friendly environment to people with disabilities,
足够的宽容态度
to say the least.
当他去应聘工作 别人却用一点施舍
It hurts him a lot when he goes out looking for a job,
打发他的时候
and he’s turned away
他受到了深深的伤害
with a small amount of money paid to him out of pity.
他说:“我不是来乞讨的
He said, “I’m not here to beg for money,
我只想靠自己的本事挣钱”
I just want to earn it.”
穆罕默德今年已经21岁了
Mohammed today is 21 years old.
他是个文盲
He’s illiterate,
只能通过对话交流
and he communicates with voice messages.
这是他的一条语音信息:
Here is one of his messages.
[音频]穆罕穆德:(阿拉伯语)
[Audio] Mohammed: (Speaking in Arabic)
他说:“我的梦想是奔跑
Laura Boushnak: He said, “My dream is to run,
我很确定一旦我开始奔跑
and I’m pretty sure once I start running,
我就决不会停下来”
I would never stop.”
谢谢
Thank you.
[掌声]
[Applause]

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视频概述

战争的破坏并不会随着斗争的结束而结束。2006年爆发的为期34天的黎以冲突期间,约有四百万吨的集束炸弹被投放在黎巴嫩境内,肆意杀戮。冲突结束后这些炸弹的威胁依存,因为它们中许多没有被成功引爆而处于待命状态,随时有可能导致接触它们的人受到伤害甚至丧命。在演讲中,摄影师兼TED合作伙伴劳拉·布什纳克给我们展示了集束炸弹幸存者的纪实影像,同时呼吁以美国为代表的那些坚持生产和使用这种武器的国家禁用它们。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

B11101001

审核员

与光同尘

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IL2lb9fmIV8

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