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网络的另一面:暗网

The dark side of the web -- exploring darknets | Kyle Terry | TEDxSalem

术语“暗网”起源于上世纪七十年代
The term “darknet” was coined in the seventies,
它用来表示一种独立于阿帕网络之外的网络系统
and it was meant as a way to describe network isolated from ARPANET.
阿帕网络最终成为了
ARPANET eventually became
我们今天都在使用的 由私营电信公司运营的商业网络
the commercial internet run by the private telecoms we all use today.
阿帕网络是由美国国防部创立的
ARPANET was created the by U.S. Department of Defense.
它被创造出来用于共享
And it was created to share data
与各大学共同进行的研究实验室的项目数据
about their projects in research laboratories with the universities.
对于你们当中熟悉网络的人来说
And for those of you familiar with networking,
它是第一个能交换数据包的网络
it was the first packet switching network,
它是现代网络的基础
which is the foundation to modern networking.
我们在这里讨论的不是万维网
Now we’re not talking about the World –Wide Web here.
万维网直到1990年才出现
That didn’t show up until 1990
当蒂姆•博纳斯•李在欧洲核子研究委员会建立了第一个网络服务器它才出现
when Tim Berners–Lee set up the first Web server at CERN.
网络由一大堆的计算机硬件组成
The Internet is a massive piece of hardware.
它能在全球范围内
It enables communication instantly,
实现即时通讯
on a globale scale.
他在说谎:那就是一堆管子[笑声]
He’s lying; it’s totally a series of tubes.[Laughter]
难以计数的管子
It’s absolutely massive.
事实上还有数以千百计的
And in fact there’re hundreds of cables
海底电缆
spanning the ocean
以及地面对卫星的通信
along with ground to satellite communication,
和无线电台通信
and radio to radio communication,
(所有这些)只为了让它运转起来
just to make this thing work.
我喜欢告诉人们我环游过一次地球
I like to tell people I circumnavigated the globe once.
一开始我这么做只因为它听起来比实际上要酷一点
And I start with that because it sounds a lot cooler than it actually is.
我在全世界设立了一堆虚拟服务器来运行Netcat
What I did was to set up a bunch of virtual servers around the world running Netcat.
我把左边电脑的硬盘驱动器复制到右边的电脑上
And I cloned the left computer’s hard drive to the right computer
用通道信号传输数据
by streaming the data through the tunnel.
让它完全运转起来太帅了
And it’s so awesome that that works at all.
但我觉得它被一些人给毁了
But I feel like people have ruined this for us.
他们用监视和间谍活动把它给毁了
They’ve ruined it with spying and surveillance.
有人认为有需要持续监视我们做的每件事
And there’s constant need to watch everything we do.
所以我们中的很多人不敢总是浏览某个特定的网页
So a lot of us are scared to read a certain page on the Internet,
或者下载一份内容有一点点过于左倾或右倾的出版物
or may be download a publication that’s a little too leftist or rightist in content.
我希望暗网能帮助解决这个问题
And my hope is darknets help solve this problem.
所以今天在这里 我要和你们一起探索并分享一些东西
So I’m gonna explore and share a couple with you here today.
提到暗网 它也有一些不同的种类
When it comes to the darknets, there are a couple different types.
从历史角度来说 它们代表私人文档共享网络
Historically, they were meant to be private file sharing networks.
但现在它们是一些动态的页面
But these days they’re dynamic pages,
充斥着媒体内容 图片和视频
rich with media contents and pictures and videos.
所以它们对我们来说已经不陌生了
So they’re already familiar to us.
通过暗网 有些是点对点的 有些是集中的
With darknets, some are peer to peer, some are centralized,
但大多数只适用于分散的模块
but most are going for a decentralized model.
在我们思考我们的网络是否也是一套暗网的时候
And we are looking for specific types of philosophy
我们寻求的是一个特定的哲学概念
when we consider whether or not our network is a darknet.
我们寻求的是的背后的反抗
We’re looking for take–down resistance:
那意味着政府或其他任何有关人员
that is the government or anyone else for that matter
不能就这样大摇大摆地进入网络 删除信息
can’t just come in, unplug the thing,
然后看着它消失
and watch it disappear.
我们寻求的是匿名性
We’re looking for anonymity,
没人能知道谁在阅读 下载或编辑内容
so nobody knows who is reading, uploading or creating content.
当然内容要丰富
And concent richness,
因为如果没有什么可看或可读的 或者全都是垃圾
because if there’s nothing to see or read, or it all sucks,
那么建立一个暗网的真正意义在哪里呢?
then really what’s the point of even having a darknet?
事实证明它们相当好用
Turns out they’re pretty useful.
它们被用作政治上的避风港
Any they’ve been used for political safe haven,
新闻业 盗版 黑市(都在此暗生滋长)
journalism, piracy, black markets.
但最重要的是 至少对我来说是这样的 隐私
But most importantly, at least to me, privacy.
我能肯定 在座的各位都听说过丝绸之路
You’ve all heard of the Silk Road, I am sure.
丝绸之路在一个被叫做托尔的网络上运行
Well, the Silk Road was running on a network known as “Tor”.
托尔是一套以节点为基础的 分散化的匿名网络
“Tor” is a node–based, decentralized anonymity network.
最初是美国海军研究室在研究
It was an initially researched by the US Naval Research Laboratory,
现在已经转交给一个叫“托尔项目”的501c3组织
and has been since handed over to a 501(c)(3), known as the Tor project.
其大约百分之八十的预算仍然来自于美国政府
Around 80% of their budget still comes from the U.S. government.
剩下的来自私人捐助甚至是其他政府组织
And the rest of it from private donors and even other governments.
托尔使自己为公众所使用
Tor made its way into the public’s hand
因为那是它运行的唯一方式
because that’s the only way it could work.
如果每一个海军想要做出的匿名请求都来自于海军控制的网络
It would be completely pointless,
那匿名就没有什么意义了
if every request the Navy wanted to make anonymously came from a Navy controlled network.
所以我倾向于认为他们创造了堪萨斯骗术
So I like to think that they created Kansas City Shuffle,
这样他们就把这件事交给了公众
where they just dropped this thing into the public’s hands,
然后人们在此为所欲为
and everybody went buck-wild with it.
所以当每一个人都在关注着丝绸之路
So while everybody is looking left at headlines about the Silk Road,
毒品 枪支以及所有那些的黑暗的事情的头条时
and drugs, and guns, and all the bad stuff,
海军出其不意取缔了一些不好的东西
the Navy is going right and blowing shit up.
托尔通过中间设备和节点展开工作
Tor works by having relay and exit nodes.
一个节点就是一台运行托尔软件的电脑
A node is just a computer running Tor software,
然后中间节点接受指令请求
and a relay node takes a request,
解除其中一层加密
peels of a layer of encryption,
然后通过仍是加密的路线把它传递给下一个节点
and hands it off to the next node in the route still encrypted.
当请求到达路径终端的时候
And exit node takes a now unencrypted request
输出节点就会接收到一个没有加密的请求
when it reaches through the end of the route,
然后让这个指令到达谷歌或者任何你想让它去的地方
and makes the call to google.com, or whatever you’re trying to access,
接着就会收到回复了
and the response comes back,
所有事情反向运转 直到内容显现在托尔浏览器上
and everything happens in reverse until the content is displayed in the Tor browser.
托尔很酷 因为
Tor is cool, because
它允许你浏览正常的互联网 也能接触到那些被称为“隐匿服务”的东西
it lets you browse the normal internet along with these things called “hidden services”.
不像其它的似是而非的暗网软件 在那里你只能接触到它们给你提供的东西
Unlike other darknet–like software where you pretty much just have what the network provides to people,
而且规定好了你能上传什么 不能上传什么
what people can upload and what not.
隐匿服务就像是正常的网站 本质上是动态的
Hidden services are like normal websites, they are dynamic in nature,
但是你要进入里面需要一个“.onion”地址
but you access them with a “.onion” address.
这个“.onion”地址就像一个普通域名 但不怎么好记
And the “.onion” address is like a normal domain, but less memorable,
因为在“.onion”之后有一连串的随机字符
because it’s a bunch of random characters followed by “.onion”.
所以你不能只是说
So you don’t really just say,
“嘿 我要去xyz409.onion了”
“hey, I’m gonna go to xyz409.onion”,
你需要使用一种搜索服务去找到它
you are just gonna use a search service and find it.
而这 对一些人来说可能是一种障碍
So, that could be a hurdle to some people.
这些网站实际上就是托尔暗网的一面
These sites are really the darknet side to Tor,
而且经常被指称为“深网”
and are often referred to as “the Deepweb”.
所以
So,
我们来探索托尔
we’re gonna explore Tor,
这是你们会看到的第一个画面
and here is the first screen you get
当你登陆托尔浏览器的时候
when you launch the Tor browser.
托尔浏览器在托尔浏览器套件里
The Tor browser comes in “the Tor Browser Bundle”,
这个页面好看又简洁
and it’s a nice, neat package.
我很喜欢这样的做法 因为如果难用没人会使用它的
And I love that they did this because nobody is gonna use this stuff if it’s hard.
看起来挺熟悉的 就像火狐
This is something familiar, this is Firefox,
但是配置了一种使用托尔的方式
but kinda configured in a way to use Tor.
这是你看到的第一个页面 它是绿色的
This is the first screen you get. It’s green.
显示托尔网络已连接成功
It says we’re connected to the Tor network,
如果它是红色的 你应该就此打住 因为你不是匿名状态
and if it was red, you should stop right there, because you’re not anonymous,
你做的蠢事(会被人发现)
and you’re gonna do something stupid.
相信我 你会做一些蠢事的
Trust me, you’re gonna do something stupid.
这里有一个我使用“Duck Duck Go”服务的例子
This is an example of me using a service called “Duck Duck Go”.
你们中的很多人可能开始听说过它了
A lot of you have probably started to hear about this,
因为它是谷歌的备选 而且还颇受欢迎
because it’s an alternative to Google, it’s kind of gaining popularity.
我用它搜索“Tails”
And I’m searching for Tails,
“Tails”是一个匿名的活动的系统
and Tails is an incognito live system.
所以 它运行了托尔 这和我们今天的话题有很大的关系
So, it runs Tor, and it’s very relevant here.
我正在跳转到下载页面
I’m getting to the download page,
我在托尔上下载”Tails” 这样就没人知道我正在下载”Tails”
and I’m going to download Tails on Tor, so nobody knows I’m downloading Tails.
这里有个例子 关于“华盛顿邮报信息保险柜”
Here is an example of “The Washington Post Secure Drop”.
所谓“信息保险柜” 是指新闻机构正在开始往他们的网站上添加的东西
Secure drops are these things that news organizations are starting to add to their websites,
以允许人们连接到托尔
that allow people to connect to Tor,
链接到一个洋葱地址
go to an Onion address,
发送一些文件 或者向记者们发送一些内部消息
and deliver some papers, or maybe some intel to journalists.
这里有一个”.onion”的搜索服务的例子
Here’s an example of the .onion search service.
你搜索一个关键词
You search for a term,
得到一些反馈
and you get some results back.
在这里 我搜索“黑市”
So here I search for “black market”.
然后我点击了一个链接
And I’ve clicked on a link.
我把它放在这里 因为它是一个很不错的例子
I put this in here, because this is a good example
在托尔上的访问记录不会被记录下来
of things not being taken down on Tor.
是的 丝绸之路被记录了下来
Yes, the Silk Road got taken down,
但那非常少见 那是他们自己的错
but it’s very rare, and it was their own fault.
所以在这里你可以使用比特币购买攻击性武器
So here you can spend Bitcoin on assault weapons.
这里是一些把它们隐藏起来的方式
And here are some of the ways that they conceal it.
这是一个社交网络
Here is a social network,
这是一个非常无聊的社交网络 别激动
it’s a really boring social network, don’t get excited.
我把它放在这里 是因为它的注册页面真的很有趣
But I put this in here because the registration page is really interesting.
特别是它说到 “禁止儿童色情作品 禁止色情作品 禁止侮辱性言论”
Specifically says, “No child porn, No porn, No hate speech”,
以及“禁止商业性活动”
and “No commercial activities”.
这是一个典型的你从托尔上能观察到的情况例子
And this is a great example of the community that you get on Tor.
他们想要隐私
They want privacy,
而且做了很多努力 让人们用起来方便
and there’s a lot of trying to keep the thing clean,
又安全
and safe for people to use.
这里有一个我登录的例子 这有一个流媒体页面
Here is an example of me logging in. There’s a stream.
我把它放在这里 因为每当我向任何人提及深网时
And I put this in here, because this is the first question I get whenever I talk about
这是需要提及的主要问题
the Deepweb to somebody.
他们说:我能雇佣杀手吗?
They say: “Can I buy a hitman?”
而我的想法是:
and I’m like:
我在告诉怎样在网络上匿名
“I’m showing you this thing that makes you anonymous on the internet,
而你却在问我可不可以雇佣杀手?
and you ask me about a hitman,”
而且一开始就这么问我
“that’s the first thing you ask me.”
这是Aphex Twins在深网上发布他们的新专辑
Here’s Aphex Twins announcing their new album on a hidden service.
这是个例子——你不该通过托尔做的事这是脸书
Here’s an example of something you should not be doing on Tor, and it’s Facebook.
因为他们的服务条款是非常反匿名的
It’s because their terms of service are very Anti–pseudonym.
所以最好不要这样做
So it’s just inherently a bad idea.
同样的 领英也是反匿名的
Same with Linkedln, Anti–pseudonym,
(在这些地方)你是你自己 你是实名的
you are who you, you are who you legally are,
因此你不应该使用匿名服务
therefore you should not be using an anonymization service.
这里有些应用是可以匿名的 比如推特
And here’s something that’s maybe okay, and that’s Twitter.
我知道许多人使用推特时是匿名的
I see a lot of people using Twitter anonymously.
我没有阅读过它的服务条款所以我不确定那到底可不可以
I haven’t read the terms of service, so I’m not sure if that’s okay or not.
托尔很棒 我使用托尔的经历非常愉快
Tor is great. My experience with Tor has been very pleasant.
与一般的看法相反 事实上它的网络相当快
The network is actually pretty fast, contrary to popular belief.
并且有很多人使用
And a lot of people use it.
爱德华.斯诺登用它上传文件给记者
Edward Snowden used it to upload documents to
关于美国国家安全局(窃听)的文件
journalists about the NSA files.
它也被用于2011年阿拉伯之春的伊朗抗议活动
And it was used during the Arab Spring in 2011 Iran protests.
我也研究自由网络
I also looked at Freenet.
自由网是一种去中心化的 点对点的文件分享网络
Freenet is a decentralized, peer–to–peer file sharing network.
它类似于比特流 但所有东西都是加密的
It’s similar to BitTorrent but everything’s encrypted,
所以自由网上的流量都很难被追踪
so it’s really hard to detect Freenet traffic.
你在自由网上分享你的硬盘空间和一些频道宽度
And you share your hard–drive space and some bandwidth with the network,
而且所有文件基本上都是储存在你的硬盘上
and it basically stores things on your hard–drive.
这些东西都是加密的 所以你基本上不用为自己上传的东西负责
They’re encrypted, so you’re not really held accountable for what you’re serving up to the network,
所以你会在上面看到一些很不可思议的东西
and you can be serving some pretty shocking things.
上面还有一些叫作“Freesites”或“Flogs”的东西
They have these things called “Freesites” and “Flogs”.
它们是静态的 而非动态的
They are static, they are not dynamic,
所以人们得一遍又一遍地上传内容
so people have to reupload the content over and over and over again.
这就导致里面的内容都有点过时
So things kinda go out of date.
我看见的最后一条更新是好像是在2011年
The last Flog that I saw updated was at like 2011.
所以我们来看看自由网
So we’re gonna take a look at Freenet.
首先你会看到这个页面 如果你是首次安装的话
Here’s the first thing you see when you first install it,
我不喜欢这个 这是一个设置界面 没人会喜欢
and I don’t like that because it’s a setup screen, and nobody likes that.
没人会喜欢设置界面
Nobody likes setup screens.
这是另一个设置界面 更多的设置
Here’s another setup screen. More setup.
现在你要选择你想要的安全模式
Now you have to choose which security mode you want.
你会想:我想要高度保密 但我没有朋友在用Freenet
And you’re like:”I want high security, but I have no friends using Freenet.”
这是一个浏览器提示页面 告诉你不要在非匿名模式下浏览网页
Here’s a Browser Advisory telling you not to browse in non–incognito mode.
存储数据大小 带宽限制 更多的设置 你只需设置
Data store size, bandwidth limits, more setup, it’s just setup.
(设置好后)你会首先看到这个页面
And here is first page that you get to.
让人一头雾水
It’s confusing already.
这里有个索引页 我终于来到索引页了
And here is an index page, finally I’m at an index page.
我浏览了一下 没有发现任何我想要的信息
And I scroll through this thing, and I can’t find anything that I want.
然后我点了另一个索引页
So I get another index page.
我把这个下载下来 我的电脑就中毒了
I download this one, and now I have a virus on my computer.
还有个索引页 里面全是色情片
Here’s an index page that’s just offering me a bunch of porn.
这是一个干净的索引页 啊 终于
Here’s a cleaned up index page. Ah, finally.
我终于找到了想要的链接
I’ve found the links I’m looking for.
Freenet网速慢而且不好用
Freenet is slow and hard to use.
我在这里讲它 因为它是个很好的例子 用来解释一种类型不同的暗网
I put it in here because it’s a good example of a different type of darknet.
它不好用 而且我不认为它走对了路
It’s hard to use and I don’t think it’s the right direction.
但它还是存在
But it exists.
你们有多少人看Linux杂志或Boing Boing博客网站
How many of you read Linux Journal or Boing Boing?
有一些
I see a couple of hands.
你们都是激进派
You’re all extremists.
暗网非常重要
Darknets are very important,
在暴动 国际间新闻信息传递
and have played an important role in uprisings, journalism overseas,
以及政治动乱中都扮演了重要角色
and in states of political turmoil.
它们非常有用
They’re pretty useful.
在2013年斯诺登泄密事件后变得特别的有用
They became especially useful after the Snowden leaks of 2013.
特别要关注你所浏览的信息的内容
Specifically because of what the files contained,
(因为监测机构)通过XKeyscore系统来进行监测的
and that is according to the XKeyscore system.
Linux杂志或Boing Boing博客网站都是激进主义者聚集地
Linux Journal and Boing Boing are extremist forums,
(你逛这些地方)会使你成为被监测目标
and will make you a target for surveillance
如果你访问那些网站的特定链接
if you visit certain links to those sites.
可以确定地说 如果你对Xkescore不熟悉
So it’s safe to say, and if you’re unfamiliar with XKeyscore,
它是一个设计用来帮助分析师挑出监测目标的程序
it’s an SA program designed to help analysts pick targets for surveillance,
通过搜索关键词 比如邮件 邮件正文
by searching for key words such as emails, email body content,
及作为其广泛的数据收集活动里的一部分的其它类型的数据
and other types of data collected as part of its broad data collection activities.
所以可以确定的说 我读过很多关于托尔的资料
So it’s safe to say that I do a lot of reading on Tor and it’s because
我不知道你们(对托尔的看法)
I don’t know about you all,
我不想觉得自己的研究是错误的行为
I don’t want to feel like I’ve done something wrong doing research.
一般情况下 我也不想自己在上网的时候被人评判
And I just don’t want to feel judged in general while I’m on the Internet.
所以 我希望你们在看了这个讲座后能像我一样
So, I hope this got you as excited as I am
对暗网及深网感到兴奋
about darknets and the Deepweb.
当然 还有许多视频未提及的地方可以去学习和探索
And there’s a lot more than this to learn and explore as well.
但我最后想说:
But I’ll leave you as this:
对于一个处处存在监控的国家来说 暗网是很重要的生存手段
Darknets are important piece to surviving a surveillance state.
在过去的一年半时间里 我已经说得很清楚
And the past year and a half I’ve made it very clear
整个世界都是处在监控中的
that the entire world is living a surveillance state.
谢谢大家
Thank you.
[鼓掌]
[Applause]

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视频概述

不管什么东西,存在即合理。 本视频带你从另外一个角度看暗网。

听录译者

ccz

翻译译者

祐子祐

审核员

审核团H

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HfuZJVpNWR4

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