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了断需求的阴暗面

The Dark Side of Needing Closure

[音乐]
[ ♪OUTRO ]
关于做个了断
There are a lot of good things
有很多好的方面
to say about closure.
大致的定义是 当你准备从某件事中走出来的时候
Roughly defined, it’s this at-peace feeling that comes
这种平静的感觉就会到来——
when you’re ready to move on from something —
当你从分手或毕业中
and it’s a great feeling to have
中走出来的时候 这种感觉很棒
when you’re getting over a break-up or graduating.
研究甚至表明
Research even suggests that
那些对某件事感到释怀的人
those who feel closure about something
往往不会那么后悔
often have less regret about it.
但是 话虽如此
But,that being said…
寻求了断也有不好的一面
seeking closure has a dark side, too.
如果你不小心
And if you’re not careful,
强求它可能会让你做出
chasing after it could set you up
一些非常糟糕的决定
for some pretty bad decisions.
在你问之前 不
Before you ask, no,
这一集不是关于感情的反弹
this episode is not about rebound relationships.
这就是心理学家所说的需要了断
It’s about what psychologists call need for closure,
或者 认知结束的需要
or need for cognitive closure.
这是一种按比例变化的特征
It’s a trait that exists on a sliding scale,
意味着有些人的NFC值更高
meaning that some people have a higher NFC,
有些人的NFC值更低
and some people have a lower one.
你在这个范围内的位置
Where you fall on this scale
会随着情况的变化而变化
can change with the situation,
但人们往往会有
but people do tend to have
一些基本的偏好
some kind of fundamental preference.
一般来说 这种偏好取决于
And generally, that preference depends on
你对不确定性的适应程度
how comfortable you are with uncertainty.
如果你的NFC真的很低
If you have a really low NFC,
你可能更喜欢模棱两可
you probably prefer ambiguity
让事情悬而未决
and leaving things unresolved.
比如 你可能不想知道
Like,you might not want to know
那个人为什么和你分手
why that person broke up with you,
或者你可能
or you might not
不想花力气去弄清楚
feel like putting in the effort to find out.
与此同时 如果你的NFC值很高
Meanwhile,if you have a high NFC,
你很可能更喜欢可靠的 确定的答案
you most likely prefer solid, certain answers
并能迅速解决一些零散的问题
and quickly tying up loose ends.
这显然适用于恋爱关系
This can obviously apply to romantic relationships,
同时也适用于任何
but it can also apply to just about anything
涉及决策的事情
that involves decision-making.
虽然想快速或缓慢的寻求结束
And while there’s nothing wrong with having a high
都没有错
or low need for closure,
但是高NFC
a high NFC
与许多陷阱有关
is associated with a number of pitfalls.
因为如果你的目标
Because if your goal is to feel closure
是尽快了断
as fast as possible,
这可能会导致错误
that could lead to mistakes.
例如 多项研究发现
For example, multiple studies have found that
NFC值很高
a high NFC can
会导致一个人做出草率的决定——
cause someone to make rash decisions —
尤其是当他们已经
especially when they already have
对某一主题有一定了解的时候
prior knowledge about a subject.
比如 想象一下你的朋友正在
Like,imagine your friends are
争论叫哪里的外卖
arguing about where to get takeout.
如果你的NFC水平很高
If you have a high NFC,
赶紧选一个你已经知道的地方
it might feel more satisfying to just
可能会更让你满意
hurry up and pick a place you already know
而不是权衡利弊——
instead of debating the pros and cons —
即使另一个选择可能更好
even if another option could be better.
就是这个道理
And that makes sense.
如果你的目标是一个快速 令人满意的答案
If your goal is to get a quick, satisfying answer,
那么选择客观的最佳答案
it might not matter as much
就没有那么重要了
if you’re picking the objectively best choice.
这是一个相当无害的例子
That’s a pretty harmless example,
但是NFC也会发挥作用在
but this idea can also come into play
当你选择哪所大学
when you’re picking a college,
选择在哪里工作
choosing where to work,
或者决定如何在政治问题上投票
or deciding how to vote on political issues.
此外 高NFC也会导致偏差
Additionally,having a high NFC can also lead to biases,
比如对应偏差
like one called correspondence bias.
这是你根据具体情况
This is where you make a generalization
对某人进行概括
about someone based on a specific situation.
比如 如果你遇到
Like,if you met a coworker right
刚结束绩效考核的同事
after their big performance review,
你可能会认为他是
you might assume they’re just
一个非常紧张 压力很大的人
a fundamentally nervous, stressed-out person.
这并不一定是真的
Which isn’t necessarily true.
这完全不是说
Now,that totally isn’t to say that
需要快速了断是不好的
having a high need for closure is bad,
或者低需求
or that a low need is
就都是阳光和彩虹
all sunshine and rainbows.
研究确实表明
Research does suggest that
那些NFC值较低的人更不容易产生偏见
those with a low NFC tend to be less prone to bias,
更能做出深思熟虑的选择和分析
and to make more thoughtful choices and analyses,
因为他们并不急于了断
because they’re not rushing to get closure.
但是完全拒绝了断
But avoiding closure entirely can
也会导致错失良机
also lead to missed opportunities.
比如 你的Tinder对象在第一次见面后
Like,if your Tinder match didn’t text you back
没有马上回短信
right after that first meet-up,
你可能不会想知道原因
you might not want to know why.
但这些信息可能对你的
But maybe that info could help you
下一次约会有帮助
on your next first date.
或者他们只是个混蛋
Or maybe they were just a jerk.
重点是 你不知道
Point is, you don’t know,
所以你不能从经验中学习 而且
so you can’t really learn from the experience. And,
高NFC值也有一些显著的好处
a high NFC also has some significant benefits.
例如 当人们不得不在没有
For example, in situations where people have
事先了解的情境下做出选择
to make a choice using no prior knowledge,
那些NFC值高的人似乎会
those with a high NFC seem to
花更多的时间研究他们的选择
spend more time researching their options.
2015年 发表在《动机与情感》杂志
One study that examined this was published in 2015
上的一项研究对此进行了检验
in the journal Motivation and Emotion.
它让115名参与者做了一项调查
It asked 115 participants to take a survey
衡量他们了断事情的需求
that measured their need for closure,
调查内容包括他们对秩序的偏好
examining things like their preference for order
以及对模棱两可的不适
and discomfort with ambiguity.
然后 研究人员让参与者
Then,the researchers had participants
在一个正方形网格内做一个决策任务
do a decision-making task involving a grid of squares.
所有的方块一开始都是灰色
All the squares started out gray,
但是如果你点击其中一个
but if you clicked on one,
它会变成两种颜色中的一种
it would turn one of two colors.
我们的目标是找出哪个颜色是
The goal was to figure out which color was dominant
灰色下面的主导颜色
underneath all the gray,
在做出选择之前 你可以点击
and you could click as many gray boxes as you wanted
任意多的灰色框
before you made your choice.
结果显示 NFC值较高的人
The results showed that those with a higher NFC
往往会利用这一点
tended to take advantage of that:
没有惩罚
when there was no penalty,
他们在做决定之前点击了更多的框
they clicked more boxes and gathered more evidence
收集了更多的证据
before making their decision.
这表明这个群体并不一定
This suggests that this group isn’t necessarily
反对探索他们的选择
opposed to exploring their options.
如果他们没有任何
If they don’t have any
可以依赖的背景知识
background knowledge to rely on,
确定他们决定的最好办法
the best way to be certain of their decision
就是做更多的调查
is to do more research.
快速的决策很可能出现
The quick decision-making likely comes in
在他们确实有事先了解的时候
when they do have prior knowledge
他们可以从中得到一个令人满意的答案——
that they can draw from to get a satisfying answer —
基本上 这是通往结束的捷径
basically,a short-cut to that sense of closure.
在研究之外
And outside of studies,
这些影响可能意味着
these effects could mean that someone
一个高NFC值的人愿意在新的工作项目
with a high NFC is willing to put more effort
或者新班级的第一个作业
into something like a new work project,
这种事情上投入更多的努力
or the first assignment in a new class.
了解这一特点
Understanding this trait
以及你在NFC值谱中的位置
and where you fall on that NFC spectrum
可以揭示你如何做出决定
can reveal a lot about how you make decisions.
这取决于你的位置
And depending on where you rank,
它可以帮助你变得更深思熟虑
it can help you become more thoughtful,
更果断 或避免偏见
more decisive, or avoid biases.
但这并不是唯一的好处
But those aren’t the only benefits:
了解你和其他人在这个范围内的位置
Understanding where you and others fall on this scale
也能帮助你成功 避免冲突
can help you succeed and avoid conflict, too.
以2015年一项观察了
Take the results of a 2015 study
90名护士的研究结果为例
that observed 90 nurses.
研究发现 当员工的了断需求
It found that employees seemed to do best
与老板的管理风格
when their need for closure
相匹配时 他们的表现最好
matched their boss’management style.
对那些NFC值较低的人来说
For those with a low NFC,
拥有一个鼓励自主性的
having a boss that encouraged autonomy
老板与压力和倦怠呈负相关
was negatively associated with stress and burnout.
同样的情况也适用于那些拥有更多
And the same was true for those with a high NFC
自信的管理者的高NFC值的人
who had more assertive managers.
科学家们没有过多说明原因
The scientists didn’t say much about why,
但这可能因为自信
but this could be because assertiveness
让员工对自己应该做什么
gives an employee a more certain idea
以及如何做更有把握
of what they’re supposed to be doing and how.
另一方面 自主性为
Autonomy,on the other hand,
不确定性和创造性头脑风暴
allows more room for uncertainty
提供了更多的空间
and creative brainstorming.
这样的研究可以帮助组织
Research like this could help organizations
匹配导师和学员
match up mentors and mentees.
或者 他可以帮他们弄清楚
Or it could help them figure out
应该将某人分配到哪个团队
which team to assign someone to.
当然
But of course,
这项研究也不意味着
this study also doesn’ t mean
你必须像你的老板一样
you have to be exactly like your boss
才能在工作中取得成功
to succeed at work.
主要来说 它只是表明像理解
Mainly,it just shows how understanding things
像了断需求这样的事情可以帮你走出困境
like need for closure could help you out.
实际上 这适用于大多数性格特征
And really, that applies to most traits.
无论你是想在生活中还是爱情中获得成功
Whether you’re looking to succeed at life or love,
了解自己是如何运作的
having an awareness of how you operate
——关于了断 或其他任何事情——
— in regards to closure,or anything else —
都能让事情少一点压力
can make things a bit less stressful.
感谢收看本期的《心理科学秀》——
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych —
特别感谢Patreon的
and special thanks to all our patrons
所有赞助人的帮助
on Patreon for your help making it.
你的支持对我们很重要
Your support means a lot to us!
如果你想了解更多关于如何支持
If you want to learn more about how to support
免费在线心理学内容的信息
free online psychology content,
请登录patreon.com/scishow
you can go to patreon.com/scishow.
[音乐]
[ ♪OUTRO ]

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视频概述

本文介绍了什么是NFC(了断需求),介绍了不同程度的人都优缺点,以及如果根据自己的具体情况在日常生活中运用NFC值。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ywLdjuQLaQ0

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