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《糖果屋》的暗黑起源 – 译学馆
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《糖果屋》的暗黑起源

The Dark Origins of Hansel and Gretel + A BIG ANNOUNCEMENT

Fairy tales.
童话故事
We grow up on them.
我们是读着它们长大的
Fantasy stories told to us as children
童话故事在结尾会向还是孩童
with a moral or a lesson made clear at the end.
的我们阐明一个道理或教训
But those fairytales weren’t always
但童话有时并不像
as innocent as we know them to be today.
我们今天了解的那样纯真
They were actually very dark, violent allegories
它们其实上是能吓到小孩和成人的
that scared children and adults alike.
异常黑暗残暴的寓言故事
Take the cannibal witch from Hansel and Gretel.
想想《糖果屋》里的食人巫婆
The trope of the evil old lady in a creepy hut
这种住在森林中诡异小屋里
in the woods lying in wait for victims
伏击受害者的邪恶老妇人的比喻
is something we see often even outside of the fairy tale genre
即使在童话体裁之外也屡见不鲜
The gingerbread house, baking children in ovens,
姜饼屋 在烤箱里烘烤孩童
the desire for human flesh, a secluded location in the woods,
对人肉的渴望 隐匿于森林之中
while witches have been associated with these characteristics before,
之前巫婆就一直和这些特征联系在一起
it wasn’t until brothers Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm wrote it all down together
直到格林兄弟把它们整合在一起写下来
that this legendary monster was made
一个传奇般的怪物就此诞生
They collected their stories from oral folklore accounts,
他们从口述民间传说故事集中收集素材
so in order to truly understand the origins
所以在今天 为了真正了解这
of one of the most recognizable tales today,
最为人熟知的童话之一的起源
we need to look further in history
我们需要深入历史
– into the witch trials of Germany and the famines
深入那段德国女巫审判与饥荒
that led people to make some very desperate decisions.
将人们逼入绝境的历史
It’s a complex history.
这是一段复杂的历史
Also stick around after the episode
请在这集之后 继续关注
for a special Monstrum announcement!
Monstrum的特别公告
[Monstrum intro.]
[介绍Monstrum]
The original story of Hansel and Gretel
最早的《糖果屋》
was first published in Germany in 1812,
在1812年于德国出版
with the first English translation in 1884.
英语翻译版则是在1884年出版的
It tells the tale of two siblings, a boy and a girl
它讲述了
whose family has nothing left to eat.
一对家里没有多余食物的兄妹的故事
Their father, a poor woodcutter, is convinced by the mother
他们的父亲 一个贫穷的伐木工
to abandon the children in the deepest part of the forest
被妻子怂恿 要把他们扔到森林深处
to starve to death.
自生自灭
Her philosophy is that it would be better
她的想法是
to have them killed by wild animals than to watch them starve.
让孩子被野兽杀死 好过看着他们挨饿
The first attempt goes poorly.
第一次尝试失败了
Hearing their parents’ plans for them,
听到父母的算盘
Hansel sneaks out of the house to collect white stones.
韩塞尔溜出房子收集白石头
The next morning when the parents lead the siblings deep into the woods,
第二天早上当父母带着兄妹深入森林时
Hansel secretly leaves a trail of
韩塞尔悄悄地留下了一连串
these white pebbles back to their house.
指示回家方向的白石头
Hansel and Gretel are told to build a fire
父母让两兄妹生一堆火
and that their parents will come back with more wood.
说他们会带着更多木柴回来
But when darkness falls, the parents had yet to return.
但在夜幕降临后 父母还是没有回来
Luckily, the moon shines bright
幸运的是 月光明朗
and the siblings follow the pebble trail home,
兄妹循着白石头回到了家中
to the happiness of their father and disappointment of their mother.
他们的父亲很欣喜 母亲却很失落
Again food runs out,
食物又吃完了
and again the mother insists the children should be abandoned.
他们的母亲再一次坚持应该把孩子扔掉
This time, Hansel uses a small amount of bread
这一次 当他们的父母
to make another trail through the woods
再次带他们深入森林时
as their parents walk them deeper into the dense forest for the second time.
韩塞尔用一小把面包屑做记号
The parents leave and night falls again,
他们的父母离去 夜幕再次降临
but to their dismay, the children realize that
他们失望地意识到
birds have eaten their breadcrumb trail.
鸟儿已经把他们留下的面包屑吃了
After three days of wandering in the woods,
在森林里徘徊了三天后
they stumble upon a small house
他们偶然发现了一幢
built entirely of breads and cakes.
由面包和蛋糕建成的房子
The whole thing is covered with sweets, the windows made of fine sugar.
整幢房子被糖果覆盖 窗户是砂糖做的
The starving Hansel and Gretel begin eating chunks of the house
当饥饿的韩塞尔与葛雷特开始大快朵颐时
when they are startled by a little old woman
一个矮小的老妇人吓到了他们
who takes them inside
她带他们进屋
and serves them milk, fruit, and sweets.
用牛奶水果糖果招待他们
They fall asleep with full bellies.
他们饱腹后进入了梦乡
The old woman, it turns out, is a “wicked witch”
这个老妇人原来是邪恶的巫婆
who built her house to lure children in
她建了这幢房子引诱孩子
so she could kill and eat them.
这样她就能把她们杀了吃掉
When the children wake
在孩子们醒来后
she throws Hansel into a small chicken coop
她把韩塞尔扔进了鸡笼里
and she forces Gretel to do chores,
并强迫葛雷特做各种杂活
including feeding her brother to fatten him up for slaughter.
包括 喂肥她哥哥以便女巫宰杀
Hansel manages to prolong his demise
韩塞尔在巫婆来看他有没有长胖时
by poking out a chicken bone for the witch to feel
让女巫摸到其伸来的鸡骨头
when she checks his fatness.
以此为自己争取更多的时间
After four weeks, the witch tells Gretel
四周后 巫婆让葛雷特
to check the bread baking in the oven,
去检查烤箱里烘烤的面包
secretly intending to push the child in and bake her.
意图悄悄把孩子推进去烘烤她
But Gretel manages to outsmart the witch
但葛雷特最终成功反杀了巫婆
by tricking her into looking into the oven herself.
她骗巫婆自己看向烤箱
As soon as the old woman steps inside, Gretel quickly locks her in.
巫婆刚走进去 葛雷特就把她锁在里面
Gretel frees Hansel as the witch screams.
伴随着巫婆的惨叫 葛雷特救下了韩塞尔
Before they flee,
在他们逃脱前
they steal her precious stones and pearls.
她们偷走了她珍贵的宝石和珍珠
The children manage to find their way home
孩子们设法找到了回家的路
and make their father a rich man.
让他们的父亲成了一个富人
Their mother has died.
他们的母亲去世了
Abandoning children and baking an old lady in an oven.
丢弃孩子以及在烤箱里烘烤老妇人
What a pleasant story.
多么“愉快”的故事啊
What could possibly have prompted the creation of this twisted tale?
什么促使了这个扭曲故事的诞生
Well, for one thing the 1810 manuscript written by Jacob and Wilhelm,
一个原因是 1810年 Jacob和Wilhelm
constructed a version of the Hansel and Gretel story
通过Dortchen Wild所述写的脚本
from one told by Dortchen Wild,
构建了第一个版本的《糖果屋》
who would eventually become Wilhelm’s wife.
而Dortchen Wild最终成为了Wihelm的妻子
Although Dortchen grew up in Germany,
Dortchen在德国长大
she had French ancestry.
却拥有法国血统
Which might explain why the story bears quite a few similarities
这或许可以解释为何这个故事与17世纪
to the 17th century French fairytale
夏尔·佩罗创作的法国童话
“Le Petit Poucet” by Charles Perrault.
《小拇指》有一些相似之处
The story includes a poor woodcutter who cannot feed his children,
故事里有一个无法养活孩子的伐木工
so he and his wife abandon them, despite her protests.
他无视妻子反对 想抛弃孩子
The smallest of the children saves himself and his siblings
最小的孩子在森林里用小石子
from the woods once with pebbles
拯救了自己和姐姐
and tries to again with breadcrumbs.
又用面包屑故技重施
An evil cannibal ogre tries to eat them
一个邪恶食人魔在试图吃掉他们
before accidentally killing his own daughters instead.
结果误杀了自己的女儿
What I’m really interested in is where the stories diverge.
我真正感兴趣的是故事的不同之处
The change of a male ogre into a female witch for one.
比如 男性食人魔变成了女性巫婆
And why do the Grimm Brothers add in
以及 为何格林兄弟要在故事中加入
the house made from bread?
由面包做成的房子
Why would they have presented the mother
为何他们把孩子的母亲描述
as the murderous parent?
成凶恶的角色?
I have some theories,
我有一些理论
but first we need to address the element of the story
但我们要先解决故事开头的要素
that starts the whole thing off—the willing abandonment of one’s own children.
整件事的开始——丢弃孩子的意愿
In the 18th century and early 19th century,
在18世纪末19世纪初
Germany suffered from multiple famines.
德国遭受了很多饥荒的折磨
It was estimated there was a 40% population
据估计 在1708到1711年间
loss to starvation and disease between 1708-1711.
有40%的人口死于饥荒
Another famine hit in 1771-72.
饥荒在1771年到1772年再次肆虐
The Grimm brothers were born
格林兄弟在1785年和1786年
in 1785 and 1786
先后出生
so they might have felt or seen
他们可能感受到或看到了
the lingering effects of these losses,
这些损失带来的影响
or at the very least, encountered older people in their folklore interviews
至少他们在民俗访问中遇到了
who lived through these events.
经历过饥荒的老人
One of the realities of famine at this time
那场饥荒中的一大事实就是
was that children might be abandoned or even killed
那个时候 孩子可能会被遗弃甚至被杀死
because there was not enough food to go around.
因为没有更多食物可供应了
Some tried to justify these deaths,
有些人试图为那些死亡辩护
believing they helped ensure
相信自己这么做能让
the survival of the family as a whole.
整个家庭活下来
It can be argued the Hansel and Gretel story
可以说《糖果屋》
served as a way to rationalize
为这种戏剧性且可怕的措施
such dramatic, horrific measures.
提供了合理的解释
During the second half of the 18th century in Germany,
在18世纪下叶的德国
it was illegal for mothers not to report their pregnancies.
母亲们隐瞒身孕是非法的
All other individuals were obligated
其他所有人都有义务
to report any suspected pregnancies.
举报任何疑似怀孕的情况
Some women believed hiding pregnancy was necessary
一些妇女认为隐瞒身孕对她们的
for their economic, social, and even personal survival.
经济社会乃至个人的生存都是必要的
Court records from infanticide trials
这段时间杀婴案件的法庭记录
during this time support that, naming “poverty”,
支持了这一观点 称其为“贫困”
fear of punishment, and fear of social shame as the primary given motives.
害怕惩罚与社会耻辱是主要动机
Interestingly, even though both fathers and mothers
有趣的是 无论是父亲还是母亲
could be accused of murdering their children,
都可被控告谋杀自己的孩子
it was only mothers who were charged with infanticide.
但只有母亲被判有杀婴罪
All of this historical context might explain
这些历史环境可以解释为什么
why it is the mother in the 1812 Grimm story
在1812年的格林童话中
who insists on abandoning the children.
是母亲坚持要遗弃孩子
So what about the wicked witch?
那么那个邪恶的巫婆呢
Germany had its own unique interpretation of an evil cannibal monster.
德国有自己独特的对邪恶食人怪物的诠释
The “Kinderlfresser” or “child-devourer” served as
“Kinderlfresser”或是“孩童吞食者”
both a fairy tale and warning to children.
既是童话故事又是对孩子的警告
These ghoulish creatures were usually described as
这些食尸鬼通常被描述成身材高大
large, hairy men with a sack full of children
毛发浓密 背着一大袋孩子的男人
it would greedily stuff into its mouth
他会贪婪地把东西塞进嘴里
—a surefire way to keep kids obedient.
——这是让孩子听话的好方法
The female version of this monster, [Butzen-Bercht],
这个怪物的女版 “Butzen-Beecht”
resembled the stereotypical witch:
很像一个老套的巫婆
an old hunchback with a hooked nose and messy hair.
一个身形佝偻 有着鹰钩鼻 头发凌乱的老妇人
So perhaps because of this,
或许是因为这个
when people in Germany were prosecuted for witchcraft
当德国人因巫术而被起诉时
they were often also accused of kidnapping and eating children.
他们往往也会被指控绑架与吃孩童
The whole “baking the kids in the oven” aspect of Hansel and Gretel
《糖果屋》中“在烤箱里烘烤孩童”的句子
may even have its own explanation.
甚至可能有它自己的解释
In my research, I stumbled across
在研究中 我偶然发现
a series of German witch trials in the 16th century
16世纪一系列的德国女巫审判里
[Nördlingen trials] where 35 supposed witches were sentenced.
35个女巫在纳德林根审判中被判刑
Under torture, some of them confessed to child cannibalism
她们中的一些人在酷刑之下供认 自己是
and “cooking infant fresh in copper pots.”
食婴主义以及“在铜锅里烹煮婴儿”
They also even claimed
她们也承认了
“to process the dead children’s bodies and bake themn in ovens.”
“加工孩童的尸体以及在烤箱里烘烤他们”
Sound familiar?
听起来很耳熟
So we’ve talked about the witch,
我们已经谈到了女巫
but what about the house made from bread and sweets?
但由面包和糖果建成的房子如何解释
The words gingerbread house are an English translation of the German word
姜饼屋这个单词是由德语
[Pfefferkuchenhaus].
“Pfefferkuchenhaus”翻译过来的
From what I could find,
在我找的资料中
the Brothers Grimm were the first people
格林兄弟是首先在
to write this into a story with a witch.
写女巫的故事中用这个单词的人
They made the real-world gingerbread house popular.
与其说他们让现实中的姜饼屋变得受欢迎
Or rather, an opera about Hansel and Gretel did.
不如说这是一部戏剧的功劳
Overtime the house evolved, becoming an icon
随着时间的推移 这座房子逐渐成为一个标志
largely because of Engelbert Humperdinck’s operatic interpretation of the fairy tale,
主要是因为Engelbert Humperdinck
first performed in December 1893.
在1893年12月演绎的童话歌剧
The house is described made of cake and referred to as the gingerbread house.
歌剧中的房子由蛋糕建造 被称为姜饼屋
The set design for the opera reinforced the image;
歌剧的布景设计强化了这种感觉
it made something that had only existed in the imagination more concrete.
它创造了某种只存在于想象中的东西
In addition to being made from cake,
除了由蛋糕制成
the house was surrounded by a wall of gingerbread children,
这幢房子被一面姜饼人构成的墙包围着
the victims of the wicked witch.
它们是邪恶巫婆的受害者
In other words, he toned down the overt cannibalism
换言之 他淡化了明显的同类相食
and upped the aesthetic factor.
增加了审美元素
The Brothers Grimm took oral tradition
格林兄弟把口头故事
and hundreds of years of German folklore
和百年德国民间传说结合起来
and made it into one of the most popular stories of all time,
创作出一直以来最受欢迎的故事之一
that continues to frighten children to this day.
直到今天 它还在吓唬孩子们
So when you’re constructing a house from cookies and frosting
所以当你根据饼干和糖霜构思房子
and watching questionable decisions by great actors,
看到伟大演员做出有问题的决定时
remember that some things have a deeper and darker meaning.
记住有些东西有更深层更黑暗的含义

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视频概述

带你深入了解《糖果屋》背后的故事

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c_ywuNEEiVE

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