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火柴的黑历史

The Dark History of Matches

[♩INTRO]
[开场音乐]
In the mid-1800s,
19世纪中期
factories began mass-producing matches.
工厂开始大量生产火柴
Lots of them were hugely successful,
很多工厂都非常成功
and pretty soon,
不久之后
they were selling millions of matchboxes a year.
它们一年就能卖出几百万盒火柴
And then the factory workers — many of whom were young women —
后来 工厂的工人们(其中有很多是年轻女性)
started dying.
开始死亡
The symptoms would often start with a toothache and jaw pain
她们的症状通常从牙疼和下颌疼痛开始
and then progress to tissue death.
随后发展成为组织坏死
In some cases, the condition was fatal.
某些情况下 这是致命的
Doctors eventually realized the problem
医生们最终意识到
was the kind of phosphorus used in the matches at the time,
问题在于当时生产火柴所用的某种磷
so they called the condition phossy jaw.
所以他们把这种情况称为“磷毒性颌骨坏死”
But it still took decades
但直到几十年后
and governmental crack-downs for companies
政府才采取严厉措施
to switch over to another, safer type of phosphorus.
要求火柴公司使用另一种更安全的磷
These days, phossy jaw would be little more than
如果不是因为在现代医学中
a relic of history, if it weren’t for one thing:
“磷毒性颌骨坏死”也是药物副作用的一种
It’s also a side effect in modern medicine.
它现在应该成为了历史
The English chemist John Walker
人们常常认为
is frequently credited with inventing
我们所知道的摩擦火柴
the type of friction matches
是英国化学家John Walker
we would recognize, back in the 1820s.
在19世纪20年代发明的
The main ingredients in his match heads were potassium chlorate
他发明的火柴头 其主要成分是氯酸钾和硫化锑
and antimony sulfide, which ignited from the heat
当你在砂纸上划火柴时
of friction if you rubbed the match on sandpaper.
产生的热量就能让火柴燃烧起来
There were some problems with these matches, though.
然而 这种火柴也有一些问题
Sometimes they didn’t light at all…
有时它们根本没法点燃……
and because you had to really scrape them to get the flame going,
由于你必须用力刮擦火柴才能产生火焰
sometimes, the head of the match just flew off
有时 火柴头会飞起来
and there became a tiny little fireball.
变成一个小火球
Which was understandably concerning.
有这样的担心是可以理解的
Everything was flammable back then!
那时候的所有东西都是易燃的!
Within ten years, though, a bunch of people
不过 在不到十年的时间里
independently came up with an idea for a better match.
有一群人独自想出了制造更好火柴的办法
They replaced the antimony sulfide
他们用白磷取代了硫化锑
with white phosphorus one of the few different forms pure phosphorus can take
白磷是纯磷仅有的几种不同形式中的一种
which took much less heat to ignite and was therefore much more reliable.
它燃烧所需的热量更少 因此更加可靠
Soon, phosphorus match factories went into production all over the world.
很快 世界各地的磷火柴工厂投入生产
And then the case reports started rolling in:
随后这样的病例报告开始大量出现:
Factory workers were developing
工厂的工人患上了一种
what would soon become known as phossy jaw.
后来被人们称为“磷毒性颌骨坏死”的疾病
The disease led to severe infections
这种病会引起严重的感染
and caused the patient’s bones to rot
还会导致病人的骨头腐烂
often starting with the jawbone.
通常从下颌骨开始
At the time,
那时候
the only real treatment was to remove any damaged bones
唯一的治疗方法就是移除受损的骨头
and hope the infection wouldn’t spread to the brain and turn fatal.
防止感染扩散到大脑从而危及生命
It became clear that the problem
人们很清楚
had something to do with the white phosphorus they were working with.
这种病与工人们工作中接触到的白磷有关
Around one in ten workers on the factory floor
五年内 在工厂工作的工人中
developed phossy jaw within five years of exposure,
大约有十分之一患上了“磷毒性颌骨坏死”
while the office workers were unaffected.
而办公室的员工则没有受到影响
And it turns out white phosphorus is really reactive,
事实证明 白磷是非常活跃的
so it was combining with water vapor and carbon dioxide
因此 它与工人呼吸时产生的水蒸气
in the workers’ breath as well as amino acids in their saliva
二氧化碳 以及工人的唾液相结合
to create bisphosphonates.
产生了双磷酸盐
These compounds suppress a type of bone cell called osteoclasts,
这些化合物会抑制一种叫破骨细胞的骨细胞
whose job is to break down
破骨细胞的功能是
and reabsorb regular bone tissue.
分解和重新吸收正常的骨组织
So essentially, bisphosphonates keep bones from replenishing themselves.
所以从本质上讲 双磷酸盐阻止骨骼的自我修复
And that lack of replenishment
骨骼不能自我修复
is more of a problem for bones with fast cell turnover rates
这对细胞更新速度快的骨骼 比如下颌骨来说
—like the jawbone.
就是一个大问题
So in the presence of bisphosphonates,
人体内存在双磷酸盐
the jawbone would start to die.
下颌骨就会开始坏死
And about 20% of the time, so would the patient.
那时 20%的“磷毒性颌骨坏死”病人会死亡
Lower class workers around the world knew this was happening.
世界各地的底层工人都知道这种情况
So did their doctors,
他们的医生也知道
and at least some of the general public.
并且至少有一些公众也是知道的
I mean, Charles Dickens
我是说 1852年
was writing about it in 1852.
查尔斯·狄更斯就写过这种情况
But factories in the mid-19th century weren’t exactly
然而在19世纪中期
known for their concern about factory workers.
工厂老板并不关心员工
And for decades, very little changed.
几十年以来 几乎没有变化
Then, in 1888,
后来 在1888年
a match factory in London took things a step too far
伦敦的一家火柴厂越来越过分
and proved themselves to be especially terrible.
这让大家知道火柴厂是很糟糕的地方
That spurred a local socialist and activist, Annie Besant,
这促使当地的一名社会主义者和激进分子 Annie Besant
to write about the horrible conditions in the factory
写了一篇文章 文中除了提到健康风险
which, in addition to the health risk,
还提到了工厂恶劣的工作条件
also included long hours, low pay,
工人工作时间长 薪资低廉
and fines if a worker so much as dropped a match.
另外 只要火柴掉到地上 工人就会被罚款
In response,
作为回应
the owners of the factory tried to get the workers to sign a statement
工厂的老板让工人们签署一份声明
saying they were perfectly happy with life there.
表示他们对工厂的生活非常满意
They refused, and when one of the workers was fired,
工人拒绝了 当其中一名工人被解雇后
all fourteen hundred of them went on what would
该工厂的全部1400名员工开始罢工
become known as the Matchstick Girls’ Strike.
人们称之为“火柴女孩的罢工”
The strike finally called the world’s attention to the phossy jaw problem.
这场罢工终于引起世界对“磷毒性颌骨坏死”问题的关注
And it just so happened there was another,
碰巧在1850年左右
safer way to make matches, which was discovered around 1850.
人们找到了另一种更安全的方法来生产火柴
The key is red phosphorus,
这种方法的关键就是红磷
another form of pure phosphorus.
它是纯磷的另一种形式
Its atoms are arranged differently, which means
它的原子排列与白磷不同
it doesn’t react chemically the same way white phosphorus does
也就是说它的化学反应也和白磷不同
so it doesn’t cause phossy jaw
它不会导致“磷毒性颌骨坏死”
and therefore isn’t dangerous to factory workers.
因此它对工人没有危害
There is another benefit to red phosphorus, too:
红磷还有另一个好处:
You can use it to make safety matches
人们可以用它来制造安全火柴
these matches only light if you strike them on the box.
当你拿着火柴在盒子上划动的时候 它才会点燃
In safety matches, the match itself doesn’t actually contain any phosphorus.
实际上 这种火柴本身是不含磷的
Instead, the box is coated in red phosphorus and powdered glass,
而是在火柴盒上覆盖着红磷和玻璃粉
while the match head’s ingredient is usually potassium chlorate.
火柴头的成分一般是氯酸钾
When you strike the match on the box,
当你在火柴盒上划动火柴时
the friction with the powdered glass generates enough heat
火柴与玻璃粉的摩擦会产生足够的热量
to turn a tiny amount of the red phosphorus into white phosphorus.
将小部分的红磷转化为白磷
Then, this miniscule amount of white phosphorus ignites
随后 这极少部分的白磷被点燃
those are the sparks you see as you strike the match
这就是你划火柴时看到的火花
and the heat from that ignites
白磷燃烧产生的热量
the potassium chlorate on the match head.
点燃了火柴头的氯酸钾
And, finally, you get the flame.
最后便得到了火焰
Now, despite all this,
尽管如此
it took a long time for red phosphorus matches to go mainstream.
红磷火柴在很久之后才成为主流
That’s partly because it wasn’t until 1906 that
一部分原因是 直到1906年
multiple countries came together and signed a treaty
多个国家才联合签署了
banning white phosphorus matches.
禁止白磷火柴的协议
Even then, the US was not among the signatories
而那时美国并不是签署国之一
so they kept making them for another twenty-five years.
所以美国又继续生产了25年的白磷火柴
Now, there are also other industries that use white phosphorus,
现在仍然有其他行业使用白磷
so changing over matches didn’t completely eliminate its use.
火柴的改进并没有使白磷完全被禁用
Still, as match factories switched to red phosphorus,
由于火柴厂改用红磷生产火柴
the number of new cases of phossy jaw dropped dramatically.
所以 新发现的“磷毒性颌骨坏死”病例数量急剧下降
At least,until around 2003.
至少2003年以前是这样的
See, in the 1990s,
20世纪90年代
doctors started prescribing bisphosphonates
医生开始给病人开双磷酸盐类药物
to treat certain types of bone disease like,
用来治疗某些骨骼疾病
metastatic cancers that spread to the bone from other parts of the body.
比如从身体其他部位扩散到骨骼的转移性癌症
Researchers still aren’t totally sure how bisphosphonates help,
研究人员仍不确定双磷酸盐类药物有什么作用
but they think it has something to do
但他们认为这类药物
with keeping healthy bone cells
能够防止健康的骨细胞
from being replaced by damaged ones.
被受损的骨细胞替代
But then, the jawbones of some of the patients started dying.
但后来 有些病人的下颌骨开始坏死
Scientists quickly made the connection
科学家们很快将该现象
to the phossy jaw of the late nineteenth century,
和19世纪末的“磷毒性颌骨坏死”联系起来
and realized the tissue death was a side effect of the medication.
并意识到 下颌骨坏死是药物的副作用
So, they decided to
所以 他们决定
call this new disease bis-phossy jaw.
将这种新的疾病命名为“双磷毒性颌骨坏死”
And it is still a thing.
这只是一方面
For a lot of patients,
对很多病人来说
the benefits of bisphosphonates
双磷酸盐的益处
outweigh the risk of developing bis-phossy jaw,
多于患上“双磷毒性颌骨坏死”的风险
so they’re still being prescribed.
所以医生还在开这种药
And thanks in part to the match factory workers way back when,
某种程度上 多亏以前火柴厂的工人
we know a lot about what symptoms to look out for
我们才知道当某人患上“磷毒性颌骨坏死”的时候
when someone is at risk.
都有哪些症状
It may have taken a long time
也许经过了很长一段时间
for the world to recognize the extent
全世界的人才意识到
of the exploitation of those factory workers,
那些工人遭到了多大程度的剥削
but over 130 years later,
但130多年后
the legacy of the matchstick girls lives on.
火柴女孩的精神依然存在
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow!
感谢观看这集《科学秀》
If you enjoyed this stroll through science history,
如果你喜欢徜徉在科学历史中
you might also like our episode
你可能也会喜欢那一期
on that time the US government poisoned booze.
关于美国政府在酒里下毒的节目
And maybe consider clicking on that subscribe button…
也许你会考虑点击订阅的按钮……
We put out a new video every day,
我们每天都会上传一个新的视频
so you can count on us to feed your hunger for science knowledge.
我们可以满足你对知识的渴望
[♩OUTRO]
[结束音乐]

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视频概述

本视频讲述了火柴的成分是如何演变的。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Spencer

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5dY522lY4Fw

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