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混搭用药的危险 – 译学馆
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混搭用药的危险

The dangers of mixing drugs - Céline Valéry

对于疾病 要习惯于两种处理方式——
一是治疗 二是至少别让它更严重
Which of these three people is doing something risky?
这三个人当中有谁在做危险的事?
Is it the one who takes their cholesterol medication with grapefruit juice?
是这个用葡萄柚汁送服胆固醇药物的人吗?
The one who takes Acetaminophen pain relievers
还是这个在出去喝酒前
for a sore ankle before going out for drinks?
服用乙酰氨基酚止痛药来缓解脚踝疼痛的人?
Or the one who’s on a blood-thinning medication
抑或是这个服用血液稀释药物
and takes an aspirin for a headache?
还同时服用阿斯匹林治疗头痛的人?
Actually, all of them are.
事实上 他们都在做危险的事
Each has inadvertently created a drug interaction that could,
他们都在不经意间使药物产生了相互作用
in extreme cases, lead to kidney failure;
在极端情况下 这会引起肾衰竭
liver damage; or internal bleeding.
肝损伤或内出血
Drug interactions happen when the combination of a drug
一种药物和另一种物质结合时产生的效果
with another substance causes different effects
不同于单独使用它们时产生的效果
than either would individually.
这就是药物的相互作用
Foods, herbal supplements, legal drugs,
食物 草药补充剂 合法药物
and illicit substances can all cause drug interactions.
以及违禁物品都能引起药物相互作用
Most drug interactions fall into two categories.
药物相互作用大多分为两类
Some take place when two substances’ effects
有一些是两种物质的作用
influence each other directly.
直接相互影响时产生的
In other cases, one substance effects
还有一些是一种物质
how the body processes another,
影响了身体处理另一种物质的方式
like how it is absorbed, metabolized, or transported around the body.
比如它在体内如何被消化 代谢和传输
Blood thinners and aspirin, for example, have similar effects that
比如血液稀释剂和阿斯匹林 其作用相似
become dangerous when combined.
但同时服用就会有危险
Both prevent blood clots from forming—
它们都能防止血栓形成——
blood thinners by preventing the formation of the clotting factors
血液稀释剂通过阻止凝血因子的形成
that hold clots together,
从而防止血栓形成
and aspirin by preventing blood cells from clumping into
阿司匹林通过阻止血细胞凝结成块
groups that become clots.
来防止血栓形成
Individually, these effects are usually safe,
分开服用 它们的药效通常是安全的
but taken together, they can prevent blood clotting
但同时服用就会有危险
to a dangerous extent, possibly causing internal bleeding.
它们会过度防止血栓形成 有可能导致内出血
While blood thinners and aspirin are generally harmless
分开服用血液稀释剂和阿司匹林
when taken individually,
一般是无损害的
interactions where one substance exacerbates the effects
但是 两种药物相结合
of another can also take place between drugs
其中一种药物增强了另一种的效果
that are independently harmful.
也会产生相互作用
Cocaine and heroin are each dangerous,
可卡因和海洛因都是危险的
and those dangers compound when the two drugs are combined—
这两种毒品混合在一起就更危险了
even though their behavioral effects may feel like they cancel each other out.
尽管人们认为它们的作用会相互抵消
Cocaine is a stimulant,
可卡因是一种兴奋剂
and many of its effects, like increased heart rate,
它产生的许多作用 比如心率加快
cause the body to need more oxygen.
会导致人体对氧气的需求增加
But heroin, a depressant, slows breathing—
但海洛因是一种镇静剂 它会减慢呼吸
reducing the body’s oxygen supply just when it needs more.
在身体需要更多氧气时
just when it needs more.
它会减少身体的氧气供应
This combination strains the organs
它们的结合加重了器官的负担
and can cause respiratory failure and death.
可能会导致呼吸衰竭以及死亡
The interaction between grapefruit juice and certain medications
葡萄柚汁和某些降胆固醇药物
in class of cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins,
(即他汀类药物)之间的相互作用
has to do with drug metabolism.
与药物代谢有关
The liver produces enzymes, molecules that
肝脏产生酶这种分子
facilitate the breakdown of substances that enter the body.
它能帮助分解进入体内的物质
Enzymes can both activate drugs, by breaking them down
酶既可以通过将药物从复杂的分子
into their therapeutic ingredients from more complex molecules,
分解为治疗成分来激活它们
and deactivate them, by breaking
也可以通过将有害的化合物
harmful compounds down into harmless metabolites.
分解为无害的代谢物来使药物失活
There are many, many different enzymes,
酶的种类繁多
each of which has a binding site that fits a specific molecule.
每种酶都有适合某个特定分子的结合位点
Grapefruit binds to the same enzyme as statins,
葡萄柚与他汀类药物在同一种酶里结合
making less of that enzyme available to break down statins.
减少了能够分解他汀类药物的酶
So combining the two means that a greater concentration of the drug
所以它们的结合就意味着药物的浓度加大
stays in the bloodstream for a longer period of time,
且药物将在血液中停留更长的时间
potentially causing kidney failure.
可能会引起肾衰竭
Alcohol can also alter the function of the enzyme that breaks down Acetaminophen,
酒精也能改变分解对乙酰氨基酚的酶的功能
the active ingredient in pain relievers like Tylenol and paracetamol.
对乙酰氨基酚是泰诺 扑热息痛等止痛药的有效成分
When someone takes Acetaminophen,
当人们服用对乙酰氨基酚时
some of it is converted into a toxic substance.
其中有一些成分会转化为有毒物质
At the recommended dose,
按照规定剂量服用
there isn’t usually enough of this toxic byproduct to cause harm.
这些有毒物质不足以对人体产生危害
But heavy drinking can alter enzyme activity
但过量饮酒会改变酶的活性
so more of that byproduct is produced, potentially causing liver damage
即使是与安全剂量的对乙酰氨基酚一起服用
even with what’s usually a safe dose of acetominophen.
也会产生更多的有毒物质 从而引起肝损伤
Meanwhile, the herbal remedy Saint John’s Wort
另外 草药圣约翰麦汁
increases the liver’s production of a particular enzyme.
会使肝脏中一种特殊的酶增加
That means the drugs this enzyme is responsible for breaking down get metabolized faster—
也就是说 分解这种药物的酶会代谢得更快
sometimes too fast,
有时太快了
before they can have their therapeutic effects.
以至于药物在发挥药效之前就被分解了
In spite of the dizzying number of possible interactions,
尽管可能发生的药物相互作用多得惊人
most of the dangerous interactions with
但大多数与常用药有关的危险相互作用
commonly used drugs are well known.
是众所周知的
And new developments in science are helping u
科学的新发展帮助我们
s keep better track of drug interactions than ever.
更详尽地了解药物的相互作用
Some researchers are developing AI programs that can predict
一些研究人员正在开发人工智能程序
the side effects of drug interactions before they occur,
运用体内蛋白质相互作用的信息
using information about the landscape of protein interactions within your body.
对药物相互作用产生的负面影响进行预测
For the new drugs that are being developed all the time,
对于一直在研发的新药
supercomputers are being used
人们在其研发过程中
to find potential interactions
就会运用超级计算机
while those drugs are still in development.
来寻找药物间潜在的相互作用

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视频概述

药物的相互作用。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Spencer

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aDsW8tx1KsY

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