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单一故事的危险性 – 译学馆
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单一故事的危险性

The danger of a single story | Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

我是个说书之人
I’m a storyteller.
在这里 我想和大家分享一些我本人的故事
And I would like to tell you a few personal stories
一些关于所谓的“单一故事的危险性”的经历
about what I like to call “the danger of the single story.”
我成长在尼日利亚东部的一所大学校园里
I grew up on a university campus in eastern Nigeria.
我母亲常说我从两岁起就开始读书
My mother says that I started reading at the age of two,
不过我觉得“四岁起”比较
although I think four is probably close to the truth.
接近事实 所以我从小就开始读书
So I was an early reader,
读的是英国和美国的儿童书籍
and what I read were British and American children’s books.
我也是从小就开始写作
I was also an early writer,
当我在七岁那年
and when I began to write, at about the age of seven,
开始强迫我可怜的母亲阅读我用铅笔写好的故事
stories in pencil with crayon illustrations
外加上蜡笔描绘的插图时
that my poor mother was obligated to read,
我所写的故事正如我所读到的故事那般
I wrote exactly the kinds of stories I was reading:
我故事里的人物们都是白皮肤、
All my characters were white and blue-eyed,
蓝眼睛的常在雪中嬉戏
they played in the snow,
吃着苹果
they ate apples,
(笑声)
(Laughter)
而且他们经常讨论天气
and they talked a lot about the weather,
讨论太阳出来时 一切都多么美好
how lovely it was that the sun had come out.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我一直写着这样故事 虽然说我当时住在尼日利亚
Now, this despite the fact that I lived in Nigeria.
并且从来没有出过国
I had never been outside Nigeria.
虽然说我们从来没见过雪;虽然说我们实际上只能吃到芒果;
We didn’t have snow, we ate mangoes,
虽然说我们从不讨论天气
and we never talked about the weather,
因为根本没这个必要
because there was no need to.
我故事里的人物们也常喝姜汁啤酒
My characters also drank a lot of ginger beer,
因为我所读的那些英国书中的人物们
because the characters in the British books I read
常喝姜汁啤酒
drank ginger beer.
虽然说我当时完全不知道姜汁啤酒是什么东西
Never mind that I had no idea what ginger beer was.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
事隔多年 我一直都怀揣着一个
And for many years afterwards,
深切的渴望 想尝尝姜汁啤酒的味道
I would have a desperate desire to taste ginger beer.
不过这要另当别论了
But that is another story.
这一切所表明的
What this demonstrates, I think,
正是在一个个的故事面前
is how impressionable and vulnerable we are
我们是何等得脆弱 何等得易受影响
in the face of a story,
尤其当我们还是孩子的时候
particularly as children.
因为我当时读的所有书中 只有外国人物
Because all I had read were books in which characters were foreign,
我因而坚信:书要想被称为书
I had become convinced that books
就必须有外国人在里面
by their very nature had to have foreigners in them
就必须是关于 我无法亲身体验的事情
and had to be about things with which I could not personally identify.
而这一切都在我接触了非洲书籍之后发生了改变
Now, things changed when I discovered African books.
当时非洲书并不多
There weren’t many of them available,
而且它们也不像国外书籍那样好找 不过因为Chinua
and they weren’t quite as easy to find as the foreign books.
Achebe和Camara Laye之类的作家
But because of writers like Chinua Achebe and Camara Laye,
我思维中对于文学的概念 产生了质的改变
I went through a mental shift in my perception of literature.
我意识到像我这样的人──
I realized that people like me,
有着巧克力般的肤色
girls with skin the color of chocolate,
和永远无法梳成马尾辫的蜷曲头发的女孩子们──
whose kinky hair could not form ponytails,
也可以出现在文学作品中的
could also exist in literature.
我开始撰写我所熟知的事物
I started to write about things I recognized.
但这并不是说我不喜爱那些美国和英国书籍
Now, I loved those American and British books I read.
恰恰相反 那些书籍激发了我的想象力 为我开启了新的世界
They stirred my imagination. They opened up new worlds for me.
但随之而来的后果就是
But the unintended consequence
我不知道原来像我这样的人
was that I did not know that people like me
也是可以存在于文学作品之中的
could exist in literature.
而与非洲作家的结缘
So what the discovery of African writers did for me was this:
则是将我从对于书籍的单一故事(认识)中
It saved me from having a single story of what books are.
拯救了出来 我来自一个传统的尼日利亚中产家庭
I come from a conventional, middle-class Nigerian family.
我的父亲是一名教授
My father was a professor.
我的母亲是一名大学管理员
My mother was an administrator.
因此我们和很多其他家庭一样
And so we had, as was the norm,
都会从附近的村庄中雇佣一些帮手来打理家事
live-in domestic help, who would often come from nearby rural villages.
在我八岁那一年 我们家招来了一位新的男仆
So, the year I turned eight, we got a new house boy.
他的名字叫做Fide
His name was Fide.
我父亲只告诉我们说 Fide是来自一个非常穷苦的家庭
The only thing my mother told us about him was that his family was very poor.
我的母亲会时不时地将山芋、大米 还有我们穿旧的衣服送到他的家里
My mother sent yams and rice, and our old clothes, to his family.
每当我剩下晚饭的时候 我的母亲就会说:
And when I didn’t finish my dinner, my mother would say,
“吃干净你的食物!难道你不知道嘛?像Fide家这样的人可是一无所有的 ”
“Finish your food! Don’t you know? People like Fide’s family have nothing.”
因此我对Fide的家人充满了怜悯
So I felt enormous pity for Fide’s family.
后来的一个星期六 我们去Fide的村庄拜访
Then one Saturday, we went to his village to visit,
她的母亲向我们展示了一个精美别致的草篮──
and his mother showed us a beautifully patterned basket
是Fide的哥哥用染过色的酒椰叶编织的
made of dyed raffia that his brother had made.
我当时完全被震惊了
I was startled.
我从来没有想过Fide的家人
It had not occurred to me that anybody in his family
居然有亲手制造东西的才能
could actually make something.
在那之前 我对Fide家唯一的了解就是他们是何等的穷苦
All I had heard about them was how poor they were,
正因为如此 他们在我脑中的印象 只是一个字──“穷”
so that it had become impossible for me to see them as anything else but poor.
他们的贫穷是我赐予他们
Their poverty was my single story of them.
的单一故事 多年之后 在我离开尼日利亚前往美国读大学的时候
Years later, I thought about this when I left Nigeria
我又想到了这件事
to go to university in the United States.
我那时19岁
I was 19.
我的美国室友当时完全对我感到十分惊讶了
My American roommate was shocked by me.
她问我是从哪里学得讲一口如此流利的英语 而当我告知她尼日利亚
She asked where I had learned to speak English so well,
刚巧是以英语作为官方语言的时候
and was confused when I said that Nigeria
她的脸上则是写满了茫然
happened to have English as its official language.
她问我是否可以给她听听她所谓的“部落音乐”
She asked if she could listen to what she called my “tribal music,”
可想而知 当我拿出玛丽亚凯莉的磁带时
and was consequently very disappointed
她是何等的失望
when I produced my tape of Mariah Carey.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
她断定我不知道如何使用
She assumed that I did not know how to use a stove.
电炉 我猛然意识到:
What struck me was this:
在她见到我之间 她就已经对我充满了怜悯之心
She had felt sorry for me even before she saw me.
她对我这个非洲人的预设心态
Her default position toward me, as an African,
是一种充满施恩与好意的怜悯之情
was a kind of patronizing, well-meaning pity.
我那位室友的脑中有一个关与非洲的单一故事
My roommate had a single story of Africa:
一个充满了灾难的单一故事
a single story of catastrophe.
在这个单一故事中 非洲人是完全没有可能
In this single story,
在任何方面和她有所相似的;
there was no possibility of Africans being similar to her in any way,
没有可能接受到比怜悯更复杂的感情;
no possibility of feelings more complex than pity,
没有可能以一个平等的人类的身份与她沟通
no possibility of a connection as human equals.
我不得不强调 在我前往美国之前
I must say that before I went to the U.S.,
我从来没有有意识地把自己当作个非洲人
I didn’t consciously identify as African.
但在美国的时候 每当人们提到“非洲”时 大家都回转向我
But in the U.S., whenever Africa came up, people turned to me.
虽然说我对纳米比亚之类的地方
Never mind that I knew nothing about places like Namibia.
一无所知 但我渐渐的开始接受这个新的身份
But I did come to embrace this new identity,
现在很多时候我都是把自己当作一个非洲人来看待
and in many ways I think of myself now as African.
不过当人们把非洲当作一个国家来讨论的时候 我还是觉得挺反感的
Although I still get quite irritable when Africa is referred to as a country,
最近的一次例子就发生在两天前
the most recent example being my otherwise wonderful flight
我从拉各斯搭乘航班
from Lagos two days ago,
旅程原本相当愉快 直到广播里开始介绍在“印度、非洲以及其他国家”
in which there was an announcement on the Virgin flight
所进行的慈善事业
about the charity work in “India, Africa and other countries.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
当我以一名非洲人的身份在美国度过几年之后
So, after I had spent some years in the U.S. as an African,
我开始理解我那位室友当时对我的反应
I began to understand my roommate’s response to me.
如果我不是在尼日利亚长大
If I had not grown up in Nigeria,
如果我对非洲的一切认识 都来自于大众流行的影像
and if all I knew about Africa were from popular images,
我相信我眼中的非洲也同样是充满了 美丽的地貌、
I too would think that Africa was a place of beautiful landscapes,
美丽的动物、
beautiful animals,
以及一群难以理解的人们
and incomprehensible people,
进行着毫无意义的战争、死于艾滋和贫穷、
fighting senseless wars, dying of poverty and AIDS,
无法为自己辩护
unable to speak for themselves
并且等待着一位慈悲的、 白种的外国人的救赎
and waiting to be saved by a kind, white foreigner.
我看待非洲的方式将会和我儿时
I would see Africans in the same way that I,
看待Fide一家的方式是一样的
as a child, had seen Fide’s family.
我认为 关于非洲的这个单一故事从根本上来自于西方的文学
This single story of Africa ultimately comes, I think, from Western literature.
这是来自伦敦商人John Locke的一段话 他在1561年的时候
Now, here is a quote from the writing of a London merchant called John Locke,
曾游历非洲西部
who sailed to west Africa in 1561
并且为他的航行做了番很有趣的记录
and kept a fascinating account of his voyage.
他先是把黑色的非洲人称为 “没有房子的野兽”
After referring to the black Africans as “beasts who have no houses,”
随后又写到:“他们也是一群无头脑的人
he writes, “They are also people without heads,
他们的嘴和眼睛都长在了他们的胸口上
having their mouth and eyes in their breasts.”
” 我每次读到这一段的时候 都不禁大笑起来
Now, I’ve laughed every time I’ve read this.
JohnLocke的想象力真的是让人敬佩
And one must admire the imagination of John Locke.
但关于他这段作品极其重要的一点是
But what is important about his writing
它昭示着西方社会讲述非洲故事
is that it represents the beginning
的一个传统
of a tradition of telling African stories in the West:
在这个传统中 撒哈拉以南的非洲充满了消极、
A tradition of Sub-Saharan Africa as a place of negatives,
差异以及黑暗
of difference, of darkness,
是伟大的诗人Rudyard Kipling笔下 所形容的“半恶魔、
of people who, in the words of the wonderful poet Rudyard Kipling,
半孩童”的奇异人种
are “half devil, half child.”
正因此 我开始意识到我的那位美国室友
And so, I began to realize that my American roommate
一定在她成长的过程中
must have throughout her life
看过并且听过关于这个单一故事的
seen and heard different versions of this single story,
不同版本就如同之前一位
as had a professor,
曾经批判我的小说缺乏“真实的非洲感”的
who once told me that my novel was not “authentically African.”
教授一样 话说我倒是甘愿承认我的小说
Now, I was quite willing to contend
有几处写的不好的地方
that there were a number of things wrong with the novel,
有几处败笔
that it had failed in a number of places,
但我很难相像我的小说
but I had not quite imagined that it had failed
竟然会缺乏“真实的非洲感”事实上
at achieving something called African authenticity.
我甚至不知道“真实的非洲感” 到底是个什么东西
In fact, I did not know what African authenticity was.
那位教授跟我说我书中的人物 都和他太接近了
The professor told me that my characters were too much like him,
都是受过教育的中产人物
an educated and middle-class man.
我的人物会开车
My characters drove cars.
他们没有受到饥饿的困扰正因此
They were not starving.
他们缺少了真实的非洲感
Therefore they were not authentically African.
我在这里不得不指出
But I must quickly add that I too am just as guilty
我本人也常常被单一的故事蒙蔽双眼
in the question of the single story.
几年前 我从美国探访墨西哥
A few years ago, I visited Mexico from the U.S.
当时美国的政治气候比较紧张
The political climate in the U.S. at the time was tense,
关于移民的辩论一直在进行着
and there were debates going on about immigration.
而在美国 “移民”和“墨西哥人”
And, as often happens in America,
常常被当作同义词来使用
immigration became synonymous with Mexicans.
关于墨西哥人的故事是源源不绝
There were endless stories of Mexicans
讲的都是 欺诈医疗系统、
as people who were fleecing the healthcare system,
偷渡边境、
sneaking across the border,
在边境被捕之类的事情
being arrested at the border, that sort of thing.
我还记得当我到达瓜达拉哈拉(墨西哥西部一城市)的第一天
I remember walking around on my first day in Guadalajara,
看着人们前往工作
watching the people going to work,
在市集上吃着墨西哥卷、
rolling up tortillas in the marketplace,
抽着烟、
smoking, laughing.
大笑着 我记得我刚看到这一切时是何等的惊讶
I remember first feeling slight surprise.
但随后我的心中便充满了羞耻感
And then, I was overwhelmed with shame.
我意识到我当时完全被沉浸在 媒体上关于墨西哥人的报道
I realized that I had been so immersed in the media coverage of Mexicans
以致于他们在我的脑中幻化成一个单一的个体──
that they had become one thing in my mind,
卑贱的移民
the abject immigrant.
我完全相信了关于墨西哥人的单一故事
I had bought into the single story of Mexicans
对此我感到无比的羞愧
and I could not have been more ashamed of myself.
这就是创造单一故事的经过
So that is how to create a single story,
将一群人一遍又一遍地
show a people as one thing,
呈现为一个事物 并且只是一个事物
as only one thing,
时间久了
over and over again,
他们就变成了
and that is what they become.
那个食物 而说到单一的故事
It is impossible to talk about the single story
就自然而然地要讲到权力
without talking about power.
这个问题 每当我想到这个世界的权力结构的时候
There is a word, an Igbo word,
我都会想起一个伊博语中的单词 叫做“nkali”
that I think about whenever I think about the power structures of the world,
它是
and it is “nkali.”
一个名词 可以在大意上被翻译成 “比另一个人强大”
It’s a noun that loosely translates to “to be greater than another.”
就如同我们的经济和政治界一样
Like our economic and political worlds,
我们所讲的故事也是建立在 nkali的原则上的
stories too are defined by the principle of nkali:
这些故事是怎样被讲述的、
How they are told, who tells them,
由谁来讲述、何时被讲述、有多少故事被讲述
when they’re told, how many stories are told,
这一切都取决于权力
are really dependent on power.
所谓的权力 不单单是讲述一个关于别人的故事的能力
Power is the ability not just to tell the story of another person,
而是将那个故事转变为关于那个人的决定性故事
but to make it the definitive story of that person.
巴勒斯坦诗人Mourid Barghouti曾经写到:
The Palestinian poet Mourid Barghouti writes
如果你想剥夺一群人的权利
that if you want to dispossess a people,
最简单的办法就是讲述一个关于他们的故事
the simplest way to do it is to tell their story
并且从“第二点”开始讲起
and to start with, “secondly.”
从印第安土著人的弓箭讲起
Start the story with the arrows of the Native Americans,
而不是英国人的侵占
and not with the arrival of the British,
整个故事将变得完全不同
and you have an entirely different story.
讲述一个故事 从非洲国家的失败谈起
Start the story with the failure of the African state,
而不是殖民者瓜分创建这些非洲国家的过程
and not with the colonial creation of the African state,
整个故事将变得完全不同
and you have an entirely different story.
我最近刚刚在一个大学做了一篇讲座
I recently spoke at a university
一个学生对我说:
where a student told me that it was such a shame
非常可悲尼日利亚的男人都和我书中的父亲角色一样
that Nigerian men were physical abusers
都是施暴者
like the father character in my novel.
我告诉他我最近刚刚读了一本小说 叫做《 美国精神狂魔》
I told him that I had just read a novel called “American Psycho” —
(笑声)
(Laughter)
对此我也感到很惋惜
— and that it was such a shame
美国青年都是连环杀手
that young Americans were serial murderers.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
(掌声)当然了
(Applause)
那是我一时的气话
Now, obviously I said this in a fit of mild irritation.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我绝不会认为
But it would never have occurred to me to think
仅仅因为我对了一本 以连环杀手为主角的小说
that just because I had read a novel in which a character was a serial killer
他便可以代表 所有的美国人
that he was somehow representative of all Americans.
这并不是因为我比那位学生出色
This is not because I am a better person than that student,
而是因为 美国的文化以及经济雄厚实力
but because of America’s cultural and economic power,
使得我有机会掌握了关于美国的多重故事
I had many stories of America.
我读过泰勒、厄普代克、斯坦贝克以及盖茨克尔因此
I had read Tyler and Updike and Steinbeck and Gaitskill.
我对美国的了解并不是来自单一的故事
I did not have a single story of America.
当我多年前听说作家们
When I learned, some years ago,
必须有极其不幸的童年
that writers were expected to have had really unhappy childhoods
才能取得成功的时候
to be successful,
我开始思考如何捏造一些 我父母对我做过的恶行
I began to think about how I could invent horrible things my parents had done to me.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
但是事实 我的童年非常愉快
But the truth is that I had a very happy childhood,
充满了欢笑和关爱 也有着一个非常亲密的家庭
full of laughter and love, in a very close-knit family.
但我也有在难民营中死去的祖父
But I also had grandfathers who died in refugee camps.
我的表兄Polle因为无法得到充足的医疗而去世
My cousin Polle died because he could not get adequate healthcare.
我最亲近的朋友之一Okoloma死于一场飞机失事
One of my closest friends, Okoloma, died in a plane crash
因为我们的消防车中没有水
because our fire trucks did not have water.
我在不重视教育、充满压迫性的
I grew up under repressive military governments
军权政府下长大
that devalued education,
以致于我的父母有时根本拿不到他们的工资因此
so that sometimes, my parents were not paid their salaries.
年少的我目睹果酱从早餐桌上消失
And so, as a child, I saw jam disappear from the breakfast table,
随后黄油也消失了
then margarine disappeared,
面包变得无比昂贵
then bread became too expensive,
牛奶需要限量供应
then milk became rationed.
最重要的是 政治恐惧
And most of all, a kind of normalized political fear
成了我们生活中习以为常
invaded our lives.
的一部分 所有这些故事都塑造了我
All of these stories make me who I am.
但如果我仅仅关注这些悲观的故事
But to insist on only these negative stories
那么我就简化了我的生命历程
is to flatten my experience
并且忽视了许多其他 同样塑造了我的故事
and to overlook the many other stories that formed me.
单一的故事衍生单一的传统典型
The single story creates stereotypes,
而这些以偏概全的想法所存在的问题 并不是在于它们不真实
and the problem with stereotypes is not that they are untrue,
而是在于它们不完整
but that they are incomplete.
它们将一个故事转变成了唯一的故事
They make one story become the only story.
当然了 非洲大陆充满了灾难
Of course, Africa is a continent full of catastrophes:
有的灾难 比如刚果猖獗的强奸 是无比巨大的;
There are immense ones, such as the horrific rapes in Congo
而有的现实 比如尼日利亚5千人申请一个工作职位
and depressing ones,
则更让人无比的压抑
such as the fact that 5,000 people apply for one job vacancy in Nigeria.
但与此同时 非洲大陆也有许多和灾难不相关的故事
But there are other stories that are not about catastrophe,
谈论这些故事也是相当重要的 也是同等重要的
and it is very important, it is just as important, to talk about them.
我一直都觉得要想充分理解
I’ve always felt that it is impossible
一个地区、
to engage properly with a place or a person
一个民族就必须充分理解和那个地区、那个民族相关的所有故事
without engaging with all of the stories of that place and that person.
而单一故事的结果就是:
The consequence of the single story is this:
它夺走了人们的尊严
It robs people of dignity.
它使得我们难以意识到人与人之间的平等
It makes our recognition of our equal humanity difficult.
它强调我们之间的不同 而不是我们之间的相同
It emphasizes how we are different rather than how we are similar.
如果在我的墨西哥之行开始前
So what if before my Mexican trip,
我去同时聆听移民辩论美墨两边的论点
I had followed the immigration debate from both sides,
结果会是怎样呢?
the U.S. and the Mexican?
如果我的母亲告诉我们Fide一家虽然穷
What if my mother had told us that Fide’s family was poor
但是很努力结果会是怎样呢?
and hardworking?
如果我们有一个非洲电视台在全世界播报关于非洲的不同故事
What if we had an African television network
结果会是怎样呢?
that broadcast diverse African stories all over the world?
播报尼日利亚作家奇努阿·阿契贝所谓的 “平衡的故事”
What the Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe calls “a balance of stories.”
我杰出的尼日利亚出版商Mukta Bakaray
What if my roommate knew about my Nigerian publisher,
是个让人难以置信的男人
Muhtar Bakare,
他离弃了原本在银行的工作 去追逐自己的理想 成立了个出版社
a remarkable man who left his job in a bank
如果我的室友听说过他 结果又会是怎样呢?
to follow his dream and start a publishing house?
世俗告诉Mukta Bakaray:尼日利亚人是不读文学作品的
Now, the conventional wisdom was that Nigerians don’t read literature.
他不这样认为
He disagreed.
他觉得尼日利亚人会读书、想读书
He felt that people who could read, would read,
但前提是这些书价格不能太昂贵 并且要普及到人民大众
if you made literature affordable and available to them.
在他发布了我的第一部小说的不久后
Shortly after he published my first novel,
我前往拉各斯的一家电视台接受访问
I went to a TV station in Lagos to do an interview,
期间一位在那里做通信员的女士走向我 并且说道:
and a woman who worked there as a messenger came up to me and said,
“我真的非常喜欢你的小说 但我不喜欢那个结尾
“I really liked your novel. I didn’t like the ending.
你必须写一个续集 并且要这么写…”
Now, you must write a sequel, and this is what will happen …”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
她滔滔不绝地告诉我在续集中要写些什么
And she went on to tell me what to write in the sequel.
她的言语不仅仅让我充满欢喜 也让我充满了感动
I was not only charmed, I was very moved.
她只是一个平凡的女士 尼日利亚普罗大众中的一员
Here was a woman, part of the ordinary masses of Nigerians,
一个本不应该读书的分子
who were not supposed to be readers.
但她不仅仅是读了那本书 而且充满参与创作的欲望
She had not only read the book,
并且觉得有
but she had taken ownership of it
足够的权力 来告诉我在续集中要写些什么
and felt justified in telling me what to write in the sequel.
我的朋友Fumi Onda是个无畏的女人
Now, what if my roommate knew about my friend Funmi Iyanda,
她在拉各斯主持一档电视节目 旨在揭露那些被掩埋的故事
a fearless woman who hosts a TV show in Lagos,
如果的室友听说过她 一切会变得不同吗?
and is determined to tell the stories that we prefer to forget?
如果我的室友听说过上周在拉各斯医院进行的心脏手术
What if my roommate knew about the heart procedure
一切会变得不同吗?
that was performed in the Lagos hospital last week?
如果我的室友听说过尼日利亚的当代音乐呢?
What if my roommate knew about contemporary Nigerian music,
极富才能的人们用英语、
talented people singing in English and Pidgin,
皮钦语、伊博语、约鲁巴语和伊乔语演唱将杰斯
and Igbo and Yoruba and Ijo,
、费拉、鲍勃·马利以及
mixing influences from Jay-Z to Fela
他们祖父们的音乐混杂在一起
to Bob Marley to their grandfathers.
最近有一名女律师
What if my roommate knew about the female lawyer
在尼日利亚的法庭上挑战一条极其不可思议的法案── 妇女必须经过她们老公的许可
who recently went to court in Nigeria to challenge a ridiculous law
才可以更新她们的护照
that required women to get their husband’s consent
如果我的室友听说过她 结果会怎样呢?
before renewing their passports?
如果我的室友听说过“尼莱坞”以及那些
What if my roommate knew about Nollywood,
冲破技术上的缺陷 不断地创作影视作品的创新者呢?
full of innovative people making films despite great technical odds,
他们制作的电影在本地极其流行
films so popular
是尼日利亚人自给自足的
that they really are the best example of Nigerians consuming what they produce?
最佳例子给我辫辫子的朋友最近刚刚成了自己的事业 开始售卖她的接发片
What if my roommate knew about my wonderfully ambitious hair braider,
如果我的室友听说过她 结果会怎样呢?
who has just started her own business selling hair extensions?
或者是其他数以百万的尼日利亚人 创办自己的产业 虽然难免失利 但却不曾放弃雄心
Or about the millions of other Nigerians who start businesses and sometimes fail,
如果我的室友听说过他们
but continue to nurse ambition?
又会怎样呢? 我每次回家的时候
Every time I am home I am confronted
都会面临那些令众多尼日利亚人头疼的事情:
with the usual sources of irritation for most Nigerians:
失败的基础设施 失败的政府
our failed infrastructure, our failed government,
但与此同时 我也看到了人们面对这个政府
but also by the incredible resilience
所展现出的坚韧不拔
of people who thrive despite the government,
而不是被它给击垮
rather than because of it.
每年夏天我都在拉各斯开办写作班
I teach writing workshops in Lagos every summer,
♪都会被申请的人数震惊到
and it is amazing to me how many people apply,
有这么多的人想要学习写作
how many people are eager to write,
想要讲述他们的故事
to tell stories.
我的尼日利亚出版商和我刚刚成立了个非营利性的组织
My Nigerian publisher and I have just started a non-profit
叫做Farafina信托
called Farafina Trust,
我们充满了伟大的梦想:我们想建造图书馆
and we have big dreams of building libraries
并且重新装修已有的图书馆
and refurbishing libraries that already exist
对于那些图书馆内空空如也的政府学校
and providing books for state schools
我们会捐赠图书
that don’t have anything in their libraries,
我们也会组织大量的阅读班、写作班
and also of organizing lots and lots of workshops,
来帮助那些
in reading and writing,
渴望讲述我们身上故事的人们
for all the people who are eager to tell our many stories.
故事很重要
Stories matter.
多重性的故事很重要
Many stories matter.
故事一直被用来剥夺、
Stories have been used to dispossess and to malign,
用来中伤但故事也可以赋予力量与人性化
but stories can also be used to empower and to humanize.
故事可以击毁一个民族的尊严
Stories can break the dignity of a people,
但也可以修补那被击毁的尊严
but stories can also repair that broken dignity.
美国作家Alice Walker曾写过
The American writer Alice Walker wrote this
她那些搬迁至北方的
about her Southern relatives who had moved to the North.
南方亲戚们她为他们推荐了一本书
She introduced them to a book about
一本关于他们已挥别的南方
the Southern life that they had left behind.
生活的书 “他们团团坐在一起
“They sat around, reading the book themselves,
读着这本书或是听我给他们读这本书 一种天堂因此而被重拾”
listening to me read the book, and a kind of paradise was regained.”
我想以此来结束我的演讲:
I would like to end with this thought:
当我们拒绝单一的故事
That when we reject the single story,
当我们认识到任何地方
when we realize that there is never a single story
都没有单一的故事时
about any place,
我们将重拾一份天堂
we regain a kind of paradise.
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声
(Applause)

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