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空调吹来的寒意

The Cruel Irony Of Air Conditioning

Hi, this is Alex from MinuteEarth.
嗨 我是《分钟地球》的Alex
Air conditioners are a modern wonder:
空调是一项伟大的现代发明
they’ve saved countless lives during heat waves,
它帮人们度过炎热的夏天
cooled giant servers to essentially make the Internet possible,
给大型服务器降温 是联网的关键设备
and in general made life in warm places more comfortable.
总之会使生活在炎热的地方人们更舒爽
But keeping our indoor climate cool has, ironically,
但讽刺的是 它在保持室内凉爽的同时
made the outdoor climate much warmer,
却也造成室外的气温升高
and fixing the planet-warming effect of air conditioners
解决空调导致的全球变暖效应
is going to be one of the major challenges of the 21st century.
将是21世纪面临的主要难题之一
For now, heating buildings is still a larger overall
目前 建筑物供暖
contributor to climate change than air conditioners
对气候的影响比空调大
because more people use heat for more hours,
因为更多人使用供暖的时间更长
but air conditioning heats the planet in nefarious and subtle ways
但是空调也在鬼鬼祟祟地给地球加热
that are going to be harder to address.
而这个问题将更加棘手
For example, to heat our buildings, we burn fossil fuels,
比如 给建筑物供暖燃烧化石燃料
which releases heat and heat trapping CO₂
它会释放热量和温室气体二氧化碳
but air conditioning also burns fossil fuels (just out of sight),
但空调也使用化石燃料 只是你看不见
and that’s not their only problem.
问题不止于此
The way that air conditioners cool buildings is
空调给室内降温的方式是
by moving heat from inside to outside.
将室内的热气转移到室外
They can pump out enough heat to warm an entire city by a few degrees.
这些热气足以让整个城市升温好几度
And on top of that, when we get rid of our old air conditioners,
最严峻的是 当我们处理老旧空调时
most of their chemical refrigerants leak out and evaporate.
会造成大部分化学制冷剂泄漏和蒸发
And while only a small overall amount leak out,
泄漏的总量虽少
it just so happens that the refrigerants we use are thousands of times
但我们目前使用的制冷剂
more powerful than CO₂ at trapping the Earth’s heat,
其造成的温室效应是二氧化碳的数千倍
so they warm the Earth nearly 60% extra on top of the warming
所以 除了空调运行时排放的二氧化碳
from the CO₂ released to run the air conditioners.
制冷剂还贡献了60%的温室效应
Then, as the earth gets warmer, we use more air conditioning,
当地球变暖 空调用量增加
which warms the earth even more in a vicious feedback cycle
地球又会变得更暖 形成恶性循环
that’s only going to get worse over time
随着时间推移 情况只会更糟
and as developing countries get richer
因为 当发展中国家富裕起来
and more people have access to air conditioners.
会有更多的人使用空调
Compared to today, we’re going to be using 4 times as many air conditioners in 2050,
到2050年 空调的数量将是现在的4倍
and at some point we’re going to be using more energy for air conditioning than for heating.
直到某天 供应空调制冷的能源将超过供热
To avoid the immense global impact this will have,
要避免空调带来的全球变暖
we’ll need to use the most efficient air conditioners,
我们要使用最节能的空调
and generate electricity in a way that doesn’t release heat or CO₂.
和不会散热或产生二氧化碳的发电方式
When we get rid of our old air conditioners,
丢掉旧空调时
we’ll need to recycle or destroy their refrigerants,
要回收或销毁其制冷剂
rather than – y’know – letting them leak out everywhere.
而不是泄漏得到处都是
And we’ll have to switch over to refrigerants that,
我们得改用其他制冷剂
even if they do leak, won’t trap heat.
即使泄露也不会造成温室效应
We’ll also have to figure out how to use less air conditioning,
我们必须想办法减少空调的使用
some of which we can do by using fans until it gets too hot,
比如 天气太热之前 我们可以用风扇
and some of which we’ll have to do by building buildings
从建筑设计上下功夫
that are naturally cooler:
采用自然降温的设计
buildings with shiny white roofs that reflect heat or
闪光的白屋顶可以反射热能
“green” roofs that reflect, insulate, and evaporate;
“绿”屋顶可通过反射 隔绝和蒸发散热
buildings with rooms that have windows on opposite sides
建筑物窗户之间要反方向对称
so air can easily flow through, creating a natural breeze;
便于自然风吹进室内
and buildings with walls that made of materials that can absorb lots of heat
建筑物墙体可以使用吸热材料
without letting it inside
阻隔热量传入室内
to keep people cool in the day, and then release it overnight.
夜晚再释放 这样白天室内就凉爽
And we’ll need to go even further, by redesigning our entire cities
我们甚至可以重新设计整个城市
to include more green spaces with trees that can provide shade,
包括增加可提供树荫的绿化
encourage hot air to mix with cool air,
促使冷热空气交换
and cool the air themselves through evaporation.
再通过植物的蒸腾让空气自行冷却
Or, we could do nothing.
或者 我们什么也不做
But that definitely wouldn’t be cool.
但那样肯定无法降温了
This video was sponsored by the University of Minnesota,
此视频由明尼苏达大学提供赞助
where students, faculty and staff across all fields of study
这所学校里所有的教职员工和学生
are working to solve the Grand Challenges facing society.
都在努力破解社会面临的重大难题
These challenges include adapting to a changing world and
包括适应不断变化的世界
ensuring we have clean water and sustainable ecosystems,
确保清洁水资源的供应 生态系统的可持续性
and part of the solution is to reimagine
一种方案是重新构思
some of the fundamental structures of modern life, like buildings
一些现代生活的基本结构 例如建筑物
Professors Richard Graves at the Center for Sustainable Building Research
可持续建筑研究中心的Richard Graves教授
and Bonnie Keeler at the Humphrey School of Public Affairs
和汉弗莱公共事务学院的Bonnie Keeler
are researching how to move from “green design,”
正在推进“节能设计”
where we make buildings more efficient (or less bad),
使建筑物从低耗或少耗能
towards “regenerative design,”
转向“资源可再生设计”
where we make buildings that positively contribute to
这种设计可使建筑物与其所在的
the local communities and ecosystems of which they are a part.
当地社区环境和生态系统的和谐共处
Thanks, University of Minnesota!
感谢 明尼苏达大学!

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视频概述

空调在为地球制冷还是制热?如何做到清凉又环保?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Raven

审核员

审核员YQ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fbhLBBcm2Fg

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