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疯狂地寻找喜马拉雅雪人

The Crazed Hunt for the Himalayan Yeti | Monstrum

Atop Earth’s highest mountain above sea level
生命看上去很难在
hardly seems like an easy place to live.
地球海拔最高的山峰生存
Mount Everest’s tall peaks, freezing temperatures,
高耸的山峰 冰冷的温度
fierce winds, and ever-present snow
猛烈的风 常年的积雪
make it hard to support life.
让生命难以在珠峰活下来
And while it’s true that very few plants or animals can survive there,
的确几乎没有动植物可以在那里生存
the most famous resident certainly seems at home—the Yeti.
但最有名的居民——雪人似乎在那里居住
The huge, hairy monster has been spotted
有人曾经目睹这种身躯庞大多毛的怪物
walking across Asian mountains from China to the Himalayas.
在中国和喜马拉雅之间的亚洲山脉穿行
Some say it looks like an ape, others a bear,
有人说它看起来像猿 有人说像熊
and others even insist
还有人甚至坚持认为
it’s an unidentified humanoid species.
它是一种身份不明的类人物种
The first report of a “wild man” in the Himalayas
西方国家在19世纪首次报道
appeared in the Western world during the 19th century–
“野人” 在喜玛拉雅山出没
but didn’t really get much attention.
但没有真正引起太多人关注
But in the 20th century a few expeditions,
但是20世纪的几次探险中
some reported tracks,
有人报告在珠峰发现脚印
and one very famous photograph
随后一张非常著名的照片
began a crazed hunt for the Yeti.
引发了疯狂的搜寻雪人的探险活动
I’m Dr. Emily Zarka, and this is Monstrum.
我是Emily Zarka博士 这里是怪物理论
It’s generally believed
人们普遍认为 “雪人”一词是来自
Yeti is a mispronunciation of the word
西藏夏尔巴人方言中
yeh teh from Tibetan Sherpa dialect,
“yeh teh”一词的错误发音
meaning either “cliff dwelling bear”
该词意思是“住在悬崖上的熊”
or “animal of rocky places.”
或“生活在岩石地带的动物”
Regardless, when you hear “yeti”
无论如何 当听到“雪人”这个词的时候
you probably picture the huge creature
你可能会联想到电影里经常出现的
with fluffy white fur that pops up in movies all the time —
长着蓬松白毛的大型动物
the one commonly called the “Abominable Snowman”.
人们常称之为“可恶的雪人”
“Abominable! Can you believe that?
“可恶!你能相信吗?
Do I look abominable to you?”
你觉得我很讨厌吗?”
But there’s no real folklore that supports that version
但20世纪前 没有真正的民间传说
before the 20th century.
能够印证这种说法
Written accounts of the Tibetan legend of the yeti
西藏雪人传说的书面记载
dated back to the 12th century.
可追溯至12世纪
Also called a “wild man,”
人们也叫它“野人”
many accounts describe the creature as an ape-like being,
许多记载将它描述成类猿生物
over six feet tall, walking on its back legs
身高超过6英尺 用后腿走路
with reddish-brown fur covering its muscular body.
强壮的身体上覆盖着红褐色的毛
Explanations range from a real animal
有人说它们是为了寻找食物
displaced in search of food,
而被迫离开家园的动物
to a purely fictional folklore creature.
也有人认为它们是民间传说虚构出来的
Tibetan tradition recognizes a variety of yeti.
西藏的传统认为雪人种类繁多
One said to walk on two legs,
有的是两条腿直立行走
and another larger yeti that preys on livestock, and walks on four legs.
有的体型更大 四脚爬行 捕食牲畜
Yeti are believed to live in the alpine forests
人们认为雪人生活在雪线以下的高山森林里
below the snow line,
它们为了食物和住所
although they will brave higher altitude for food and shelter.
会勇敢地迁徙到海拔更高的地方
They don’t eat or hunt humans (although they may steal food from them),
它们不伤害人类(虽然它们会偷吃人类的食物)
preferring the mosses, frogs, and pikas that live on the mountain.
它们更喜欢吃山里的苔藓 青蛙和鼠兔
In many stories, the yeti is nocturnal
雪人在很多传说中是夜行动物
and emits a high-pitched screech or whistle;
会发出尖锐的尖叫声或哨声
in Tibetan tradition, it is more common to
在西藏的传统中 人们更多的是
hear a yeti than to see one.
听到雪人的声音 而很少见到过它
The two-legged meh teh appears in Buddhist temple decorations
西藏佛教寺庙的装饰和宗教画卷轴
and religious painted scrolls.
描绘了双腿雪人的形象
According to a religious and historical Tibetan text from the 12th century
根据12世纪西藏宗教和历史文献记载
these “wild people” and humans come from shared ancestors,
尽管雪人是半人半兽
although the meh teh is neither fully human nor fully animal.
但这些“野人”和人类拥有共同的祖先
This is why much of the art in Tibetan temples shows
这就是西藏寺庙里的很多艺术形式的主题
the “yeti realm” of rebirth
都表现了在人与动物之间获得新生的
between humans and animals.
“雪人王国”的原因
And Tibetan Buddhist stories feature yetis as both kind
藏传佛教故事中 雪人既有善良的一面
and malevolent characters.
也有邪恶的一面
One popular tale from the Himalayas tells
喜马拉雅山流传着这样一个故事:
of an injured yogi helping a “wild man”
一个野人的脚被碎片弄伤了
with an infected foot from a splinter.
受了伤的瑜伽士拯救了它
The yogi kindly removes the splinter and cleans the wound.
瑜伽士好意为他取出碎片 清洗伤口
The grateful yeti thanks the yogi by bringing him a tiger,
满怀感激的雪人送瑜伽士一只老虎以示感谢
which the man skins and offers to a monastery.
后来 瑜伽士剥下虎皮 送给了寺庙
Legends are often born
如果人们搞不清楚
when we blur the lines between fiction and real life events.
小说和现实事件之间的区别 传说就诞生了
In the 17th-century, a Buddhist religious leader(Lama Sangwa Aorje)
17世纪 一位佛教领袖(喇嘛Sangwa Aorje)
walked from India to Nepal
从印度步行到尼泊尔
to reside in a cave as a religious hermit.
在一个洞穴里隐居 进行宗教修行
While living there, he claimed friendly yetis would bring him food and water,
隐居期间 他声称 友好的雪人送来食物和水
allowing him a life of quiet meditation.
帮助他度过了安静的冥想生活
When one of the yetis died, he kept the scalp as a holy relic
其中一个雪人死后 他把其头皮当作圣物
in the temple he built in 1667.
保存在寺庙里 该寺庙是他在1667年修建的
This real-life relic became a part of blessing rituals for the temple monks.
这个真实的遗迹成为僧人祈福仪式的一部分
Later, a yeti hand was added to the collection,
后来 僧人又收集到了一只雪人的手
another tribute to the creatures that made the temple possible.
寺庙的祈福仪式又增添了一个圣物
The temple monks refused to allow anyone to
几百年来 寺庙的僧侣拒绝
remove the relics for hundreds of years,
任何人拿走这些文物
but in 1959, explorer Peter Byrne stole a few finger bones from the hand,
但是1959年 探险家Peter Byrne用人的指骨
substituting them with human ones.
偷偷替换走了几根雪人指骨
So, yeti legends and stories were culturally important long
因此 早在西方国家意识到雪人的存在之前
before the Western world was even aware of their existence.
雪人的传说就已具有了重要的文化意义
In reality, the yeti entered into Western thought as a footnote.
事实上 雪人成为了西方思想的一个注脚
Literally, a footnote in a book.
从字面上理解 就是书中的注脚
In 1832 British naturalist Brian H. Hodgson
1832年 英国博物学家Brian H. Hodgson
writing about mammals in Nepal,
在一篇关于尼泊尔哺乳动物的文章中指出
noted that no monkeys could be found
在尼泊尔北部和中部地区
in the northern and central regions,
没有猴子生存的踪迹
But a footnote mentioned that during one expedition
但书中的脚注写到 在一次探险中
frightened local shooters fled
当地一个惊恐万状的枪手逃跑了
what they believed to be a “wild man.”
他们害怕闯进“野人”的领地
He was told the creature moved upright,
当地人告诉Brian H. Hodgson
was covered with long dark hair, and had no tail.
这个怪物直立行走 一身长长的黑毛 没有尾巴
Still no monkeys,
探险队仍然找不到猴子
but the tale of the curious humanoid
但是这个诡异的类人生物的故事
gave Hodgson pause.
让Hodgson留了下来
In 1889, the first mention of yeti footprints
1889年 英国探险家Laurence A Waddel
appeared in “Among the Himalayas”,
在《喜马拉雅山之间》一书中
by British explorer Laurence A Waddel.
首次提到雪人的足迹
He writes that according to Tibetans
他写到 根据西藏人的说法
the large tracks were made by what they identified as “hairy wild men
这些巨大的脚印是毛发浓密的野人留下的
who are believed to live amongst the eternal snows.”
这些野人生活在终年不化的雪地里
At the turn of the 20th Century, the first exploration and hunting parties
20世纪初 第一批探险队和狩猎队
descended on the Himalayas in search of the mysterious, hairy “wild man.”
登上喜马拉雅山 寻找神秘的多毛“野人”
But it wasn’t until Lieutenant Colonel Charles Howard-Bury’s
但是直到Charles Howard-Bury中校
1921 Mt. Everest exploration
在1921年珠峰探险后
that the press started to pay attention.
它才引起了新闻界的注意
Howard-Bury and five others
Howard-Bury和另外5个人
saw tracks in the snow that they could not identify.
在雪地上看到无法辨认的脚印
Local laborers accompanying them
陪同他们的当地劳工认为
identified the tracks as belonging to “the Wild Man of the Snows.”
这些脚印属于“雪中野人”
Howard-Bury believed the prints
Howard-Bury认为
in the snow were from a grey wolf,
雪地上的脚印是灰狼留下的
but when he and his team were interviewed by journalist Henry Newman,
但当他们接受记者Henry Newman采访时
the reporter found no excitement in that explanation
记者对这个解释不感兴趣
and instead focused on the Tibetan “boogey man”
而是把注意力集中藏人所说的怪物身上
with his backward facing feet and long matted hair.
这个怪物脚朝后 头发又长又乱
He mistranslated Metoh-Kangmi,
他将Metoh-Kangmi这一词汇翻译错了
which roughly means “man-bear snow-man,” as “filthy snow-man”
Metoh-Kangmi 原意为“脏兮兮的雪人”
which he decided sounded better as “abominable snowman.”
他决定翻译为“可恶的雪人” 这才更吸引人
Something about the name captured the public’s imagination
这个名字激起了公众的想象力
and interest in the creature snowballed.
及其对雪人的兴趣
But expeditions to search for the yeti became difficult
在中国中央政府入藏制止骚乱后
because of political and religious tensions after China invaded Tibet,
政治和宗教局势变得紧张
leading to thousands of deaths.
探险队寻找雪人活动变得困难了
Until in 1951, an agreement was made
直到1951年 双方才达成协议
affirming China’s sovereignty over Tibet
确认中国拥有西藏主权
but allowing their political system to remain unchanged
西藏政治制度保持不变
and religious freedom to stay protected–including the belief in the the meh teh.
保障宗教自由 包括对雪人的信仰
With a more stable political climate,
政治环境变稳定后
explorers once again poured in to hunt for the monster.
探险队又一次涌进西藏寻找怪物
Most notable was the 1951 Mount Everest Reconnaissance Expedition led by Eric Shipton,
最著名的是Eric Shipton1951年领导的珠峰探险队
which produced the single most famous piece of yeti evidence—
他们拍摄了最著名的雪人证据——
a photograph of a footprint.
一张脚印照片
Dubbed the “Shipton print,” the widely published photo shows
人们把这张广泛流传的照片 称为“希普顿脚印”
a huge human-like footprint in the snow
照片显示了一个巨大的类似人类的脚印
reportedly discovered on Mount Everest at 18,000 feet.
据报道 这是在海拔1.8万英尺的珠峰上发现的
It was printed everywhere.
珠峰到处都有这种脚印
Newspapers, science journals, and popular magazines around the world
世界各地的报纸 科学杂志和流行杂志
plastered it across their pages.
都刊登了这张照片
In 1952, a year after Shipton’s famous photograph,
1952年 在这张著名的照片拍摄一年后
a Swiss exploration team found
一支瑞士探险队在海拔16000英尺的地方
possibly Yeti tracks at 16,000 feet.
可能是雪人的踪迹
A porter even claimed to be attacked by a Yeti
一个搬运工声称被雪人袭击了
but the rest of the team didn’t corroborate his story.
但是团队成员并没有证实他的说法
The monster search craze reached such a level
搜寻雪人达到了疯狂的程度
that the Nepalese government, seeing an opportunity to exploit Yeti,
尼泊尔政府看到有利可图
began offering special Yeti hunting licenses.
开始颁发雪人狩猎特别许可证
In 1954 the popular British newspaper The Daily Mail
1954年 广受欢迎的英国报纸《每日邮报》
funded a Himalayan Yeti-finding expedition.
资助了一次寻找喜马拉雅山雪人的探险
Texas oilman and monster hunter Tom Slick
德克萨斯石油商 怪物猎人Tom Slick
also threw his cowboy hat into the ring.
也加入到了这场搜寻中来
His bio included hunts for Bigfoot and the Loch Ness Monster.
他曾经寻找过大脚怪和尼斯湖水怪
In the 1950’s, he dedicated three expeditions to the yeti,
20世纪50年代 他参与了三次搜寻雪人的探险活动
and Life Magazine offered him $25,000
《生活》杂志社为他所有的
for the rights to any photos he took of the creature.
怪物照片版权 报价2.5万美元
After 1959, tensions in the area came to a head again,
1959年之后 该地区的紧张局势再次升级
and a Tibetan uprising led to a Chinese crack-down on Yeti expeditions
西藏的骚乱导致中国因为害怕间谍活动
for fear of espionage.
而禁止了寻找雪人的探险活动
For a decade, it was difficult to travel into the country to look for the Yeti,
十年间 到中国去搜寻雪人是很困难的
but two expeditions managed to wiggle through the cracks.
但是两个探险队设法钻空子进行了探险活动
Between 1960 and 1961
1960年至1961年
Edmund Hillary and Marlin Perkins
Edmund Hillary和Marlin Perkins
led expeditions with a team of scientists
带领一队科学家检测了
who examined the infamous yeti relic hand,
这只名声狼籍的雪人之手
and ID’ed it as coming from a modern human,
科学家确定它来自现代人类
although at the time they didn’t know
尽管当时他们不知道Byrne
Byrne had swapped out the finger bones.
己经把手指骨换了出来
Shockingly, the monks at the temple also
令人震惊的是 寺庙里的僧人允许
allowed them to take the famous yeti scalp—
他们带走着著名的雪人头皮
but only if one of their elders could accompany it,
但条件是他们的长者能陪伴左右
using the opportunity to raise money to build schools in Nepal.
利用该机会募款 以在尼泊尔修建学校
In 1960, separate examinations of the scalp
1960年 科学家在伦敦 芝加哥和巴黎
in London, Chicago, and Paris
分别进行的头皮检测发现
found that is was a fake relic made from serow flesh.
这是一件用鬣羚肉制成的赝品
The discovery appeared to dampen the spirits of yeti hunters
这个结果似乎打击了寻找雪人的兴致
and expeditions began to wane.
探险活动开始减少
None of the expeditions were able to
没有一个探险队能带回
bring back conclusive evidence of a Yeti.
雪人存在的确凿证据
Enter Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer,
1964年的圣诞电视特辑
the 1964 Christmas television special,
《红鼻子驯鹿鲁道夫》中
whose fluffy white, arguably adorable yeti
一身雪白色毛茸茸的惹人喜爱的雪人
reignited the popularity.
重新点燃了人们的热情
The fanged, white, furry character
这个长着尖牙 毛茸茸 身子是白色
with blue hands and feet at first seems scary,
手和脚都是蓝色的怪物一开始看起来很吓人
until it’s revealed that it’s only suffering from a toothache.
后来才知道原来它只是牙痛而已
the character Bumble is explicitly called an abominable snow monster
人们把Bumble这个角色直白地叫作可恶的雪怪
It’s my opinion this is the thing that created the white-haired snow monster
我认为 这是西方人将白发雪怪
westerners identify as a yeti,
当作雪人的原因
the one most often seen in pop culture today.
它成为了当今流行文化中最常见的雪人形象
In the 70s, the Chinese government sent
20世纪70年代 中国政府派了
more than 100 people to investigate the Yeti.
100多人去调查雪人
After they found nothing,
一无所获之后
they even allowed Western expeditions into Tibet again
他们允许西方探险队再次进入西藏
but those didn’t reveal anything either.
但这些探险队也没有透露任何信息
In the same decade, the famous Shipton photograph
在同一个十年里 人们普遍认为
became widely viewed as a fake.
著名的希普顿照片是伪造的
One team member of the 1951expedition even told a journalist
1951年探险队的一名队员告诉记者
that it was very possible the photo was a hoax given that Shipton
这张照片很有可能是一场骗局
“definitely liked to take the mickey out of people”
因为希普顿“肯定喜欢戏弄人”
and “would think that was quite a good joke.”
而且“认为这是个很好的笑话”
But some of the expeditions over the years did return with more than photos.
但是这些年来 一些探险队带回的不仅是照片
Newly discovered fragments of bones, skin, teeth,
新发现的骨头 皮肤 牙齿
and fecal matter were all brought back and investigated,
和粪便碎片都被带回进行研究
but nothing conclusive developed.
但没有得出任何结论
It seems that every time some new scientific insight attempts to answer,
似乎每次都有新的科学研究试图回答
“Is the yeti real?”
“雪人是真的吗?”
the world pays attention.
全世界都在关注
Take the Bhutan discovery for example.
例如 不丹有过新的发现
In 2001, a British zoologist collected a few strands of hair
2001年 一位英国动物学家在不丹的
from a hollow cedar tree in Bhutan.
一棵空心雪松树上收集到了几缕头发
Under DNA analysis, the hair could not be identified
根据DNA分析 这些毛发不能确定
as coming from any animal known to science.
来自于任何已知的动物
Was this conclusive proof that some yet-
这是否是某些尚未确认的生物
unidentified creature lived in the Himalayas?
生活在喜马拉雅山的结论性证据?
Not exactly. In 2014, yeti made the news again
不完全是 雪人2014年再次成为新闻
when a study showed that the hair actually
一项研究表明 这些毛发实际上是
came from an extinct paleolithic polar bear.
旧石器时代灭绝的北极熊
In 2017, a team of scientists analyzed another 24 supposed yeti specimens
2017年 科学家团队研究分析了
taken from the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau,
另外24个来自喜马拉雅山和青藏高原的
including bone, tooth, skin,
疑似雪人标本 包括骨骼 牙齿 皮肤
hair, and fecal samples.
毛发和粪便样本
All but one of the samples (which came from a dog)
除了一个样本(来自一只狗)以外
were from bears,
所有的样本都来自熊
including Himalayan bears who occupy the northwestern plateau.
包括居住在西北高原的喜马拉雅熊
plateau Himalayan Bears have paler reddish brown fur
高原喜马拉雅熊的皮毛是浅红棕色的
which seems awfully like the hair
这看起来非常像人们描述的
in the descriptions of the original Tibetan yetis
原始西藏雪人的毛发
Interestingly, the scientists discovered that
有趣的是 科学家们发现
the Himalayan brown bear came from a unique evolutionary lineage
喜马拉雅棕熊来自一个独特的进化谱系
that diverged from all other brown bears around 650,000 years ago.
它在大约65万年前与其它棕熊分道扬镳
So, in their report, the scientists say
因此 科学家在报告中称
that the study’s findings “strongly suggest”
这项研究“有力地表明”
that yeti’s are based on local brown and black bears.
雪人传说源自当地棕黑色的熊
I happen to agree.
我非常赞同
Bears also play a really important role
熊在西藏神话和传说中扮演着
in Tibetan mythology and lore.
非常重要的角色
There’s belief in a half-human and half-brown bear creature called the mi-dred.
人们认为有一种半人半棕熊的生物叫mi-dred
In Upper Tibet among the Chinese Na-khi people, apes, marmots, brown bears,
在西藏北部的纳西族中 类人猿 土拨鼠 棕熊
and mi-dred are “the four brothers who are like humans but are not human.”
和mi-dred是“似人非人的四兄弟”
They were believed to have the same ancestry
人们认为它们有相同的祖先
because they are all capable of standing on their back legs.
因为它们都能用后腿站立
Folklore tells of brown bears abducting women
民间传说棕熊绑架妇女
and producing children with them, and brown bears leaving human footprints.
和她们生孩子 棕熊留下了人类的脚印
Tibetan folklore, religion, scientific discoveries,
西藏民间传说 宗教 科学发现实际上都记载了
there’s actually a lot going on with this monster—it’s kind of amazing.
这种怪物身上发生了很多神奇的故事
Both the snarling, bloodthirsty yeti we see in some depictions
其中 人们看到了咆哮 嗜血的雪人形象
and the kinder, helpful versions we see in others
也看到了更为友善 乐于助人的形象
have some basis in Himalyan folklore,
这在喜马拉雅的民间传说中有很多清晰的记载
but ultimately they only touch the surface.
但这些说法说到底还是比较肤浅
The more dangerous representations
更为恐怖的雪人传说
promote a healthy sense of wariness around bears,
促使人们提高对熊的警惕
or serve as warnings of the very real dangers
或者用它来警告人们 生活在雪原
of the snow and high altitude.
和高海拔地区是非常危险的
And the kinder, helpful versions of the yeti
而更友善 更乐于助人的雪人传说则
speak to the Buddist belief
反映了人们对佛教的信仰
that all living things have a purpose and a place in the world.
即众生皆有意义 在这世上都有一席之地
Around 65,000 years ago. 6,500 thousand years ago. Right?
大约65000年前 650万年前 对吧?
“650,000–” -Holy Moly! 6,500,000!
-“650000年” -我的天啊!650万年!
“650,000.” Six–650,000. Wow.
-“650000” -650万 哇

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视频概述

一个雪人的传说引发了一次又一次珠峰探险活动,然而喜马拉雅雪人这种怪物至今仍然没有找到。

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悟舟

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审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=98M3Az_ku4A

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